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Anniversary  Meeting,  30th  November  1899,   .....  1 

Reix)rt  on  Events  of  Last  Session.     By  D.  Christison,  M.D.,  Secretary^  4-14 

The  Forts,  "  Camps,"  and  other  Field- Works  of  Perth,  Forfar,  and  Kincar- 
dine.    By  D.  Christison,  M.D.,  Secretary ^       .  .  .  43-120 

Notes  (1)  on  an  Ancient  Interment  recently  discovered  at  the  Leithies  ;  (2) 
a  Kitchen -Midden  at  the  Rhodes  Links  ;  and  (3)  a  Cist,  with  an  Urn 
of  drinking-cup  type,  near  the  West  Links,  North  Berwick.  By  James 
T.  RicuARDSON,  M.D.,  Tighnamara,  North  Berwick,     .  .  .120 

The  Scottish  De  Quenceys  of  Fawside  and  Leuchars.     Supplementary  Notes. 

By  JosKPH  Bain,  F.S.A.  Scot.,    ......         124 

Note  on  the  Antiquity  of  the  Wheel  Causeway.     By  F.  Haverfikld,  M.  A., 

F.S.A., 129 

Notice  of  the  Discovery  of  a  Cist  containing  three  Urns  of  Food-Vessel  Type 
at  Duncra  Hill  Farm,  Pencaitland.  By  Joseph  Anderson,  LL.D., 
Assistant- Secretary  ami  Keeper  of  the  Museum,  ,  .  .  .         131 

Report  on  Stone  Circles  in  Kincardineshire  (North),  and  part  of  Aberdeen- 
shire, with  measured  Plans  and  Drawings,  obtained  under  the  Gunning 
Fellowship.     By  Fred.  R.  Coles,  AssUitant-KcejKr  of  the  Museum,         139-198 

Notice  of  an  Original  Letter  of  Instructions  for  Sir  William  Fleming,  by 
King  Charles  IL,  dated  at  Breda,  22nd  May  1050.  By  A.  G.  Reid, 
F.S.A.  Scot., 199 

Description  of  an  Earth  House  at  Pitcur,  Forfarshire.     By  David  Mac- 

RiTCHiE,  F.S.A.  Scot.,      .  .  .  .  .  .  202-214 

Architological    Notes    from    Moraytown,    Dalcross,    Inverness-shire.      By 

Thomas  Wallace,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  .....        215 

Notes  on  James  Fifth's  Towers,  Holyrood   Palace.     By  John  Sinclair, 

F.S.A.  Scot,  .......  -224-211 



Sapplemontary  Notes  on  the  Scottish  De  Qaencys.  By  William  \V.  Ire- 
land, M.D..  F.S.  A.  Scot.,  241-251 

Note  on  an  Incised  Stone  Cross  at  Strathy ,  Sutherlandshire.     By  Alexandeb 

MUNRO. 252 

Note  on  a  Bronze  Scabbard-Tip  found  on  Glencotho  Farm,  Peeblesshire.     By 

William  Buchan,  Town-Clerk,  Peebles,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  .  .  .254 

Anglo-Saxon  Burhs  and  Early  Norman  Castles.     By  Mrs  E.  8.  Armitaoe. 

Communicated  by  Professor  Baldwin  Biiown,  F.S.A.  Scot.,     .  260-288 

Notices  of  the   King's  Master  Wrights  of  Scotland,  with  Writs  of  their 

Appointments.     By  the  Rev.  R.  S.  Mylne,  M.A.,  B.C.L.  Oxon.,  288-296 

Notice  on  a  Cap-marked  Boulder  called  the  Saj  di  Goronc,  or  Stone  of  the 
Heel,  near  Stresa,  on  the  Lago  Maggiore.  By  the  Right  Rev.  G.  F. 
Browne,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Bristol,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  .  .  .         297 

Notice  of  a  Peculiar  Stone  Cross  found  on  the  Farm  of  Cairn,  Parish  of  New 
Cumnock,  Upper  Nithsdale.  By  Rev.  Kiukwood  Hew  at,  M.A., 
F.S.A.  Scot.,  Prestwick,   .......         300 

Description  of  a  Collection  of  Objects  found  in  Excavations  at  St  Blane's 
Church,  Bute,  exhibited  by  the  Marquis  of  Bute.  By  Josei'H  Ander- 
son, LL.D.,  Assistant-SicrcUry  and  Keeper  of  the  Museum^      .  307-325 

Notes  of  some  Cap-marked  Stones  and   Rocks  near  Kenmore,  and  their 

Folk-Lore.     By  Rev.  J.  B.  Mackenzik,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Keumore,  325-334 

Notes  on  some  Rock-Basins,  Cup-  and  Ring-Marked  Stones,  and  Archaic 
Customs  casually  met  with  in  India.  By  Captain  J.  II.  Anderson, 
F.S.A.  Scot.,  ........         335 

Notice  of  the  Discovery  of  a  Prehistoric  Burial- Place  at  (^>uarff,  Shetland. 

By  Rev.  David  Johnston,  Minister  of  Quarff,  ....        340 

s  Notes  on  the  Heraldry  of  Elgin  and  its  Neighbourhood,  including  the 
Cathedral,  Bishop's  House,  Greyfriars,  and  High  Street  in  Elgin  ; 
Spynie  Palace,  Church  of  Holy  Trinity  at  Spynio,  Lhanbryd  Church, 
Coxton  Tower,  Birnie  Church,  Kinloss  Abbey,  Burgio  Castle,  Duttus 
Church,  Gordonstown  House,  Ogston  Church,  Kinneder  Church,  Drainie 
Church,  St  Andrew's  Church,  lunes  House,  Pluscardin  Priory,  Cullen 
Church,  Deskford  Church,  and  Baull.  By  W.  Rak  Macdonald, 
F.S.A.  Scot.,  .......         344-429 

Notes  on  the  Discovery  and  Exploration  of  a  Pile  Structure  on  the  North 
Bank  of  the  River  Clyde,  east  from  Dumbarton  Rock.  By  John 
Bruce,  F.S.A.  Scot,  Helensburgh,  .  .  437-462 



Notice  of  ED  Incised  Sepulchral  Slab  found  in  the  Church  of  Lougforgan, 

Perthshire.     By  A.  H,  Millar,  F.S.A.  Scot.,     ....        463 

Notice  of  the  Wallace  Stones,  L6ngforgan.     By  Alexander  Hutcheson, 

F.S.A.  Scot.,  Broughty  Ferry,     ......        476 

Notice  of  a  Charm-Stone  used  for  the  Cure  of  Diseases  amongst  Cattle  in 
Sutherlandshire.  By  Alexander  Hutcheson,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Broughty 
Ferry, 483 

Notices  (1)  of  the  Discovery  of  Bronze  Age  Urns  on  the  Braid  Hills ;  and 
(2)  of  the  Discovery  of  a  Cist  and  Urn  near  Portpatrick,  Wigtown- 
shire.    By  Fred.  R.  Coles,  Assistant- Keeper  of  the  Museum^  .  .        489 



Glass  Bead  fou^d  in  a  Cairn  at  KirkQhrist,  Wigtownshire,    ...  17 

Wooden  Effigy  of  an  Ecclesiastic  found  in  a  Moss  neaf  Whithorn,     .            .  42 
Map  of  the  Forts,    &c.,   in  Perth,   Angus,   and    the    Mearns  (Plate    I., 

facing),       .........  43 

Forts  and  Earthworks  in  Perth,  Angus,  and  the  Mearns,       ...  48 

Castlehill,  Inshewan,         .......  49 

Earthwork,  Torr  Hill,  Aberfeldy,              .....  51 

Dundee  Law,         ........  52 

Earthworks  at  Braco,  and  at  Loaninghead,  Crieff  Junction,        .  55 

Position  of  Evelick  Fort  on  Pole  Hill,       .....  57 

Earthwork,  Evelick,          .......  58 

Maiden  Castle,  near  Arbroath,      ......  59 

Lud  Castle,  Auchmithie,  .......  60 

Green  Castle,  near  Kincardine  Castle,  Fettercairn,                                  .  61 

Dunmore,  Bochastle,  Ben  Ledi,    ......  63 

Dundum,  .........  64 

Dundurn  from  the  N.W.,              .            .                        .            .  66 

Dundurn  from  the  W.,      .  .  .  .  .68 

Dun  Mac  Tual,      ........  69 

Remains  of  Wall,  Dun  Mac  Tual,             .....  70 

Caisteal  Dubh,  near  Aberfeldy,     .  .  .  .71 

Forts  on  the  Ochils  near  Auchterarder,     .....  73 

Castle  Law,  Forgandenny,            ......  75 

Holes  for  Beams  in  the  Wall  of  Castle  Law,  Forgandenny,         .            .  76 

Plan  of  the  Site  of  Abernethy  Fort,           .....  77 

Plan  of  the  Structure  of  the  Fort  on  Castle  Law,  Abernethy,       .  78 

Outer  Face  of  Inner  Wall,  West  End,  Abernethy,           ...  79 

Carnac,  Hill  of  Moncrietfe,            ......  80 

Fort  on  Dron  Hill,  Longforgan,    ......  82 

East  End  of  the  Laws  Fort,  Monifieth,    .....  84 

Dunsinnan  (Mr  Hutcheson),         ......  86 

Profiles  of  Dunsinnan,       .......  87 

Dunsinnan  (the  late  Mr  A.  Stewart,  Collace),      ....  88 

Sectional  View  of  Dunsinnan,      ......  89 

Excavated  Wall  and  Buildings,  Dunsinnan,        ....  90 

Denoon  Law  Fort,  Glamis,            ......  92 


Forts  and  Earthworks  in  Perth,  Angus,  and  the  Mearns — continued. 

Barra  HUl  Fort,  Alyth,     . 

Profile  at  Barra  Hill, 

Fort  on  Turin  Hill, 

Masonry  of  Turin  Hill  Fort, 

Finavon,  near  Aberlemno, 

The  White  Caterthun,       . 

The  Brown  Caterthun, 

Profiles  of  the  Caterthuns, 

Profiles  of  Site  of  Fort,  Auchterhouse  Hill, 

Chart  of  ruined  "  Towers,*'  Upper  Glenlyon 

Earthen  Fort,  Orchill, 
Oval  Vessel  of  Glazed  Pottery,  found  in  the  Kitchen  Midden  on  the  Rhodes 

Links,        ..... 
Portion  of  an  Urn  from  a  Cist  near  the  West  Links,  . 
Urn  (No.  1)  found  in  a  Cist  at  Duncra  Hill,    . 
Urn  (No.  2)  found  in  a  Cist  at  Duncra  Hill,    . 
Urn  (No.  3)  found  in  a  Cist  at  Duncra  Hill,    . 
Churinga  of  Slate  from  the  Arunta  Tribe,  Central  Australia, 
View  of  the  Broch  called  Castle  Telve,  Glenelg,  from  the  North, 
Map  of  part  of  Kincardine  and  Aberdeenshires,  showing  Sites  of  Stone  Circles 
surveyed  in  1899,  .... 

Ground  Plan  of  Stone  Circle  at  Old  Bourtree  Bush, 

Old  Bourtree  Bush  from  the  N.W., 

Old  Bourtree  Bush  from  the  N.E., 

Auchquhorthies  (Kincardine),  Ground  Plan, 

Auchquhorthies  (Kincardine),  Sections,    . 

Auchquhorthies  (Kincardine),  View  from  the  South, 

Auchquhorthies  (Kincardine),  Recumbent  Stone, 

Cairnwell,  Ground  Plan,  .... 

Craighead,  Ground  Plan,  .... 

Craighead,  View  from  the  South, . 

Raes  o'  Clune,  Ground  Plan  and  Section, 

Raes  o'  Clune,  Recumbent  Stone  and  Pillars, 

Cairnfauld,  Ground  Plan, 

Cairnfauld,  View  from  the  W^est, . 

Garrol  Wood,  Ground  Plan  and  Section, . 

Garrol  Wood,  View  from  within  the  Circle, 

Garrol  Wood,  View  from  without  the  Circle, 

Esslie  (the  Greater),  Ground  Plan, 

Esslie  (the  Greater),  View  from  the  Centre  looking  South, 

Esslie  (the  Greater),  View  from  the  South, 

Esslie  (the  Smaller),  Ground  Plan  and  Section, 

Esslie  (the  Smaller),  View  from  tlie  \Vest, 
















Stone  Circles  surveyed  in  1899 — continued. 

Inchmarlo  Standing  Stone, 

Glassel,  Ground  Plan  and  Section, 

Glassel,  Views  from  the  North  and  the  South, 

The  Auld  Kirk  o*  Tough,  Ground  Plan,    . 

Tom-na-gom,  Ground  Plan  and  Sections^ 

Tom-na-gorn,  Recumbent  Stone,  etc., 

Tom-na-gom,  Full  View  of  Recumbent  Stone, 

Tom-na-gom,  Centre  Stone  Setting, 

Afidmar  Kirk,  Ground  Plan,  etc., 

Seanhinny,  Ground  Plan, 

Seanhinny,  Sectional  Views, 

Seanhinny,  Recumbent  Stone,  etc., 

Seanhinny,  View  from  the  N.E.,  . 

Tyrebagger,  or  Standing  Stones  of  Dyce,  Ground  Plan, 

Tyrebagger,  Sectional  Views, 

Tyrebagger,  Sectional  Views, 

Tyrebagger,  Recumbent  Stone,  etc. ,  from  the  West, 

Tyrebagger,  Recumbent  Stone,  etc.,  from  without, 

Tyrebagger,  Recumbent  Stone,  etc.,  from  within, 

Tyrebagger,  View  from  the  North, 
Ground  Plan  and  Sections  of  Earth -house  at  Pitcur,  Forfarshire, 
Pitcur  Earth-house,  Interior  View  looking  from  v  towards  t, . 
Pitcur  Earth-house,  Interior  View  showing  Fireplace, 
Samian  Bowl  found  in  1878  in  the  Earth-house  at  Pitcur, 
Iron  Axe  of  Peculiar  Shape,     ..... 
Stone  Axe  said  to  have  been  found  on  Culbin  Sands,  . 
Luckenbooth  Brooch  and  Cross  found  in  an  Indian  Mound,   . 
View    of   Edinburgh    in    1544,   showing    Hertford's    Army  entering    the 

Watergate,  ...... 

Hollar's  View  of  Holyrood  Palace,        .... 

The  Palace  of  Holyrood  House,  and  Gardens,  etc., 
Holyrood  Palace  as  it  was  before  the  Fire  of  1650, 
Holyrood  Palace,  the  Regent  Moray's  House  and  Gardens,  etc., 
Private  Stair,  Holyrood  Palace,  .... 

Arms  of  Seyr  and  of  Roger  de  Quency, 

Rude  Stone  Cross  at  Strathy,  ..... 

Bronze  Chape  of  Scabbard  for  a  Sword,  of  * '  late  Celtic  "  Period, 

Roman  Altar  found  near  Bridge  of  Brightens  in  1841, 

Cup-marked  Boulder  called  the  Saj  di  Gorone  near  Stresa, 

Front  and  right  and  left  sides  of  Broken  Cross-shaft  found  at  Cairn,  New 

Cumnock,  ..... 
Arm  of  Cross  found  at  Cairn,  New  Cumnock,  • 
Stone  Implements  from  St  Blane's,  Bute, 








Pieces  of  Shale  and  Slato  with  Incised  Letters  and  Scrolls,      .            .  312 

Pieces  of  Slate  with  Incised  Ornament,            .....  314 

PiecesofSIate  with  Incised  Animals  and  Stag  Hunt,  .  315 

Portion  of  Cross-Shaft  of  Sandstone,     ......  316 

Sculptured  Stones  at  St  Blane's  Church,  Bute,  .  .318 

Sculptured  Cross- Heads  and  Cross-Slab  at  St  Blane's  Church,  Bute,  .            .  319 

Sculptured  Stone  at  St  Blane's,            ......  320 

Sculptured  Stones  at  St  Blane's,           ......  321 

Sculptured  Stones  at  St  Blanc's,          ......  323 

Book-clasp  of  Brass  found  at  St  Blanc's,          .....  324 

Boulder  with  Cup  and  Ring  Markings,  on  Braes  of  Balloch,  .                         .  326 

Two  Rows  of  Cups  on  a  Rock  Surface  on  Braes  of  Balloch,  326 

Stone  Axe  from  Riskbuie,  Colousay,    ......  332 

Stone  Cup  found  on  Schiehallion,         ......  334 

Urn  of  Steatite  found  at  QuarfT,  Shetland,       .....  341 

Urn  of  Clay  found  at  Quartf,  Shetland.            .....  342 

Armorial  Bearings  in  Morayshire  and  Banffshire,       .  .  346-429 

Shields  of  Arms  above  the  West  Window  of  Elgin  Cathedral,                  .  346 

Tombstone  of  John  Dunbar  of  Bennetfield,           ....  347 

Dunbar  Arms  on  the  Breast  of  a  Recumbent  Effigy,         .                        .  349 

Shieldof  Arms  on  North  Wall.     ......  349 

Shields  of  Arms  in  the  Chapter-House,  Elgin  Cathedral,  351 

Shields  of  Arms  in  the  Chapter- House,  Elgin  Cathedral,  352 

Shield  of  Arms  of  Bishop  Innes,  ......  364 

Shields  of  Arms  in  the  Chapter- House,     .....  355 

Shield  of  Arms  in  the  Chancel,     ......  357 

Date  on  the  Tomb  of  the  first  Earl  of  Huntly,      .  .859 

Tombstone  of  Alexander  Gordon,  ......  360 

Part  of  Burial-Slab  in  St  Mary's  Aisle,  Elgin  Cathedral,  362 

Shield  impaling  ('alder  and  Munro  Arms,            ....  363 

Armorial  Stone  in  South  Transept,           .....  366 

Shield  of  Arms  of  Bishoj)  James  Stewart,              ....  367 

Shields  of  Arms  on  cither  side  of  Recessed  Tomb,             .             .             .  370 

Shields  in  South  Aisle  of  Nave,     ......  372 

Shields  in  th<3  Cathedral  Precincts  and  Bishop's  House,  .  377 

Shield  in  tho  Bisho J >'h  House,       ......  379 

Shields  of  two  liishops,     .                          .....  380 

Anns  of  Alexander  Stewart,          ......  382 

Shields  of  Arms  at  (Jroy friars  Church,  Elgin,      ....  384 

Shields  of  Arms  at  (Jreyfriars  (!huroh,  Elgin,       ....  386 

Shield  in  South  Wall  of  Nave  at  ( trey  friars  ('hurch,  387 

Shield  at  Orey friars  (;hurch,         ......  389 

Back  of  a  Chair  from  Dallas,         ......  390 

Shield  built  into  I )r  Adam's  Mouse,  Elgin,           ....  391 




Armorial  Bearings  in  Morayshire  and  BAnffshire^eofUinued, 

Shield  bnilt  into  Dr  Mackay's  House,  Elgin,       ....        892 

Shields  at  Spynie  Palace,  ......  393,  894 

In  the  Wall  at  Trinity  Church,  Spynie,  .....        896 

In  the  Wall  at  Trinity  Church,  Spynie,  .....         397 

At  Lhanbryd  Church,  .     .  .  .  .  .        400 

Shield  in  Coxton  Tower,  .......         401 

On  a  Monument  in  Bimie  Church,  .....        402 

Shield  at  Burgie  Castle,    .......         408 

Shield  and  Monogram  at  Burgie  Castle,  .....        405 

Shield  at  St  Michaers  Church,  Ogston,    .....        407 

Sepulchral  Slabs  at  Pluscarden  Priory,     .  .  .410 

Shield  at  Pluscarden  Priory,         .  .  .  .  .412 

Sepulchral  Slab  at  Pluscarden  Priory,  .  .418 

Recumbent  Slab  at  Pluscarden  Priory,     .  .  .416 

Shield  at  Pluscarden  Priory,        .  .  .  .  .417 

Shield  in  the  Chapter- House,  Pluscarden,  ....        418 

Shields  at  Pluscarden,       .......         420 

At  Cullen,  ........         420 

Shield  in  North  Wall  of  Cullen  Church,  .....         422 

On  a  Slab  at  Deskford,      .......         425 

On  a  Slab  at  Banff,  ........         429 

Splinters  of  Slate  with  Incised  Markings  (Dumbuck),  442 

Opposite  Sides  of  a  Spear-shaped  Implement  of  Slate,  448 

Opposite  Sides  of  a  Spear-shaped  Piece  of  Slate,  ....         444 

Implement  of  Stone  resembling  a  Knife,  in  a  Bone  Handle,   .  445 

Implement  of  Stone  in  Handle  of  Deer-horn,  .....         446 

Perforated  Stones  with  Incised  Markings,       .  .  .447 

Obverse  and  Reverse  of  Perforated  Pebble,      .....         448 

Rude  Figures  of  Shale,  .......         449 

Rude  Figures  of  Shale,  .......         450 

Pieces  of  Shale  or  Cannel  Coal  with  Incised  Ornament,  .  .         4r)2 

Oyster  Shell  with  Incised  Lines  and  Perforation,        ....         454 

Incised  Sepulchral  Slab  at  Longforgan,  .....         464 

Incised  Sepulchral  Slab  at  Creich,  Fifeshiro,   .....         467 

Fragments  of  Ancient  Font  at  Longforgan,      .....         471 

The  "  Wallace  Stones,'*  a  Enocking-Stone  with  its  Cover,      .  .  .         479 

The  *'  Wallace  Stones,"  a  Knocking-Stone  with  its  Cover  on,  .  .         480 

Charm-Stone  used  for  the  Cure  of  Diseases  of  Cattle  in  Sutherlandshire,  485 

Ground-Plan  of  Site  of  Bronze-Age  Burials  on  the  Braid  Hills,  .  .         490 

Large  and  Small  Urns  of  Cinerary  Type  found  on  the  Braid  Hills,    ,  ,        492 

OFFICE-BEARERS,    1899-1900. 


The  Most  Hon.  The  Marquess  op  Lothian,  K.T.,  LL.D. 

The  Hon.  John  Abercrombt. 

The  Hon.  Hew  Hamilton  Dalrymple. 

Reginald  Macleod,  C.B. 


Sir  George  Reid,  LL.D.,  \ 

P.R.S.A.,  I  Representing  the  Board 

Sir  Arthur  Mitchell,  j  of  Trustees. 

K.C.B.,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  J 
The  Right  Hon.  Sir  Herbert  Maxwell,  Bart.,  M.P. 
John  Horne  Stevenson,  M.A. 
Alexander  J.  S.  Brook. 
Sir  James  Balfour  Paul. 
John  Findlay. 
Robert  Munro,  M.A.,  M.D. 
W.  Rae  Macdonald. 


David  Christison,  M.D. 

J.  H.  Cunningham. 

Joseph  Anderson,  LL.D.,  Amstant-Secretary. 

Thomas     Graves     Law,  ) 

LL  D  {  Secretaries  for  Foreign 

Jambs  Macdonald,  LL.D.,  )         Correspondence, 



John  Notman,  F.F.A.,  26  St  Andrew  Siiuare. 

€muioxB  of  i^jt  Pttstnm. 
Robert  Carpuae. 
Professor  Duns,  D.I). 

Curator  of  Coins. 
Adam  B.  Richardson. 

James  Curlr,  Jim. 


(InAtitHted  1874,  in  terms  of  a  Bequest  for  its  emlmcmeiit  by  the  late 

Alexander  Henry  Rhind  of  Sibster,  Hon.  Mem,  S.A.  Scot,) 

SESSION  1899-19()(). 
Hhind  Lectuhkr  in  Akch*olooy-,Toskph  Bain,  RS.A.Scot. 




(Revised  and  adopted  December  1,  1873.) 

The  purpose  of  the  Society  shall  be  the  promotion  of  AncHiEOLOGY, 
especially  as  connected  with  the  Antiquities  and  Historical  Literature 
OF  Scotland. 

I.  Members. 

1.  The  Society  shall  consist  of  Ordinary  and  Honorary  Fellows,  and 
of  Corresponding  and  I-.ady  Associates. 

2.  The  number  of  the  Ordinary  Fellows  shall  be  unlimited. 

3.  Can<lidate8  for  admission  as  Ordinary  Fellows  must  sign  the  Form 
of  Application  prescribed  by  the  Council,  and  must  be  recommended  by 
one  Ordinary  Fellow  and  two  Memlwrs  of  the  Council. 

4.  The  Secretary  shall  cause  the  names  of  the  Candidates  and  of  their 
Proposers  to  be  inserted  in  the  billet  calling  the  Meeting  at  which  they 
are  to  l>e  Ixilloted  for.  The  Ballot  may  ])e  tiiken  for  all  the  Candidates 
named  in  the  billet  at  once ;  Init  if  tliree  or  more  black  balls  aj)pear,  the 
Chairman  sliall  cause  the  Candidates  to  be  balloted  for  singly.  No  Can- 
didate shall  ]>e  admitted  uiUess  by  the  votes  of  two-thirds  of  the  Fellows 

5.  The  number  of  Hcmorary  Fellows  shall  not  exceed  twenty-five ;  and 
VOL.  xxxiv.  h 


shall  consist  of  men  eminent  in  Archaeological  Science  or  Historical 
Literature,  and  they  shall  not  be  liahle  for  any  fees  of  admission  or 
annual  contributions. 

6.  All  recommendations  of  Honorary  Fellows  must  be  made  through 
the  Council ;  and  they  shall  be  balloted  for  in  the  same  way  as  Ordinary 

7.  Corresponding  Associates  must  be  recommended  and  balloted  for  in 
the  same  way  as  Ordinary  Fellows,  and  they  shall  not  be  liable  for  any 
fees  of  admission  or  annual  contributions. 

8.  The  number  of  Lady  Associates  shall  not  exceed  twenty-five. 
They  shall  be  elected  by  tlie  Council,  and  shall  not  be  liable  for  any 
fees  of  admission  or  annual  contrilmtions. 

9.  Before  the  name  of  any  person  can  be  recorded  as  an  Ordinary 
Fellow,  he  shall  pay  Two  Guineas  of  entrance  fees  to  the  funds  of  the 
Society,  and  One  Guinea  for  the  current  year's  subscription.  Or  he  may 
compound  for  all  future  contrilmtions,  including  entrance  fees,  ])y  the 
payment  of  Twenty  Guineas  at  the  time  of  his  admission ;  or  of  Fifteen 
Guineas  after  having  paid  five  annual  contributions  ;  or  of  Ten  Guineas 
after  having  paid  ten  annual  contributions. 

10.  If  any  Ordinary  Fellow  wlio  has  not  compounded  shall  fail  to  pay 
his  annual  contribution  of  One  Guinea  for  three  successive  years,  due 
application  having  been  made  for  payment,  the  Treasurer  shall  rej)ort  the 
same  to  the  Council,  by  whose  authority  the  name  of  the  defaulter  may 
be  erased  from  the  list  of  Fellows. 

1 1 .  Every  Fellow  not  being  in  arrears  of  his  annual  subscription  shall 
be  entitled  to  receive  the  printed  Proceedings  of  the  Society  from  the 
date  of  his  election,  together  with  such  special  issues  of  Chartularies,  or 
other  occasional  volumes,  as  may  be  provided  for  gratuitous  distrilmtion 
from  time  to  time  under  authority  of  the  Council.  Associates  shall  have 
the  privilege  of  purchasing  the  Society's  publications  at  the  rates  fixed 
by  the  Council  for  supplying  back  numbei's  to  the  Fellows. 

12.  None  but  Ordinary  Fellows  shall  hold  any  office  or  vote  in  the 
business  of  the  Society. 


II.  Officb-Bearers  and  Council. 

1.  Tlie  Office- Bearers  of  tlie  Society  shall  consist  of  a  President,  who 
continues  in  office  for  three  years  ;  three  Vice-Presidents,  two  Secretaries 
for  j^eneral  i)urposes,  and  two  Secretaries  for  Foreign  Correspondence,  a 
Treasurer,  two  Curators  of  tlie  Museum,  a  Curator  of  Coins,  and  a 
Librarian,  who  shall  be  elected  for  one  year,  all  of  whom  may  be  re- 
elected at  the  Annual  General  Meeting,  except  the  first  Vice-President, 
who  shall  go  out  by  rotation,  and  shall  not  be  again  eligible  till  he  has 
been  one  year  out  of  office. 

2.  The  Council  shall  consist  of  the  Office-Bearers  and  seven  Ordinary 
Fellows,  besides  two  annually  nominated  from  the  Board  of  ^lanufactures. 
Of  these  seven,  two  shall  retire  annually  by  rotation,  and  shall  not  be 
again  eligible  till  they  have  been  one  year  out  of  office.  Any  two  Oflice- 
Bearers  and  three  of  the  Ordinary  Council  shall  be  a  quorum. 

3.  The  Council  shall  have  the  direction  of  the  affairs  and  the  custody 
of  the  effects  of  the  Society ;  and  shall  report  to  the  Annual  General 
Meeting  the  state  of  the  Society's  funds,  and  other  matters  which  may 
have  come  before  them  during  the  preceding  year. 

4.  The  Council  may  appoint  committees  or  individuals  to  take  charge 
of  particular  departments  of  the  Society's  business. 

5.  The  Office-Bearers  shall  be  elected  annually  at  the  General  Meeting. 

6.  The  Secretaries  for  general  purposes  shall  record  all  the  proceedings 
of  meetings,  whether  of  the  Society  or  Council ;  and  conduct  such  corre- 
spondence as  may  be  authorised  by  the  Society  or  Council,  except  the 
Foreign  Correspondence,  which  is  to  be  carried  on,  under  the  same 
authority,  by  the  Secretaries  appointed  for  that  particular  purpose. 

7.  The  Treasurer  shall  receive  and  disburse  all  moneys  due  to  or  by  the 
Society,  and  shall  lay  a  state  of  the  funds  before  the  Council  previous  to 
the  Annual  General  Meeting. 

8.  The  duty  of  the  Curators  of  the  Museum  shall  be  to  exercise  a 
general  supervision  over  it  and  the  Society's  Collections. 

9.  The  Council  shall  meet  during  the  session  as  often  as  is  requisite 


for  tlio  duo  despatch  of  business ;  and  tlic  Secretaries  shall  have  power  to 
call  Meetin«^s  of  the  Council  jvs  often  as  they  see  cause. 

Til.    >rEETINGS   OP   TUE   SoCIETY. 

1.  One  General  Meetinj^  shall  take  place  every  year  on  St  Andrew's 
day,  the  30th  of  Xoveniber,  or  on  the  following  day  if  the  30th  l>e  a 

2.  The  Council  shall  have  jwwer  to  call  Extraordinary  Oeneral 
Meetings  when  they  see  cause. 

3.  The  Ordinary  Meetings  of  the  Society  shall  ])e  held  on  the  second 
Monday  of  each  month,  from  December  to  March  inclusive  at  Eight  p.  m  , 
and  in  April  an<l  ^Fay  at  Four  p.m. 

The  Council  may  give  notice  of  a  projX)sal  to  change  the  hour  and 
day  of  meeting  if  they  see  cause. 

IV.  Bye-Laws. 

1.  All  Bye- Laws  formerly  made  are  hereby  repealed. 

2.  Every  proposal  for  altering  the  I^aws  as  already  established  must  be 
made  through  the  Council ;  and  if  agreed  to  by  the  Council,  the  Secretary 
shall  cause  intimation  thereof  to  be  made  to  all  the  Fellows  at  least  three 
months  before  the  General  Meeting  at  which  it  is  to  be  determined  on. 

Form  of  Special  Bequest. 

I,  A.  B.,  do  hereby  leave  and  bequeath  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland   incorporatea  by  Royal  Charter,  my  collection  of  ,  and  I 

direct  that  the  same  shall  be  clelivered  lo  the  said  Society  on  the  receipt  of 
the  Secretary  or  Treasurer  thereof. 

(ie.nernl  Form  of  Iktiuext. 

I,  A.  B.,  do  hereby  leave  and  bequeath  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland  incorporated  by  Royal  Charter,  the  sum  of  £  ,  sterling,  to  be  used 
for  the  general  purposes  of  the  Society  or  for  any  special  purposes  or  objects, 
as  the  Society  may  detennine  from  time  to  time,  and  I  direct  that  the  said 
sum  may  be  j^id  to  the  said  Society  on  the  receipt  of  the  Treasurer  for  the 
time  being. 


OF    THR 


NOVEMBEK  30,   1900. 


1879.  Abbrcromby,  Hon.  John,  62  Palmer-  '    1886.  Alexander,  W.  Lindsay,  Piukieburn 

ston  Place, —  Vice-President.  Musselburgh. 

1853.*Aberdbin,      Francis,      Garvocklea,  •    1897.  Allan,  Rev.  Archibald,  Minister  of 

Laurencekirk.  |  Channel  kirk. 

1896,  Adam,  Frank,  Sourabaya,  Java.  1900.  Alijirdyce,  Col.  James,   LL.D.,  of 

1898.  Adam,    Stephen,    199   Bath   Street,  i  Culr|uoich,  3  Queen's  Terrace,  Aber- 

Glasgow.  deen. 

1889.  AoNEW,      Alexander,      Procurator-       1864.  ♦Anderson,    Archibald,    30   Oxford 
Fiscal,  Balwherrie,  Dundee.  Square,  London,  W. 

1899.  Agnbw,  Sir  Andrew  N.,  Bart.,  M.P.,       1884.  Anderson,  Charles  M.,  7  Welling- 

Lochnaw  Castle,  Stranraer.  ton    St.,   Higher    Broughton,    Man- 

1884.  AoNBW,  Sir  Stair,  K.C.B.,  M.A.,  22  Chester. 

Buckingham  Terrace.  1889.  Anderson,  James,  Carronvale,  Wardie 

1887.*AiKMAN,  Andrew,  Banker,  6  Drum-  |  Road. 

sheugh  Gardens.  ,    1897.  Anderson,  Capt.    J.    H.,  2ud   East 
1898.  Airman,  Henry  Erskine,  5  Princes  Lancashire       Regiment,      Bombay, 

S(iuare,  Glasgow.  -  '  Intlia. 

1892.  AiLSA,  Tlie  Most  Hon.  the  Marquis  of,  I    1899.  Anderson,  Robert,  Ardgowan,  Dick 

Culzeau  Castle,  Maylwle.  Place. 

1884.  AiTKEN,    George    Suaw,    Architect,       1871.*Andeuson,  Robert  Rowand,  LL.D., 

49  Queen  Street.  i  Architect,  16  Rutland  S(iuai'e. 

1892.  AiTKBN,   James    H.,  Gartcows,    Fal-  I    1865.*Anderson,  Thomas  S.,  Lingarth,  New - 

kirk.  I  burgh,  Fife. 

An  asteritk  (*)  denotes  Life  Members  who  have  compounded  for  their  Annual  ContributiouB. 


1894.  Anderson,  William,  Arns  Brae,  New 

1887.  Andbrson  -  Bbrry,     David,     M.D., 

Bodleian  House,  Reigate,  Surrey. 
1894.  Angus,    Robrrt,    Craigston     House, 

Lugar,  Ayrsliire. 

1882.  Annandalb,    Thomas,    M.D.,    Pro- 

fessor of  Clinical  Surgery,  Univer- 
sity of  RUnburgh,  34  Cliarlotte 

1900.  Anstruthbr,  Sir  Ralph  W.,  Bart,  of 
Balcaskie,  Pittenweem. 

1897.  Anstruthbr -Thomson,  William, 
Major,  Royal  Horse  Guards,  Kil- 
many,  Fife. 

1878.  ♦Armstrong,  Robbrt  Bruce,  6  Ran- 
dolph  Cliff. 

1889.  Atholl,  His  Grace  the  Duke 
of,  K.T.,  Blair  Castle,  Blair 

1886. ♦Atkinson,  W.  A.,  Knockfarrie,  Pit- 

1897.  Bain,     Alexander,     14      Waterloo 

1868.  ♦Bain,  Joseph,  Bryn  Dewi,  St  David's, 
S.  Wales. 

1889.  Bain,    William,    42    Moray    Place, 


1892.  B-UN,  William,  Lochboisdale,  Soutli 

1900.*Bairi),  John  G.  Alexander,  M.P., 
of  Wellwood  and  Adnmton,  Monk- 
ton,  Ayrshire. 

1891.  Baird,  Willi  am  j  Clydesdale  Bank, 

1883.  Balfour,      Charles     Barrington, 

M.P.,  of  Newton  Don,  Kelso. 
1885.  B.vLFouR,     Major     Francis,     Femie 

Castle,  Collessie,  Fife. 
1876.  Ballantine,  Alexander,  42  George 

1877.*Bannerman,  Rev.  D.  Dougl.\s,  M.A., 

D.D.,    Free    St    Leonard's    Manse, 

1897.  B.vnnbrman,  W.  Bruce,  The  Lindens, 

Sydenham  Road,  Croydon. 

1890.  Bannerman,  William,  M.A.,  M.D., 

West  Park,  Polwarth  Terrace. 

1896.  Barbour,     James,      Architect,     St 

Christopher's,  Dumfries. 

1897.  Barclay-Allardice,   Robert,  M.A., 

Rosehill,  Lostwithiel,  Cornwall. 

1899.  Barnard,  Francis  Pierrbpont,  MA. 
Ox(m.,  St  Mary's  Abl»ey,  Win<ler- 

1897.  Barnett,  Rev.  T.  R.,  Fala  U.P.  Manse. 
Blackshiels,  Midlothian. 

1897.  Barnett,  Walter.     No  address. 

1880.  Barron,  James,  Editor  of  Inixi^neas 
Courier  J  Inverness. 

1891.  Baxter,  Rev.  George  Chalmers, 
F.C.  Minister,  Cargill,  Guild- 
town,  Perth. 

1891.^Bayne,  Thomas,  69  West  Cmnberland 
Street,  (Glasgow. 

1884.  Beaton,  Angus  J.,  C.E.,  26  Alex- 
andra  Terrace,  Rock  Ferry,  Birken- 

1877.  Beaumont,  Charles  G.,  M.D.,  Old 
Manor  House,  Epsom,  Surrey. 

1889.  Bedford,  Stirgeon  -  Capt.  Charles 
Henry,  D.Sc,  M.D.,  Professor  of 
Chemistry,  Medical  College,  Cal- 

1872.*Beer,  John  T.,  Green  Heys,  Rock 
Ferry,  Cheshire. 

1897.  Bell,  Richard,  of  Castle  O'er,  Dum- 

1889.  Bell,   Thomas,   of   Belmont,   Hazel- 

wood,  Broughty  Ferry. 
1877.  Bell,  William,  293  Lordshij)  Lane, 
Dulwich,  London,  S.E. 

1890.  Beveriik;e,    Erskine,    St    Leonard's 

Hill,  Dunfenuline. 
1886.^Bevbridge,  Henry,  Pitreavie  House, 

1891.  Beveridge,  James,  Church  of  Scot- 

land's Training    College,   4   Blyths- 

wood  Dri\e,  Glasgow. 
1895. ♦B UPLAND,  William,  28  Park  Circus, 

1877.*BiLToN,     Lewis,     W.S.,     16     Hope 

1S91.  Bird,  George,  St  Margaret's,  3Ji  Inver- 

leith  Place. 
1882.  Black,  William  George,   Ramoyle, 

Dowanhill  Gardens,  Glasgow. 


1847.*Blackib,  Waltbr  G.,  PI1.D.,  LL.D., 
1  Belliaveu  Terrace,  Kelviuside,  Glas- 

1885.  Blaikie,  Walter  Bigqab,  11  Thistle 

1891.  Blair,  Rev.  William,  M.A.,  D.D., 
Leiglitoii  Maiise,  Duublaue. 

1879.  Blanc,  IIippolytb  J.,  R.S.A.,  Archi- 
tect, 25  Rutlaiul  Square. 

1887.  Bogie,  Alexander,  Banker,  48  Lander 

1885.  BoMPAS,  Charles  S.  M.,  121  West- 
bourne  Terrace,  London. 

1880.»BoxAR,  HoRATius,  W.S.,  3  St  Mar- 
garet's Road. 

1898.  Borland,     Rev.     R.,     Minister     of 

Yarrow,  Selkirkshire. 

1899.  BoswALL,  Jambs  Donaldson,  W.S., 

Donaldson  House,  Wardie. 
1873.*BoYD,    William,    M.A.,   56    Palmer- 

stou  Place. 
1893.  Boyle,  the  Hon.  Robert,  Colonel,  6 

Suraner  Terrace,  London. 
1884.  BoYNTON,    Thomas,  Noi-man    House, 

Bridlington  Quay,  Hull. 

1883.  Brand,   DxVVId,   Sheriff  of  Ayrshire, 

13  Royal  Terrace. 
1891.  Brand,  James,  C.E.,  10  Marchmont 

Terrace,  Glasgow. 
1884.*Breadalbane,   The    Most    Hon.   the 

Marquess  of,  Tayniouth  Castle. 
1887.  Brook,  Alexander  J.  S.,  21  Chalmers 

1878.  Broun  -  Morison,   John   Broun,   of 

Finderlie,  Murie  House,  Errol. 
1887.  Brown,     George,     2     Spottiswoode 


1884.  Brown,  G.  Baldwin,  M.A.,  Professor 

of  Fine  Art,  University  of  Edinburgh, 

20  Lansdowne  Crescent. 
1871.*Brow^,  John  Taylor,  Gibraltar  House, 

St  Leonard's  Bank. 
1897.  Brown,    Richard,   C.A.,   22  Chester 

1884.  Browne,    Right   Rev.   G.    F.,    D.D., 

Bishop  of  Bristol. 
1882.  Browne,      George       Washington, 

A.R.S.A.,      Architect,      8      Albyn 


1892.  Bruce,     Gborob    Waugh,    Banker, 

Leven,  Fife. 
1882.  Brucb,  Jambs,  W.S.,  59  Great  King 

1893.  Bruce,    John,    Inverallan,     Helens- 

1898.*Bruck,    John,    of   Sumburgh,  Shet- 

1880.  Bruce,  Rev.    William,  B.D.,  Duni- 

marle,  Culross. 
1896.  Brucb,     William    Balfour,    Allan 

View,  Dunblane. 
1889.  Bryce,  William  Moir,  11  Blackford 


1894.  Brydall,  Robert,  St  George's   Art 

School,  8  Newton  Terrace,  Charing 
Cross,  Glasgow. 

1896.  BucHAN,  Alexander,  LL.D.,  Secre- 

tary, Scottish  Meteorological  Society, 

42  Heriot  Row. 
1899.*BucHAN,  William,    Town   Clerk   of 

1885.*Buchanan,  Thomas  Rtburn,  M.A., 

12  South  Street,  Park  Lane,   Lon- 
don, W. 
1882.  Burnet,     John    James,    A.R.S.A., 

Architect,     18    University    Avenue, 

Hillhead,  Glasgow. 
1892.  Burnett,  Rev.  J.B.,  B.D.,  Minister  of 

Aberlenmo,  Forfar. 
1887.  Burgess,  Pbter,  Craven  Estates  Office, 


1897.  Burn-Murdoch,  W.  G.,  1a  Ramsay 

1887.  Burns,  Rev.  Thomas,  Croston  Lodge, 

Chalmers  Ci-escent. 
1889.  Burr,     Rev.     P.     Lorimer,     D.D., 

Manse     of     Lundie     and     Fowlis, 

1895.  Butler,  Charles,  D.L.,  3  Connaught 

Place,  London. 
1899.  Butler,    Juuan    G.    Wandbsford, 

C.E.,  2  Garsculje  Terrace,   Murray- 


1898.  Cadenhkad,  James,  R.    S.   W.,  14 

Ramsay  Garden. 
1880.  Caldwbll,  Jambs,  Craigielea  Place, 


1898.  Callandeb,     John     Graham,     20 

Rupert  Street,  Glasgow. 
1887.  Cameron,  J.  A.,  M.D.,  Nairn. 
1890.  Cameron,    Richard,     1    St    David 


1899.  Campbell,    Archibald,    Springfield 

Quay,  Glasgow. 
1886.  Campbell,  Donald,  M.D.,  102  Dess- 

wood  Place,  Aberdeen . 
1886.  Campbell,  Sir   Duncan  Alexander 

DUNDAS,   Bart.,  of   Barcaldine    and 

Glenure,  16  Ridge  way  Place,  Wimble- 
1865.  ♦Campbell,  Rev.    James,    D.D.,   The 

Manse,  Balmerino,  Fifesbire. 
1877.*Campbell,    James,    of    Tillichewan. 

Alexanilria,  Dumbartonshire. 
1874. ♦Campbell,    Right   Hon.   James   A., 

LL.D.,  M.P.,  of  Stracatbro,  Brechin. 
1890.  Campbell,    James    Lennox,    Acha- 

corrach,  Dalmally. 
1850. ♦Campbell,  Rev.  John  A.  L.,  2  Albyn 

1882.*Campbell,    Patrick    W.,    W.S.,    25 

Moray  Place. 
1884. ♦Campbell,     Richard    Vary,   M.A., 

LL.B.,       Advocate,       37        Moray 

1883.  Campbell,  Walter  J.  DougLxVs,  of 

Innis  Chonain,  Loch  Awe. 
1877.*Campbell-Bannerman,    Right    Hon. 

Sir    Hknry,    G.C.B.,  LL.D.,    M.P., 

6  Grosvenor  Place,  London. 

1895.  Capi*on,  Thomas  Martin,  Architect, 

CliflTljank,  Newport,  Fife. 

1891.  Carmicuael,  James,  of  Arthurstone, 
Ardler,  Meigle. 

1888.^Carmichael,  Sir  Thomas  D.  Gibson, 
Bart.,  of  Castlecraig,  Dolphinton. 

1871.*,  Thomas  Lesue  Mel- 
ville, Melville  House,  I^dybank, 

1896.  Caw,  Jamk.s  L.,  Curator  of  Scottish 

National    Portrait    Gallery,     Queen 

1890.  Chalmers,  P.  Macoregor,  Architect, 

176 J  Hope  Street,  Glasgow. 
1898.  Charleson,    Malcolm   Mackenzie, 

Solicitor,  Stromness. 

1889.  Chatwin,  J.  A.,  Wellington  House, 
Edgbaston,  Binningham. 

1895.  Chisholm,  A.  W.,  Goldsmith,  7  Clarc- 

mont  Crescent. 

1881.  Christie,     John,    of     Cowden,    19 

Buckingham  Terrace. 
1898.  Christie,  Rev.  J,  G.,  B.D.,  Minister 
of  Helensburgh. 

1882.  Christison,  David,  M.D.,  20  Magdala 

Crescent,  — Secreta  ry. 

1889.  Clark,  David  R.,  M.A.,  8  Park 
Drive  West,  Glasgow. 

1885.  Clark,  George  Bennett,  W.S.,  15 
Douglas  Crescent. 

1871.*Clark,  Sir  John  Forbes,  Bart, 
LL.D.,  of  Tillypronie,  Aberdeen- 

1896.  Clark,  Thomas  Bennet,  C.A.,  New- 

milns  House,  Balemo. 
1874.  Clarke,  William  Bruce,  M.A.,  M.B., 
51  Harley  Street,  Cavendish  S<iuare, 

1879.  Cleland,  John,   M.D.,  Professor  of 

Anatomy,  University  of  Glasgow. 
1896.  Clouston,  Robert  Stewart,  Artist, 
21  Duke  Street,  Manchester  Square, 
London,  W. 

1880.  Clouston,    Thomas   S.,    M.D.,  Tip- 

perlinn  House,  Moniingside  Place. 
1891.  Coats,  Sir  Thomas   Glkn,  Bart,  of 

Ferguslie,  Paisley. 
1898.  Cochran-Patrick,  Neil  J.  Kennedy, 

of   Woodside,    Advocate,    71   Great 

King  Street. 
1885.  Cooper,   John,   Burgh  Engineer,  15 

Cumin  Place. 
1895.  CoRRiE,    Adam    J.,    69    Marina,    St 

1891.  Coutts,      Rev.      Au-red,     B.I).,     8 

John's  Place,  Leith. 
1879. •Cowan,    Rev.     Charles    J.,    B.D., 

Morebattle,  Kelso. 

1887.  Cowan,     John,    W.S.,    St      Ro<iue, 

Gnmge  Loan. 

1888.  Cowan,  Willl\m,  47  Braid  Avenue. 
1893. *Cox,   Au-'RED  W.,   Glcndoick,   (Jlen- 

carse,  Perthshire. 
1899.  Cox,    Benjamin    C,    Mauldsheugh, 


1876.  Cox,  James  C,  The  Cottage,  Lochee, 

1882.  Crabbie,      Gkobob,      8      Rothesay 


1892.  Craiq-Brown,    T.,    Wood))uni,    Sel- 

1879.  Craik,  George  Lillie,  2  West  Halkin 
Street,  London,  S.W. 

1893.  Cramond,   William,    M.A.,    LL.D., 

1900.  Cran,  John,  11  BrunHwick  Street. 
1880. ♦Cran,  John,  Kirkton,  Inverness. 
1861.*Crawfurd,  Thomas  Macknioht,  of 

Cartsbum,  Lauriston  Castle. 
1878.  Croal,     Thomas    A.,     16     London 

1889.  C*R0MBiE,     liev.     James     M.,     The 

1886.*Davidson,  Jambs,   Solicitor,    Kirrie- 

1882.*Dbuchar,    David,    12     lIoi»e    Ter- 
1884.  Dick,  Major  J.  Proudfoot  (M'Clure, 

Naisniith  k  Brodie,  77  St  Vincent 

Street,  Glasgow). 
1898.  Dick,    Rev.    Robert,    Coliusburgh, 

1893.  Dickson,  Rev.  John,  160  Ferry  Road, 

1870.  ♦Dickson,  Thomas,  LL.D.,  26  Staffonl 

1895.  Dickson,  W.  Kirk,  Advocate,  3  Dama- 

way  Street. 
1882.*DicKS0N,  William  Traquair,  W.S., 

11  Hill  Street. 

Manse,   Cote  des  Neiges,  Montreal,    I    1886.*DixoN,      John      Henry,      Inverau, 

Canada.  ,  Poole  we. 

1886.  Cross,  Robkrt,  13  Moray  Place.  1877.  Dobie,  John  Shedden,  of  Morishill, 

1891.  Cullen,  Alexander,  Architect,  Bran-   I  Beith. 

don  Chambers,  Hamilton. 
1867.*CuMiNa,  H.  Syer,  63  Kennington  Park 

Road,  Surrey. 
1898.  Cunningham,  G.  GonrBEv,  Liberton 

House,  Mid- Lothian. 
1891.  Cunningham,  Jambs  Henry,  C.E.,  2 

Ravelston  Place, — Secretary, 
1893.  CUNNINGTON,  B.  HoWARD,  Devizes. 
1893.  CuRLB,    Alkxandku    O.,    W.S.,    91 

Comely  Bank  Avenue. 
1889.*CURLE,     Jamf-s,     jun.,     Priorwood, 

Mel  rose, — Libra  ria  n . 
1886.*CURRIE,  J.VMEs,  jun.,  Larktield,  Golden 

1884.  CuRRiE,  Walter  Thomson,  of  Tryn- 

law,  Cupar- Fife. 
1879.*CURSITKR,  James  Walls,  All)ert  St., 


I    1899.  DoBiB,  William  Fraser,  47  Grange 

i    1887.  Dodds,  Rev.  James,  D.D.,The  Manse, 
'  Corstorphine. 

,    1895.  Donaldson,  Hknry  T.,  British  Linen 
Bank,  Nairn. 

1867.*  Donaldson,  James,  LL.D.,  Prin- 
cipal of  the  University  of  St 

1891.  Donaldson,  Kobert,  M.A.,  22Fettes 

1861.  ♦Douglas,  David,  10  Castle  Street. 

1895.  Douglas,  Sir  George,  Bart,  Spring- 
woo<l  Park,  Kelso. 

1885.  Douglas,  Rev.  SholtoD.  C,  Douglas 
Support,  Coatbridge. 

1881.^DouGL.vs,  W.  D.  Robinson,  Orchardton, 

1893.  DowDEN,  Right  Rev.  John,  D.D., 
Bishop  of  the  Episcoi»al  Church  in 
Eilinbur„'h,  13  licarmonth  Ter- 

1871.  DoWELL,  Alkxandkr,  13  Palnierston 

1879.  Dalgleish,  J.  J.,  Brankston  Grange, 

Stirling.  { 
1893.  Dalrvmi'LK,  SirCiiAiiLBs,  Bart,  M.P., 

Newhailes,  Mid-Lotlii.ui.  , 

lb83.  Daluymi'lk,  Ihm.   IIkw     Hamilton,  '  Plaice. 

Lochinch,      Wigtownshire,—   Vice-  I    1895.  Downik,  Kenneth  Mackenzie,  M.D., 

President.  ;  3  Linsdowne  Crescent. 

1872.* Davidson,   Hugh,  .  Procunitor- Fiscal,       1900.  Drummond,  James  AV.,  Westerlands, 

Bracdale,  Lanark.  !  Stirling. 


1896.  Drummond,  Robert,  C.E.,  2  Lyles- 

laini  Terrace,  Paisley. 
1878.  Drummond,    William,   4   Learmontli 

1895.*Drummond-Moray,  Capt  W.  H.,  of 

Al)ercairiiey,  Crieff. 
1867.*DuKF,  Right  Hon.  Sir  Mountsteuart 

Elphinston    Grant,    C5.C.S.I.,    11 

Chelsea  Enibauknient,  Loudon. 

1891.  Duff,  Thomas  Gordon,  of  Druninmir, 

1872.*DUKE,  Rev.  William, D.D., St  Vigeans, 

1878.  Dunbar,  Sir  Archibald  Hamilton, 

Bart.,  of  Northfield,  DuflFus  House, 

1887.  Duncan,    (J.     S.,     Duninore     Villa. 

1880.  Duncan,  James  Dalrymple,  Meikle- 

wood,  Stirling. 

1874.  Duncan,  Rev.  JoHN,Al)die,  Newburgh, 

1877.*DuNi)A8,  Ralph,  C.S.,  16  St  Andrew 

1875.  Duns,    John,     D.D.,     Professor     of 

Natural  Science,  New  College,  5 
Greenhill  Place,  —  Curator  of 

1895.  Edgar,  John,  M.A.,  Classical  Muster, 
Royal  High  School,  4  Alfred  Place, 

1892.  Edw.vrds,    John,    4    Great    Western 

Terrace,  Glasgow. 
1885.*Elder,    William    Nicol,    M.D.,    6 

Torphichen  Street. 
1880.  Elliot,     John,     of     Binks,     Cran- 

bounie,    Shaftesbury    Road,    South- 
1889.  Erskine,  David  C.  E.,  of  Linlatheu, 

liinlathen  House,  Broughty  FeiTy. 
1895.  Evans,  Charlks  W.  J.,  I^tlioni  Lo<lge, 

Lough borougli  Park,  S.W. 
1892.   Eyub,  The  Most  Ucv.  Charlks,  D.D., 

R.C.     Archbishop,        6       Bowniont 

Gardens,  (Jlasgow. 

1S80.*Faulds,  A.  Wilson,  Kuockbuckle 
House,  Beith. 

1891.  Fergus,     Oswald,     12      Clairmont 

Gardens,  Glasgow. 

1890.  Ferguson,  Prof.  John,  LL.D.,  Uni- 
versity, Glasgow, 

1890.  Ferguson,  Rev.  John,  B.D.,  Manse  of 
Aberdalgie,  Perthshire. 

1892.  Ferguson,  John,  Writer,  Duns. 
1872.*Fergu80N,  William,  LL.D.,  of  Kin- 

mundy,  Mintlaw,  Abenieenshire. 

1883.  Fkrousson,  Alfjcander  A-,  38 
M 'Alpine  Street,  Glasgow. 

1875.  Fergusson,  Sir  James  R.,  Bart,  of 
Spitalhaugh,  West  Linton. 

1899.*FiNDLAY,  James  Leslie,  Architect,  14 
Coates  Gardens. 

1892.»FiNDLAY,  John,  3  Rothesay  Ter- 

1880.  FiNLAY,  John  Hope,  W.S.,  19  Glen- 
cairn  Crescent. 

1885.  Fleming,  D.  Hay,  LL.D.,  16  Greyfriars 

Garden,  St  Andrews. 
1888.  Fleming,    James,    jun.,      Kilmory, 
Skelmorlie,  Ayrshire. 

1895.  Fleming,    James    Stark,    Solicitor, 


1893.* Fleming,  Rev.  James,  M.A.,  Minister 
of  Kettins. 

1875.*FooTE,  Alexander,  111  Warwick 
Road,  Earl's  Court,  London. 

1880.  Forlono,  Major-Gen.  J.  G.  RocHB,  11 
Douglas  Crescent. 

1890.  Forrester,  Henry,  Woodfield,  Colin- 

1887.  Foulis,  James,  M.D.,  34  Heriot 

1883.  Fox,    Charles    Henry,    M.D.,    35 

Heriot  Row. 
1862.*Fraser,  Alexander,  65  Bruntslield 

1898.  Fraser,  Hugh  Ernest,  M.A.,  M.D., 

Medical    Superintendent,   Royal  In- 

firniary,  Dundee. 

1886.  Frasku,  James   L.,   5  Castle  Street, 


1896.  Fullkhton,  John,  I  Garthland  Place, 


1884.  Galbraith,  Thomas  L.,  Town-Clerk, 

24  Park  Terrace,  Stirling. 


1890.  Garden,  Farqch arson  T.,  4  Rubislaw       1894. 

Terrace,  Aberdeen. 

1891.  Garson,    William,    W.S.,   5  Albyn       1891. 


1891.  Garstin,  John  Ribton,  D.L.,  M.A.,       1887. 

Broganstowu,  Castlebellingliani,   Co. 
Lonth,  Ireland.  1886. 

1898.  Gaythorpe,  Harper,  Prospect  Road, 

Barrow-in-Furness.  1899. 

1886.  Gebbib,  Rev.  Francis,  20  Lynedoch 

Place.  1880. 

1887.  Geddbs,  Gborqe  Hutton,  8  Douglas 

Crescent.  1889. 

1895.  GiBB,      Alexander,      12      Antigua 

Street.  1871. 

1877.  GiBB,    John    S.,    8    Cobden    Cres- 
cent 1884. 

1897.  Gibson,  Rev.  John  Mackenzie,  M.A., 

22  Regent  Terrace. 
1886.  Gill,  A.  J.    Mitchell,    of  Savock,       1899. 
Acbinroath,  Rothes. 

1896.  Gillies,    Patrick    Hunter,    M.D.,       1874. 

Ballachuan,  Easdale,  Oban. 
1885.  Glen,  Robert,  32  Dublin  Street. 
1893.  Good,     George,     Braefoot,     Liber-       1861 

1896.  Gordon,    Archibald    A.,    C.A.,    1       1882. 

Coates  Gardens. 
1884.  Gordon,  James,  W.S.,  8  East  Castle       1891. 

Road,  Merchiston.  | 

1872. 'Gordon,  WiLUAM,M.D.,  11  Maytield   i    1898. 

Gardens.  { 

1889.  Gordon,  William,  of  Tarvie,  Killie-  ,    1897. 

crankie  House,  Perthshire.  I 

1883.  Gobdon-Gilmour,     Major     Robert,   ' 

of    Craigmillar,    Tlie    Inch,    Liber-   I 

ton.  I    1887. 

1869. 'Goodie,    Gilbert,    31    Great    King  I 

Street.  I    1886. 

1898.  GoDRLiE,   James,    Birdston,    Helens- 

burgh.  I    1875. 

1882.  Graham,  James  Maxtone,  of  Culto-  j 

quhey,  Crieff.  1882. 

1892.  Graham,     Robert     C,      Skipness,   | 

Argyll.  1874. 

1888.  Grant,  F.  J.,  W.S.,  Lyon  OlKce,  H. M.       1865. 

Gen.  Register  House.  1897 

1882.  Gray,  George,  Clerk  of  the  Peace, 
County  Buildings,  Glasgow. 

Gray-Buchanan,    A.    W.,    Parkhill, 

Green,    Charles    E.,  The    Hollies, 

Gordon  Terrace. 
Greio,   Andrew,   C.E.,   3    Duntrune 

Terrace,  Broughty  Ferry. 
•Greig,    T.    Watson,    of   Glencarse, 

Grewar,    David    S.,    Dalnasnaught, 

Glenisla,  Alyth. 
Grieve,     Symington,     11      Lauder 

•Griffith,    Henry,    18    St    James's 

Square,  London. 
^Grub,   Rev.    George,  '  Rector,    Holy 

Trinity,  Ayr. 
♦GuTHRiK,  Charles  J.,  Advocate, Q.C., 
Sheritf  of  Ross,  Cromarty,  and  Suther- 
land, 13  Royal  Circus. 
GuTHRii,  John,  Solicitor,  Town  Clerk 

of  Crail. 
Guthrie,  Rev.   Roger  R.  Lingaud, 
Taybank  House,  Dundee. 

♦Haddington,  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of, 

Tynninghame,  Prestonkirk. 
H.vlkett,  Sir  Arthur,  Bart  of  Pit- 

firrane,  Dunfermline. 
Hamilton,    James,    Hafton,  London 

Road,  Kilmarnock. 
Hampton,  Rev.    David  Machardv, 

Harris,  David   F.,   M.D.,  Lecturer 

in     Physiology,     University    of    St 

Andrews,    6    Bell    Street,    St    An- 
Harrison,  John,   Rockville,   Napier 

Hart,  George,    Procurator-Fiscal  of 

Renfrewshire  at  Paisley. 
Hay,  George,   R.S.A.,   7    Ravelston 

Hay,  GEOiiQKy  ArltrocUh  Guide  OtHcx;, 

Hay,  J.  T.,  Blackball  Castle,  Banchory. 
*Hay,  Robert  J.  A.,  Florence. 
Heddbrwick,  Thomas  C.  H.,  M.A., 

The  Manor  House,  Weston  Turville, 

Wendover,  Bucks. 


1892.  Hbdley,   Robbrt  C,  Cheviott,  Cor- 

1895.  Heiton,  Andrew  Granger,  Architect. 

1888.*Hendkrson,  C^l.  George,  of  Hevers- 

wood,  Brasted,  Kent. 
1892.  Henderson,  James,  49  Priory  Place, 

Craigie,  Perth. 
1889.*Henderson,     James     Stewart,     1 

Pond    Street,    Hampstead,    London, 

1897.  Henderson,  John  G.  B.,  W.S.,  Nether 

Parkley,  Linlithgow. 

1886.  Henry,  David,  Architect,  2  Lockhart 

Place,  St  Andrews. 

1891.  Herries,      Capt.       William       D., 

yr.       of       Spottes       Hall,       Dal- 
1897.  Hewat,  Rev.  Kirkwood,  Free  Churcli 
Manse,  Prestwick. 

1887.  Hewison,  Uev.  J.  Kino,  The  Manse, 


1896.  HiGoiN,     J.      Walter,     Benvoulin, 

1881.  Hill,  George  W.,  6  Princes  Terrace, 

Dowanhill,  Glasgow. 
1877.*Home-Drumm()ND,  Col.  II.  8.,  of  Blair 

Drummond,  Stirling. 
1874.*H()PE,      Henry     W.,     of    Luffuess, 

1874.*lIoRNiMAN,  Fukderick  John,  Surrey 

Mount,  Forest  Hill,  London. 
1896.  HoRSBUROH,     James,     6     Brunswick 

Place,  Regent*s  Park,  London. 

1892.  Houston,  Rev.   A.   M'Neill,  M.A., 

B.  D.,    The    Manse,    Auchterdenau, 
Cardendeu,  Fife. 

1899.  HOWATT,  Henry  R.,  99  Millbrae  Road, 

Langside,  Glasgow. 
1889.*HowDEN,   Charles   R.  A.,  Advocate, 

25  Melville  Street. 
1886.  HowDEN,   John   M.,   C.A.,    11    Eton 

1861.*HowE,   Alexandkk,   W.S.,  17  Moray 

1880.  H()WOiiTH,  Daniel  Fowler,  Grafton 

Place,  Ashton-under-Lyiic. 

1900.  HoziER,  Hon.  James,  M.P.,  Mauldslie 

Castle,  Carluke. 

1896.  Humphrey,  Kobert,  Secretary,  Edin- 
burgh Life  Assurance  Co.,  12  King 
Street,  Manchester. 

1872. ♦Hunter,  Col.  C'harles,  Plas  C<>ch, 
Llanfair  P.G.,  Anglesea. 

1891.  Hunter,  Rev.  James,  Fala  Manse, 

1896.  Hunter,  Rev.  John,  M.A.,  B.D., 
Minister  of  Rattray,    Blairgowrie. 

1886.  Hunter,  Rev.  Joseph,  M.A.,  Cock- 


1898.  Hunter,  Thomas,  W.S.,  Town  Clerk 

of  Etlinburgh,  Inverarbour,  54  Inver- 
leith  Place. 

1882.  HuTCHESON,   Alexander,    Architect, 

Ilerschel  House,  Broughty  Ferry. 

1895.  Hutchison,  James  T.,  of  Morelaud,  12 

Douglas  Crescent. 
1871.*HuTCHisoN,  John,   R.S.A.,  19  Manor 

1891.  Hutchison,  Rev.  John,  D.D.,  Afton 

Lodge,  Bounington. 

1899.  Imrie,  Rev.  David,  St  Andrew's  Free 

Church,  Dunfennline. 

1891.  Inglis,  Alexander  Wood,  Secretary, 

Board   of    Manufactures,    30   Aber- 
croinby  Plac^j. 

1887.  Inglis,     Rev.     W.     Mason,     M.A., 


1896.  Ireland,     William     W.,    M.D.,     1 

Victoria  Terrice,  Musselburgh. 

1884.  IsLKS,  James,  St  Ninians,  Blairgowrie. 

1895.  J.\CKSON,  Rev.  J.  W.,  M.A.,  7 
Lothian  Gardens,  Glasgow. 

1883.  Jackson,   Major   Randle,   Swordale, 

Evanton,  Ross-.shire. 
1867. *J AMES,  Rev.  John  P.,  Woilley  House, 
Ilkley,  Leeds. 

1885.  Jameson,  Andrew,  M.  A.,  Q.C.,  Sheriff 

of  Perthshire,  14  Moray  Place. 
1871.*Jamies()n,  James  Auldjo,  W.S.,   14 
Buckingham  Terrace. 

1892.  Johnston,  David,  2 J  Huutly  Gardeu.s, 

Kelvinsidc,  (Jiasgow. 

1900.  Johnston,     William,     M.D.,      Lt- 

Col.  (retired),  Anny  Medical  Staff,  of 
Newton  Dec,  Murtle. 


1892.  Johnstone,     Hkniiy,     M.A.    Oxon.  !  ISSf).  Law,      Thomas      Gravrs,     LL.D., 

(Erlinburgh    Academy),    93    Comely  |  Librarian,  Signet  Lihrary^— Foreign 

Bank  Avenue.  1  Secretary. 

1898.  Jonas,  Alfrbd  Charles,  45  Parch-  '  1894.  Lawlor,  Rev.  Hugh  Jackson,  D.D., 

more  Road,  Thornton  Heath,  SuiTey.  Professor  of  Ecclesiastical  History, 

I  University  of  Dublin. 

1893.  Kaye,  Walter  Jenkinson,  Pembroke  ;•  1882.*Leadbetter,   '1*homa8,  Architect,   17 

College,  Harrogate,  '  Young  Street. 

1870.*Keltie,  John  S.,   LL.D.,   Secretary,  1871.*Leishman,    Rev.    Thomas,    D.D.,    4 

Royal    Geogi-aphical  Society.    Glen-  |  Douglas  (Crescent. 

devon    House,    Compayne   Gardens,  |  1883.  Lkith,    Rev.    Wiluam   Forbes,   Sel- 

Hampstead,  London.  kirk. 

1880. ♦Kennedy,  John,  M.A.,  25  Abingdon  '  1884.  Lennox,  James,  Eden    Bank,  Dum- 

Street,  Westminster.  |  fries. 

1889.*Kermode,    Philip  M.  C,  Advocate,  1857.*Leslie,  Charles   Stephen,  of  Bal- 

Hillside,  Ramsey,  Isle  of  Man.  |  quhain,  11  Chanonry,  Aberdeen. 

1889.  Kerr,   Andrew  William,    81  Great  ,  1890.  Lindsay,  Leonard  C,  New  Gallerj-, 

King  Street.  '  121  Regent  Street,  London. 
1896.  Kerr,    Henry  F.,    A.R.LB.A.,    36  I  1873.*Undsay,  Rev.  Thomas  M.,  D.D.,  Pro- 
Hanover  Street.  |  fessor  of  Divinity,  Free  Church  Col- 

1889.  Kerr,  Rev.  John,  Dirleton,  Drem.  |  lege,  Glasgow. 

1878.  Kino,  Sir  James,  Bart.,  LL.D.,  115  1892.  Linton,      Simon,      Oakwoo<l,      Sel- 

Wellington  Road,  Glasgow.  I  kirk. 

1884.  KiNix)CH,  Sir  John  G.  S.,  Bart.,  M. P.,  i  188L ♦Little,    Robert,    Ardenlca,    North- 

Kinloch  House,  Meigle.  !  wood,  Middlesex. 

1892.  Kinross,  John,  Architect,  A.R.S.A.,  |  1898.  Livingstone,  Duncan   Paul,  New- 

1  West  Savile  Terrace.  bank,  Giffnock. 

1900.^KiNTORE,   Right    Hon.    the    Earl  of,  j  1883.  Lockhart,  Rev.WiLLL\M,M.A.,D.D., 

G.C.M.G.,      LL.D.,      Keith      Hall,  ,  Minister  of  Colinton. 

Inverurie.  '  1882.  Lorimkr,  George,   Durrisdeer,   Gils- 

1896.  Kirkpatrick,    John    G.,    W.S.,    32  land  Road. 

Momingside  Park,  Edinburgh.  '  1899.  Low,  Rev.  Gkoroe  Duncan,  27  Mer- 

1887.  KiRKWOOD,  Henry  Bruce,  68  Thistle  :  chiston  Avenue. 

Street.  1896.  Low,    Sir   James,    Kincraig    House, 

I  Broughty  Ferry. 

1882.  Laing,    Alexander,   S.S.C,  9   Pal-  ,  1873.^Lumsden,  Lt.-Col.   Henry  William, 

merston  Place.  I  Langley  Park,  Montrose. 

1890.  Laing,  James  H.   W.,  M.A.,   B.Sc.,  I  1873.^Lumsden,  Hugh  Gordon,  of  Clova, 

M.B.,  CM.,  9  Tay  Square,  Dundee.  |  Lumsden,  Al>erdeenshire. 

1884.  Lamb,     James     H.,      The      Ijatch,  I  1880.*Lumsden,  James,  Arden  House,  Alex- 

Brechin.  I  audria. 

1899.  Lamb,  James,  Leabrae,  Inverary  Ter-  '  1893.  Lynn,  Francis,  Livingstone  Terrace, 

race,  Dundee.  Galashiels. 

1900.  Lang,    Andrew,    1     Marloes    Road,  ! 

Kensington,  London.  1  1892.  Macadam,  Joseph  H.,  38  Shoe  Lane, 

1892.  Lang,    Jambs,    9    Crown     Gardens,  I  London. 

Dowanhill,  Glasgow.  1875. ♦Macadam,    Stevenson,    Ph.D.,    Lec- 

1893.  Langwill,  Robert  B.,  7  St  Leonard's  i  turer     on     Chemistry,      Surgeons' 

Bank,  Perth.  I  Hall. 


1887.  Macadam,    W.    Iviron,  Le(;tiirer   on 

Cniemistry,  Siu-geous'  Hall. 
1885.  M'JUiN,  JamksM.,  Banker,  Arbroath. 

1877.  Macbeatii,  Jamks  Mainland,  Lyiin- 

fiel.I,  Kirkwall. 
1893.  MacBhaynk,      David,      Aiulnntiel, 

1889.  M*Call,    Hardy     Behtram.    Barton 

End  Court,  Nailswoitli,  Ciloucester. 

1890.  M'CoMBiK,  Pkteu  Duc.uid,  of  Kastor 

Skene,  Abenleensliire. 
1885.  Macdonald,  Coll  Reginald,  M.D., 

Ardantrae,  Ayr. 
1900.  Macdonald,  Oeorok,  M.A.,  41  Lily- 
bank  Gardens,  Glasgow. 
1899.  Macdonald,  James,  3  Onudas  Street. 
1879.  Macdonald,  James,  W.S.,  21  Tliistle 

1896.  Macdonald,  Jamks  Cecil,  Solicitor, 

1890.*Macdonald,    John     Matheson,    95 

Ilarley  Street,  London,  W. 
1882.  Macdonald,  Kenneth,  Town  Clerk  of 

1890.  Macdonald,  Wiluam  Rak,  Neidpath, 

Wester  Coates  Avenue. 
1896.  Macdovgall,  J.    Patten,  Advocate, 

39  Heriot  Row,  and  Gallanach,  Oban. 
1872.*M'D()WALL,  Thomas  W.,  M.D.,  East 

Cottingwood,  Morpeth. 
1860.  Macewen,  John  Cochrane,  Trafford 

Bank,  Inverness. 
1892.  M'Ewen,  Rev.  John,  Dyke,  Forres. 
1899.  Mackarlane-(;rieve,    W.  A.,   M.A. 

and    S.C.L.    Oxou,,    M.A.    Cantab.. 

Inipington  I*ark,  Cambridgeshire. 
1862.*Mac«ibbon.  David,  LL.D.,  Architect, 

65  Frederick  Street. 
1898.  M'Gillivkay,    Angus,  C.M.,   M.I)., 

23  Tay  Street,  Dundee. 

1878.  Macgillivrav,    William,    W.S.,   32 

Charlotte  Square. 
1885.  M'Glashan,     Stewart,   Sculptor,    Ct 

Brandon  Street. 
1889.  M'IIardy,    Lt.-Col.    A.   B.,   C.B.,   3 

Riivelston  Park. 
1898.  Macintosh,  Rev.  Chahlks  Douolas, 

M.A.,  Minister  of  St  Oran'.s  Church, 

Conuel,  Argyllshire. 

1897.  Macinttrr,  P.  M.,  Advocate,  12  India 

1876.*Mackat,  MiiKAR  J.  G.,  LL.D.,  Q.C., 

Sheriff  of  Fife  and  Kinro.«w,  7  Albyn 

1S90.  Mack  ay,  James,  Trowle,  Trowbridge. 
1888.  Mackay,  J.   F.,   W.S.,    Whitebou.'^e, 


1892.  Mackay,    Thomas    A.,    22   Clarence 


1882.  Mackay,  William,  Solicitor,  Inver- 

1897.  Mackay,  John  S.,  LL.D.,  69  Nor- 
thunil>erland  Street. 

1899.  Mackenzie,   Sir   Alexander    Muir, 

Bart.,  of  Delvine,  Dunkeld. 

1887.  Mackenzie,  David  J.,  Sheriff-Substi- 
tute, Bellevue,  Wick. 

1891.*Mackenzie,  James,  2  Rilllmnk  Cres. 

1872.*Mackenzie,  Rev.  James  B.,  Kenniore, 

1900.  Mackenzie,  Sir  Kenneth  J.,  Bart., 

Queen's  and  Tiord  Treasurer's  Re- 
membrancer, Exchequer  Chambers, 
Parliament  Square. 

1882.  Mackenzie,  R.  W.  R,  Stormonttield, 

1870.*Mackbnzie,  Thomas,  Sheriff-SuKsti- 
tute,  Tain. 

1876.  M'KiK,  Thomas,  Advocate,  30  Moray 

1888.*Mackinlay,  J.  M.,  M.A.,  4  West- 
bourne  Ganlens,  Glasgow. 

1864.*Mackintosh,  Charles  Eraser,  LLD., 
of  Drummond,  Lochardill,  Inverness. 

1893.  Mackintosh,  William  Fyfe,  Solici- 

tor, Maulesbank  House,  Arbroath. 
1S65.*Mackison,  William,  Architect,  8  Con- 
stitution Terrace,  Dun«lee. 
1878.  Macl.\gan,  Robkrt  Craig,  M.D.,  5 

Coates  Crescent. 
1896.  Mac  Lean,  J.  A.,  Union  Bank  House, 

1885.*MacLehosk,  Jamks  J.,  M.A.,   61  St 

Vincent  Street,  Glasgow. 
1893.  Macleod,   John    N.,   of   Kintarbert, 

Glensadell,  Argyllsliire. 
1890.*Macleod,  Rkginald,  C.B.,50  Draycott 

PI.,  London,  SAW,— Vice- PrcsUlent. 


1889.  MacLucktk,  John  Rkddoch,  Bra&side,       1900. 

1875.  Macmath,   William,  16  St   Andrew       1878. 

1884.  M ACHILLA N,  Rev.  Hugh,  D.D.,LL.D.,       1885. 

70  Union  Place,  Greenock. 
1882.  Macphail,  Rev.  J.  C,  D.D.,  Harlaw       1882. 
Hill  House,  Preston  pans. 

1890.  Macpherson,  Alkxandeii,  Solicitor,    '    1876. 

Kingussie.  I 

1886.  Macpherson,  Archibald,  Architect,    |    1896. 

7  Young  Street.  i 

1895.  Macpherson,  Capt.  James  F.,  United       1898. 

Service  Club,  Queen  Street. 
1878.  Macpherson,    Norman,     LL.D.,     6       1878. 

Buckinghanj  Terrace. 
1882.*Macritchie,  David,  C.  A.,  4  Archibald       1896. 


1896.  Malloch,    J.VMES,    M.A.,    Dudhope 

Villa,  Dundee.  1890. 

1899.  Mann,  John,  C.A.,   18   Westbourne 

(J aniens,  Glasgow.  j    1867. 

1872.*Marshall,  David,   Tx)chleven  Place, 

Kinross.  ,    1886. 

1885.  Marshall,  William  Hunter,  W.S.,    1 

Callander.  1888. 

1891.  Martin,  Francis,  207  Bath    Street, 

Glasgow.  !    1884. 

1861.*Marwick,  Sir  James  David,  LL.D., 

City   Clerk,   City    Chambers,    Gla.s-       1890. 

1886.  Masson,    David,    LL.D.,     Historio- 

grapher  for  Scotland,  2  Lockhartou       1886. 

1892.  Matheson,  Augustus  A.,  M.D.,   41       1899. 

Greorge  Square. 
1884.  Maxwell,  Right  Hon.  Sir  Herbert       1890. 

EosTACE,  Bart.,  M.P.,  of  Moureith, 

Wigtownshire.  1851. 

1892. 'Maxwell,  Sir  John  S.,  Bart.,  M.P.,  of 

PoUok,  Pollok  House,  Pollokshaws.  1882. 

1891.  Maxwell,  Wellwood,  of  Kirkennan, 

Dalbeattie.  1882, 

1887.* Maxwell,  William,   of   Donavourd, 

Pitlochry.  1887, 

1887.  Meldrum,  Rev.  A.,  M.A.,  Logierait, 

Ballinluig.  1897. 

1887.  Melville,  The  Right  Hon.  Viscount, 

Melville  Castle,  Lasswade.  1894, 

Menzies,  W.  D.  G.,  of  Pitcur,  Hally- 

burton,  Coupar  Angu.s. 
Mercer,  Wiluam  Lindsay,  of  Hunt- 

ingtower,  Rilcraig,  Scone. 
Metcalfe,  Rev.  W.  M.,  D.D.,  South 

Manse,  Paisley. 
Millar,    Alexander    H.,   Ro.sslynn 

House,  Clepington  lioad,  Dundee. 
Millar,    William    White,    S.S.C, 

Dunesk,  Lasswade. 
MiLLKR,  Alexander  C,  M.D.,  Craig 

Linnhe,  Fort- William. 
Miller,  Rev.   Edward,  M.A.,  F.C. 

Manse,  Newtyle. 
♦Miller,    George   Anderson,   W.S., 
Knoweheail,  Perth. 
MiLLKR,     Robert,     J.  P.,     Deputy- 
Lieutenant  for  Edinburgh,  38  Lauder 
Milne,     Rev.    Andrew    Jamibson, 
LL.D.,  Fyvie,  Aberdeenshire. 
•Mitchell,  Sir  Arthur,  K.C.B.,  M.D., 

LL.D.,  34  Dninimond  Place. 
,  Mitchell,     A.     J.,     Advocate,     60 
Frederick  Street. 
Mitchell,  Charles,  C.E.,  132  Princes 
.  Mitchell,     Hugh,    Solicitor,     Pit- 
.  Mitchell,     John     Oswald,     B.A., 
LLD.,     67     East     Howard    Street, 
♦Mitchell,  Richard  Blunt,  of  Pol- 

mood,  45  Albany  Street. 
,  Mitchell,     Sydney,     Architect,    34 
Drunimond  Place. 
Moncriekf,    Col.     Sir    Alexander, 
K.C.B.,  Baudirran,  Perth. 
♦Montgomery,  Sir  Graham  G.,  Bart., 

Stobo  Ca.stle,  Peebles-shire. 
,  MoKKis,  James  Archibald,  Architect, 

Wellington  Chambers,  Ayr. 
.  Morrison,  Hew,  Librarian,  Eilinburgh 

Public  Library. 
.♦Moubray,  John  J.,  Naemoor,  Rum- 
bling Bridge. 
MoxoN,       Charles,       77       George 
,  MuiR,  John,  Galston,  Ayrshire. 

XXX  u 

1M77    Mi'iiuiKM*.   Andhhw,  l»    MurmylleM 

IHW.    Mi'iniiKvn.  (Jkomok.  F.K.S.R,  Com- 

luliwItMUM'  for  tho  I>uko  of  lUohinoiul 

Hint  Oonlon.  S|H'yhniik,  FwlmlH^ra. 
IMUI.  Mtnho.  ArKXANOi^u  M..  Aowuntaut, 

M'owu  llouHt\  AU'nlrvii. 
IWU.  Mi'NMo  K>:uur«»oN.IU>N,\im'RAi'KrKn, 

of  Novur.  M  r..  Urtilh,  KirkcaMv. 
IMVr.   MiNUo.  John.  J.IV.  !»uu  !li>:h.  OKiu. 
»Mr\i.»MrNUo.    HooKUT.    M.A..    M.P..    4v^ 

Mrtuor  !Mrt«'*\ 
X'my  MrsMo.    Kov.    WimvM.    AU    Saints 

YU'Km>:v.  N»'W|H»rt.  Moumouth<hii\\ 
tJ^V  M\»mHH  u.  Uow  A.  IV.  All  SaintV  INr 

Roimj:^*.  W  I^Ani^lmiu  Stnvt. 

M<V\H»*»    UoUhVXNvhUV 

n   \^  .  \MulWuxi\»  \  \^U\\  NN A<MU\ 

t5SC    Nli>»\vN.  K  \   U    5  Kv'    i  •'  \>vv.N '  : 
\:!\<\  *\^v^.    Kxxv.w     USV.    \>>'    IV' 
rvt;>-v/-,  Vnnvvvvx 

^;  *-.>s  ..*»f.   Vv'.  *..>'»  «.• 
.^--    ^V     X  V    X*  xx    V       S-    V 

1890.    OiilLVY,  IlKNRY  J.  NISBKT-HAMILTON, 

Biel,  Piwstonkirk. 
18S>9.*(>RR,  UdBKRT,  of  Kiunanl,  79  West  Nile 

StrtH't,  CJlasgow. 
ISW.  Ormiston,   W.   Malcolm,   Architect, 

Hamilton  House,  1  Relugas  Road. 
lv^i>(».  Ohmond.  Rev.  David  D„  Minister  of 

Craig's  Free  Church,  Stirling. 

lJ^l>6.  r.vKK.    John    A.,    Inveresk    House. 

ISv^.  Takkkk.    Charles  Arundel,   M.D., 

TarkiKK^k,  Gosforth,  Cumberluhl 
Iv^'i^.^PATt^N,   Sir   J^16EPH    Noel,    R.S.A., 

LUn.,  38  C»ev>tp^  Stjumre. 
18^.  Tatv^n.    Robert.  City   Chamberhun, 

19  Ki<^nt  Terrace. 
IS^M.  Fatv^n.  Vktv^r  Albert  Nokl,  W.SL. 

*J2  Youiig  Street. 
K^\  FvrTKiw^^N.  James  K..  Ph.D..  Presi- 

aeut  of  the  State  CoUe^  of  Kentnckr. 

texiit^toti.  r.S^A. 
is:i -Fwi.    C»b\^Rv;e     M..     W.S..    1«5    St 

Auvirx'w  S*jaire. 
isrv.  Fvvi.     S;r    J.    RvuvciL    AxlTwate. 

t.xsv-tt     K'.r^    ,'jf    Anus^    3*>    Heriot 

:SSt    Fxxi.     K«r\.     K  55xr.     Fa\     MaB;$«*, 

*  >{> .   .s  \  > .   -      w  -    x\     ,;  r  a-^a.    :3i 

..  \  ^.K  .'•?     k'M  ^v.    V  :.  ..i;  .*tt?v  •  Vl>\ 




1900.  PRIMR081,    Rev.    Jamrs,    M.A.,    27 
Onslow  Drive,  Gla«jfow. 

1886.  PcLLAR,  Alfred,  M.I).,  Ill  Denmark 

Hill,  London,  S.E. 

186o.*RArNT,  Robert,  D.D.,   Principal  and 

J'rofessor  of   TTieolog}'  and   Cliurch 

History,  New  College,  Rlinhurgh,  23 

Douglas  CreHwnt. 
1 873. ♦Rampini, Charles,  LL.D.,  Vancouver, 

Paignton,  S.  Devon. 
Ramsay,  William,  of  Rowland,  Stow. 
Raxkink,  John,    Professor   of  Scots 

Law,    University  of  Rlinburgh,  23 

Ainslie  Place. 
Rea,  Albxawdbr,  M.R.A.S.,  Sui)erin- 

tendent  of  the  Arcbseological  Survey 

of  South  India,  Bangalore. 
1893.  Read,    Charles   Hercules,    Briti«h 

Museum,  London. 
1832.  Reid,  Alexander  George,  Solicitor, 

1888.*Reid,  Sir  (Jeurge,  /^.R.S.A.,  LL.D., 

22  Royal  Terrace. 
1898.  Reid,  JAM^>l  Robert,  U  Magdala  Cre.s. 

1897.  Rkid,   Rev.  Edward  T.  S.,  M.A.,  f»9 

Jeffrey  Street. 
Rhind,  \V.  Birnie,  A.R.S.A.,  Sculp- 
tor, St  Helen's,  CaniV>ridge  Street 
Richards,  Rev.  Walter  J.  B.,  D.D., 

St  Charles's  College,    dotting   Hill, 

1880.  Richardson,    Adam    B.,   4    Malvern 

Place,     Cheltenham,  —  Curator     of 

1896.  Richardson,  Ralph,  W.S.,  10  Mag- 

dala  Place. 
1886. •Ritchie,  Charles,  S.S.C,  20  Hill  St. 

1898.  Roberts,  Alexander  F.,  TliornfieM, 

1883.  JvOBKUTs,    Andrew,    Solicitor,    Com- 
mercial Bank,  (*allander. 

1887.  Robertson,  D.  Argyll,  M.D.,  LL.I)., 

IVfcsident  of  the    Royal    College    of 

Surgeons,  18  Cliarlotte  Sfiuan'. 
1879.  Robertson,  Oeoroe,  Keei)er  of   the 

Abbey,  Dunfermline. 
1886.*Robertson,  Robert,  Tluutly  House, 







1889.  Robertson,  Thomas  S.,  Architect, 
Riverview,  Broughty  Ferry. 

1879.*RoBERTaoN,  W.  W.,  Architect,  H.M. 
Board  of  Works,  Parliament  Stjuare. 

1865. ♦Robinson,  John  Ryley,  LL.D.,  The 
Cedars,  Moorlands  Road,  Dewsbury. 

1880.  Robson,  William, S.S.C.,Marchholm, 

Gillslaud  Road. 
1871.*RoLLO,    Right    Hon.    Lonl,   Duncrub 

House,  Dunning. 
1872.*RosEBERY,  Right  Hon.   The   F:arl  of, 
LL.D.,  Dalmeny  Park. 
Ross,  Alexander,  LkD.,  Architect, 

Queensgate  Chaml>ers,  Inverness. 
Ross,  Joseph  Carne,  M.D.,  19  Palatine 

Raid,  Manchester. 
Ross,    Thomas,    Architect,    14    Saxe- 
Coburg  Place. 
1867.*Ross,  Rev.  William,  Cowcaddens  Free 
Cliurch,    42    Windsor    Terrace,    N., 

1894.*SanDeman,  Lieut.-Colonel  G.  G.,  of 
Fonab,  Port-na-Craig,  Moulin. 

1889.  Scott,  Alexander,  Ashbank,  New- 
port, Fife. 

1892.  Scott,   James,    J. P.,    Rock    Knowe, 


1895.  .Scott,  John,  C.B.,  Hawkhill,  Urgs, 

1900.  ?coTT,  Rev.  Robert,  M.A.,  Minister 
of  Craig,  Montrose. 

1898.  Scott-Hall,  Rev.  W.  E.,  of  St  Man- 
Hall,  Staverton  Fields,  Oxford. 

1S93.  ScoTT-MoNCRiEFK,  Sir  Colin,  Under- 
Secretary  for  S<;otland,  11  Cheyne 
Walk,  Chelsea,  Loudon. 

1893.  ScoTT-MoNCRiEFF,    David,   W.S.,   24 

(ieorge  Stpiare. 
1889.  ScoTT-MoNCRiEFF,    W.    G.',     Sheriff- 
Substitute,  Uiuark. 

1881.  Semple,     Andrew,     M.D.,      United 

Service  Club,  Queen  Street. 
184S.*Seton,     (Jkohge,      M.A.,    Advocate, 
Ayttm  House,  Al)eniethy,  Perthshire. 
lbt)9.*SHAND,  Ri^ht  Hon.  I^rd,  32  Bryanston 
S<iuare,  London. 
!    1892.  Shiells,  Henry  K.,  C.A.,  141  George 
I  Street. 


1897.  Shielus,    Robert,    Banker,   Neenah, 

Wisconsin,  U.S.  A. 
1879.  SiBBALD,   Sir  John,   M.D.,  18  Great 

King  Street. 
1879.  SiBBALD,    John   Edward,   8  Ettrick 

1871.*SiMP80N,  Alex.  R,  M.D.,  Professor  of 

Midwifer)',  University  of  Edinburgh, 

52  Queen  Street. 
1890.  Simpson,  H.  F.  Morland,  M.A.,  Rector 

of  the  Granunar  School,  80  Hamilton 

Place,  Abenleen. 
1880.*SiMi»8ON,  Robert  R.,  W.S.,  8  Brunts- 
field  Crescent. 
1896.  SincLuVIR,    John,    11    South    Norton 

1876.*Skinner,  William,  W.S.,  35  George 

1877.  Skirving,  Adam,  of  Croys,  Dalbeattie. 
1879.  Smail,  James,  7  Bruntstield  Crescent. 

1898.  Smellie,  Thomas,  Architect,  12  Port- 

land Place,  Kilmarnock. 

1899.  Smith,  Andrew,  of  Fuulaws,  Broom- 

I>ark,  Lanark. 
1898.  Smith,  David  Crawford,  19  Queen 
Street,  Perth. 

1892.  Smith,  G.   Gregory,  16  Murrayfield 


1893.  Smith,  George,  S.S.C,  21  St  Andrew 

1877.  Smith,    James    T.,    Dtdoch,    Inver- 

1898.  Smith,    Rev.    Jame.s,     M.A.,    B.D., 

Minister  of  St  George '»-in-the- West, 

1874.*Smith,   J.    Irvine,    20   Great    King 


1889.  Smith,    Robert,    Solicitor,    9    Ward 

Road,  Dundeo. 

1890.  Smith,  Thomas  Henry,  Corrie  Lodge, 


1891.*Smith,  W,  M'Combie,  Persie,  Blair- 

1892.*Smythe,  Ct)lonel  David  M.,  Methven 
Castk-,  Perth. 

1892.  SoMERViLLE,  Rcv.  J.  E.,  B.D.,  Villa 
Jeanne,  Mentoue,  France. 

1882.*S0DTHESK,  Right  Hon.  The  >iirl  of,  K.T. 
LL.D.,  Kiunuird  Cattle,  Brechin. 

I  1890.*Sfence,     Charles     Jambs,     South 

I^ston  Lodge,  North  Shields. 
'   1882.  Spraqub,  Thomas  B.,  M.A.,  LL.D., 
29  Buckingham  Terrace. 
1872. ♦Stair,  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of,  K.T., 
LL.D.,  Oxenfoord  Castle,  Dalkeith. 
.    1875.  Starke,  James G.H.,  M.A.,  Advocate, 
Trotjueer  Holm,  Dumfries. 
1885.  Steedman,  Thomas,  Clydesdale  Bank, 
I  Kinross. 

'■   1874. ♦Steel,  Lt.Col.  G.  Mure,  21    Royal 
'  Circus. 

I    1891.  Steele,    Wiluam,    Woodville,  Bow- 
'  mont  Street,  Kelso. 

1895.  Stevenson,  John  Horne,  M.^V.,  Advo- 
I  cate,  9  Oxford  Terrace. 

I    1867. ♦Stevenson,    John    J.,    Architect,   4 

Ponlu'stcr  Cf aniens,  London,  W. 
I    1887.  Stevenson,  Rev.  W.,  M.A.,  Achtertool 
I  Manse,  Kirkcaldy. 

1876.  Stewart,  Rev.    Alexander,    LL.D., 
Manse      of      Ballachulish,       Nether 
1879.  Stewart,  C'harles  Poyntz,  Chasfield 

Park,  Stevenage. 
1871.*Stewart,  Maj.-Gen.  J.  H.  M.  Shaw, 
R.E.,  7  Inverness  Terrace,  London, 
1885.  Stewart,  Robert  King,  Murdostoun 

Castle,  Newmains,  Ijanarkshire. 
1894.  Stewart,     Walter,    3    Queensferry 

1882.  Story,    Rev.    R.     Herbert,    D.D., 
LL.D.,  Princii>al  of  the  University, 
1897.  Strachan,    Rev.    Jamks    M.,    B.D., 

Kilspindie  Manse,  Errol. 
1889.  Stratuern,  Robert,  W.S.,  13  Eglin- 

ton  Cres(*ent. 
1867.*.Strathmore,  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of, 

Glainis  Castle,  Forfarshire. 
1»84.  Strong,    W.    R.,    C.A.,   317    Collins 
Street,  Mellxmrne. 

1894.  Stuart,  Ale.\.,  11  Coates  Ganlens. 

1895.  Stuart,  The  Hon.  Morton  Gray,  2 

Bellord  Park. 
1882.  Sturrock,  Peter,  London  Roa<l,  Kil- 

1897.  Sulley,  Philip,  Bellbrae,  Cupar-Fife. 


1876.  Sutherland,  Rev.  George,  The  Par- 
sonage, Portsoy. 

1899.*SuTHERLAND,  ROBERT  M.,  Wallside, 

1887.  Sutherland,  J.  B.,  S.S.C.,  10  Windsor 

1897.  SuTTiR,  George  C,  of  Lalathan,  Lsa 
Bank,  Arkleston  Road,  Paisley. 

1884.  Swallow,  Rev.  H.  J.,  M.A.,  7  The 
Grove,  Sunderland. 

1900.  SwiNTON.  Capt.  George  S.  C,  36 
Pont  Street,  London. 

1899.  Sylve,ster,  Rev.  Walter,  St  Cliarles 

College,  Notting  Hill,  London. 

1884.  Tait,  George,  89  Gilmore  Place. 
1892. ♦Taylor,  J.  Pringlk,  W.S.,  19  Young 

1900.  Taylor,  W.  Lawrence,  Broad  Street, 

1884.  Temple,  Rev.  William,  M.A.,  D.D., 

1  Prince  Arthur  Street,  Aberdeen. 
1870.*Tennant,   Sir  Charles,    Bart.,   The 

Glen,  Innerleithen. 

1897.  Tennant,  John,  High  Street,  Eccle- 

1896.  Thin,  James,  22  Lauder  Road. 
1874.*Thoms,  George  Hunter  MacThomas, 

Advocate,  13  Charlotte  Square. 
1900.  Thomson,  Andrew,  Glendinniug  Ter- 
race, Galashiels. 
1894.  Thomson,   Edward  Douglas,  Chief 

Clerk,  General  Post  Office,  60  Queen 

1896.  Thomson,   J.    Maitland,   Advocate, 

Curator  of  the  Historical  Department 

H.M.    General    Register    House,    3 

Grosvenor  Gardens. 
1867.*Thomson,    Lockhart,     S.S.C,     114 

George  Street. 
1882. "Thomson,   Sir    Mitchell,    Bart.,    6 

Charlotte  Square. 
1875. "Thomson,  Robert,  LL.D.,  8  Scieunes 


1898.  Thorburn,     Michael     Grieve,     of 

Glenorraiston,  Innerleithen. 
1893.  Thurburn,  Lieut-Col.  F.  A.  V.,  Kirk- 
fell,  Highland  Road,  Ui)per  Norwood, 
London,  S.E. 

1891.  Ttllbrook,  Rev.  W.  J.,  M.A.,  Strath 
Tay  Parsonage,  Grantully,  Ballin- 

1896.  ToMLiNSON,  Charles,  South  Cottage, 
Healey,  Rochdale. 

1898.  Tough,  AVilliam,  M.A.,  94  Polwarth 

1877.  TUKE,  Sir  John  Batty,  M.D.,  LL.D., 
M.P.,  20  Charlotte  Square. 

1899.  TuLLOCH,     Major    Gen.    Alexander 

Bruce,    C.B.,    C.M.G.,    Llanwyok, 
Llangattock,  Crickhowell,  S.  Wales. 
1887.*TuRNBULL,  William   J.,  16  Grange 

1880.  TuRNKU,    Frederick    J.,    Mansfield 

Woodhouse,  Mansfield,  Notts. 
1865. ♦Turner,  Sir  W^illiam,  M.B.,  LL.D., 
D.C.Ii.,  Professor  of  Anatomy,  Uni- 
versity of  EiUnburgh,   6  Eton  Ter- 

1881.  TwEEDDALE,  Tlie  Most  Honourable  The 

Marquess    of,   K.T.,   Tester  House, 

1878.*Urquh.\rt,    James,    H.M.     Register 

1882. ♦Usher,  Rev.  W.  Neville,  Wellingore 
Vicarage,  Lincoln. 

1895.  Vallance,  David  J.,  Curator,  Museum 
of  Science  and  Art,  Chambers 

1862.^Veitch,  George  Seton,  Bank  of  Scot- 
land, Paisley. 

1874.  Walker,  Alexander,  LL.D.,  64 
Hamilton  Place,  Aljerdeen. 

1884.  Walker,  R.  C,  S.S.C,  Wingate  Place, 
Newport,  Fife. 

1879.  Wallace,  Thomas  D.,  Rector  of  High 
School,  Inverness. 

1876.  Waterston,  George,  56  Hanover 

1 891 .  Watson,  Rev.  Alex  an  der  Duff,  B.  D.  , 
F.C.  Manse,  Bourtree  Bush,  Stone- 

1890.^Watson,  D.  M.,  Bullionfield,  Dundee. 

1895.  ♦Watson,  Robert  F.,  Briery  Yartls, 


1884.  Watson,  W.  L.,  Ayton  House,  Aber-        1895. 
net  by,  Perthshire. 

1893.  \Vats<»n,     William.      Dep.-SHrgeon- 

(ieiieral,     Waverley     House.     Slate-    ,    1897. 
1887.  Watt,  James    C'kabb,    Advocate,   46        1SS4. 
Heriot  Row.  , 

1879.  Weddekbikn,  J.  R.  M.,  M.A.,  W.S..        1898. 

3  Oleiicairn  CresceuV,  ' 

1877.  Welsh,  John,  More«l«n.  LilH'rton.  1S8S, 

1872.*Wemys8    .vN'D     Mauch,    Right    Hon. 

The   KiiA  of,   1J>.1>.,  Oosfonl,    Long-        1SS3. 


1880.  Wenlky,  J  AMES  Adams.  r>I)ninisheuph        lv^7.'». 


1884.  White,  Cecil.  23  Drunimond  Place.  1S9-2. 
1869.* White,    Col.    Thomas    Pilkington, 

R.E.,     3     Hesketli     Crt>s<vnt,     Tor-        lii^9. 

1885.  WHITEL.VW,    I>AViD,    Ksklull.     Inver-    I 

esk.  1S89. 

1868.*Whtte,    Robert,     Procurator- Fiscal » 

Forfar.  1S91. 

1894.  Williams,    Frederick    Bessant,    3 

Essex  Grove,  Cpinjr  Norwootl.  1878. 

Wiluams,  Rev.  George,  Minister  of 

Norrieston   Free  Church,  Thombill, 

WiixiAMs.     Harry     M.,     Tilehurst, 

Priory  Park.  Kew,  Surrey. 
Williamson.  Rev.  Alexander,  D.D., 

39  Lauder  Road. 
Wilson,  Rev.  John,  M.A.,  Minister  of 

WiLs<>N,  Rev.  W.  H.,  The  Parsonage, 

WtH>D.  Tiios.  A.  tK"»rGLAs,  Viewforth, 

Brunstune  Road,  Jopj^a. 
Wot>DBiRN,     Sir     John.     K.  C.S.I. 

I>runigr:inge,  Patna,  Ayr. 
*Wordie.  John,  42  Montgomery  Drive, 

Wyon,  Allan,  *2  Langham  CTiambcrs, 

Portland  Place,  London,  W. 

YoiNG,     HrcH     W.,     of    Burghead, 

Tortolla.  Nairn. 
YoiNG,    WiLUAM    Laurkncb,    Belvl- 

dere,  Auchterarder. 
•  YiHNGER,  Robert,  15 Carlton  Terrace. 




NOVEMBER  30,  1900. 
[According  to  the  Laws,  tJic  number  is  limited  to  twenty-fivk.] 

His  Royal  Highness  Albert  Edward,  Prince  of  Wales. 

Right  Hon.   Lord  Avebury,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,   Hij,'h   Elms,  Farnborougli, 

Sir  John   Evans,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  &c.,  Nashmills,  Ilemel-Hemp- 


Rev.  Canon  William  Green  well,  M.A.,  D.C.L.,  Durham. 

Jt  Jhiibwm'  BuDOLT  Vibghow,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  Berlin. 



l>r  Hans  Hildebraxd,  Royal  Anti«|Uiiry  of  Sweden. 
Dr  Ernest  Chaxtbe,  Tlie  Museum,  Lyons, 


Whitley  Stokes,  LL.D.,  C.S.I.,  15  GnnvilW  Place,  Cornwall  Ganlens, 

rn>fessor  Lruu  Pigorini,  Director  of  thi-  Koyal  Arckeological  Museum, 

10  Alexandre  Bertrand.  Conservateur  du  Mu?<^  de?  Antiquite^  Nationales, 

Saint  Oormain-on-I*jiyo,  Seine  et  Oi:***,  France, 
Pr  Henry  C  Lea,  2tHH>  Walnut  Siiwt,  Philadelphia. 


W.  M.  Flinders  Petrif^  IXC\L.,  Ll-,1>.,  Rlwanls  Prf^fessor  of  Egyptology 

in  University  ColU^\  l^^ndon. 
John    Rins,  M.A..  l.UR,    IVofesss^^r  of  Celtic,  and  Principal  of  Jesus 

CoHoge,  Oxfonl. 
Sir  Francis*  Tress  IVvrry,  Riri,,  M.P.,  St  L*H>nAT\Vs  Hill,  Windsor,  and 

Kfijis  Castlo,  Keiss. 
\:>  l>r  St>rHi  s  Ml  LLF.R,  Secnnary  of  the  Royal  Siviety  of  Xorthem  Anti- 

«juarios  and  Pinvtor  of  the  National  Mns»eum,  C<»j>enhagen. 
Pr  iVcAR  MoNTELtrs,  Pix^fessi^r  at  the  National  Musieum,  Stockholm. 


Kmuk  CvKTAn.H.\«.\  Toulouse. 
F.  Havkr>  un\  M.A.,  Chust  i'hur^li.  i>\:oni. 
J.  RoTkiniA  An.v.N,  S  i>ix\-^t  Ormond  Sinvts  ly*Muion. 
:^"^  Krv.  S,  RvRiN*^  iJorn\  Lew  Tixnohar^i,  Novih  IVvon. 
Ror%vRT  l>i  RNAKix  :^  H\ll^lM^^u,ch.  Plyiv.vMith. 
Charles  W.  1>\momv  Hich  Wnw,  AmMo^iiio, 




NOVEMBER  30,  1900. 
[According  to  the  Laws,  the  number  is  limited  to  twenty-five.] 

Miss  C.  Mac  LAO  AN,  Kavenscroft,  Stirling. 

The  Baroness  Burdett  Coutts. 

The  Dowager  Lady  Dunbar  of  Northfield,  Duff  us  Ilouse,  Elgin. 

Mrs  Ramsay,  Kildalton,  Islay. 

5  The  Right  Hon.  The  Countess  of  Selkirk. 

Mrs  P.  H.  Chalmers  of  Avochie. 


Mrs  Annie  Chambers  Dowib,  Edinburgh. 

Mis.s  Emma  Swanx,  Walton  Manor,  Oxford. 

Miss  II.  J.  M.  Russell  of  Asbiesteel. 
10  Miss  Amy  Frances  Vdle  of  Tarradale,  Ross-shire. 


Mis8  M.  A.  Murray,  Holmst^,  Bushey  Heath. 
Mr*  EL  S.  ARMiTAiiE,  Westholm,  Rawdon,  Leeds. 


The  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London. 

The  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 

The  Cambrian  Archa3ological  Awsociation. 

The  Royal  Archaeological  Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 

The  British  Archa3ological  Association. 

The  Society  of  Architects,  London. 

The  Architectural,  Archaeological,  and  Historic  Society  of  Chester. 

The  Derbyshire  Arcliaeological  and  Natural  History  Association. 

The  Essex  Arclueological  Society. 

The  Kent  Archjeological  Society. 

The  Historic  Society  of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire. 

The  Architectural  Society  of  the  Counties  of  Lincoln  and  J  Nottingham  and 

Associated  Societies. 
The  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
The  Somersetshire  Arclueological  and  Natural  History  Society. 
The  Surrey  Arcliaeological  Society. 
The  Sussex  Arclueological  Society. 
The  Geological  Society  of  Edinburgh. 
The  Berwickshire  Naturalists*  Club. 
The  Anthropolc^cal  Institute,  London. 
The  Wiltsliire  Archaeological  Society. 
The  Royal  Irish  Academy. 

The  Bristol  and  Gloucestersliire  Arclueological  Society. 
The  Numismatic  Society,  London. 
The  Shropshire  Archaeological  Society. 
The  Dumfriesshire  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian  Society. 
The  Edinburgh  Architectural  Association. 
The  New  Spalding  Club,  Aberdeen. 
The  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society. 
The  Royal  Historical  Society,  London. 
The  Literary  and  Scientific  Society,  The  Museum,  Elgin. 

VOL.   XXXIV.  d 


Foreign  Societies. 
Tlie  Royal  Society  of  Northern  Antiquaries,  Copenhagen. 
La  Soci(5t6  Nationale  des  Antiquaires  de  France,  Paris. 
Antiquarische  Gesellschaft,  Zurich. 
Verein  von  Alterthumafreiuide  im  Rheinlande,  Bonn. 
The  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  U.S.A. 
The  Canadian  Institute,  Toronto. 
The  Museum,  Bergen. 

Foreningen  til  Norske  Fortidsmindesmerkers  Bevaring,  Christiania. 
The  Royal  Academy  of  History  and  Antiquities,  Stockholm. 
The  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  Washington. 
The  Peabody  Museum,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
Gesellscliaft  f iir  Niitzliche  Forschungen,  Triei*. 
Physic-CEkonomische  Gesellschaft,  Konigsberg. 
Berliner  Gesellschaft  fUr  Anthropolc^ie,  Berlin. 
Anthropologische  Gesellschaft,  Wien. 
Dei>artment  of  Mines,  Sydney. 
Society  D'Archc^'ologie  de  Bruxelles,  Belgium. 
Societe  des  BoUandists,  Bruxelles. 
L'Ecole  D' Anthropologic,  Paris. 
Societe  Archc-ologique  de  Namur,  Namur. 
Reale  Academia  dei  Lincei,  Rome. 
Der  Alterthmusgesellschaft  Prussia,  Konigsl>erg. 
Centralblatt  fiir  Anthropologic,  Stettin. 
Soci6te  Archeologi(|ue  du  Midi  de  la  France,  Toulouse. 
L' Academic  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles  Lettres,  Paris. 
La  Commissione  Archeologica  Communale  di  Roma. 
La  Societe  D' Anthropologic  de  Paris. 
La  Musde  Guimet,  Paris. 

La  Societe^  Archeologique  du  Depirtment  de  Constautine,  Algeria. 
National  Museum  of  Croatia,  Zagreb,  Austria-Hungary. 
The  Bosniflch-Herzegovinisch  Landes-Museum,  Sarajevo,  Bosnia. 
Bureau  des  Schweizerisches  Landes-Museum,  Zurich. 
The  Geological  Survey  Office,  Pietermaritzburg,  Natal. 

From  the  Publishers. 
The  Antiquary  (Elliot  Stock),  London. 

The  Reliquary  and  Illustrated  Arch<tolo<jist  (Bemrose  &  Sons),  London. 
UAnthropologie  (Massou  &  C'*'),  Paris. 
Uliiter  Journal  of  Archeology  (M*Caw,  Stevenson  &  Orr),  Belfast. 





Anniversary  Mebting,  30^/^  Novsmher  1899. 

REGINALD   MACLEOD,  Esq.,   C.15.,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Rev.  Canon  Murtloch  and  Mr  James  L.  Caw  were  appointed 
Scrutineers  of  the  Ikllot  for  the  election  of  Office-Beiirers  and  Council- 

The  Bidlot  having  heen  concluded,  the  Scrutineers  found  and  declared 
the  List  of  the  Council  for  the  ensuing  ycixr  to  he  iis  follows : — 


The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquess  op  Lothian,  K.T.,  LL.D. 

The  Hon.  .John  Abercromby. 
The  Hon.  Hew  Hamilton  Dalrymple. 
Reginald  Macleod,  C.B. 
VOL.  xxxiv.  A 

-•    •     • 

2  •.       '..WoCEEDINOS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  NOVEMBER  80,  1899. 


Sir    Oeorok    Ueid,     \  ,, 
LL.1).,  /'.R.S.A.,         (  ^"V^"'*"!' 

Sir  Arthur  MITCHKL^  I    "''"'^'"* 
K.C.B.,M.D.,LLD.,)  "f^'^'^'^*- 

The  Right  Hon.  Sir  Herbert  Max- 
well, Rirt.,  M.P. 

John  Horne  Stbvenbon,  M.A. 
Alexander  J.  S.  Brook. 
Sir  James  Balfour  Paul. 
John  Findlay. 
Robert  Munro,  M.A.,  M.D. 
W.  Rae  Macdonald. 


David  Christison,  M.D. 

J.  H.  Cunningham. 

Joseph  Anderson,  LL.D.,  AsaistatU  Secretary, 

Thomas  Graves  Law,  LL.D.,  1    Sccretnries  for  Foreign 

James  Macdonald,  LL.D.,     /        Corre^fpowltnce, 

John  Notman,  F.F.A.,  28  St  Andrew  Square. 

Curators  of  the  Museum, 
Robert  Carfrae.  |  Professor  Duns,  D.D. 

Curator  of  Coins, 
Adam  B.  Richardson. 

James  Curle,  Jun. 

A    KiUot   having'  }ioon   taken,    tho  following  gentlemen  were  Aaif 

(-h'f'UA  F«'ll'^»u  - : 

Hi*:  Hoti.  A\mk^  Hozikr,  M.P.,  Maulilslie  Ca.<tle,  Carlake. 
\r.f/fcK»   LASt»,  I  MarlrKfS  Koa<l,  Kensington,  London. 
Vt'nj.iAM    I:rhari>   Phii.mi'S,  Architect,  Westboume  hoi^g^ 


The  Meeting  resolved  to  express  their  sense  of  the  loss  the  Society 
had  sustained  in  the  deaths  of  the  following  Members,  deceased  since 
last  iViinual  Meeting  : — 

Honorary  Members, 

William  Frazer,  F.R.C.S.I.,  20  Harcourt  Street,  Dublin, . 
Sir  Henry  Dryden,  Bart,  Canons  Ashby,  Northampton,    . 


Carrespojuling  Member, 
Rev.  George  Wilson,  Free  Chm-ch  Minister,  Glenluce. 


Robert  Adam,  Earj.,  2  Gillsland  Road, 

J.  Lambert  Bailey,  Solicitor,  Ardrossan, 

Jas.  Currie  Baxter,  S.S.C,  45  Heriot  Row, 

Thomas  Bonn  a  r,  58  George  Street,    . 

David  Chalmers,  Redliall,  Slateford, 

J.  G.  Sinclair  Cckjhill,  M.D.,  Ventuor,  Isle  of  Wight, 

Robert  Cox,  M.P.,  34  Dnimsheugh  Gardens, 

James  Donaldson,  Sunnyside,  Fonnby, 

Richard  Hewat  Dunn,  Earlston,       .... 

William  N.  Fraser  of  Findrack,       .... 

Charles  Innes,  Solicitor,  Inverness, .... 

Surgeon-Major-Greneral  S.  A.  Lithoow,  M.D.,  C.B.,  Superintendent 

of  the  Royal  Infirmary,  Edinburgh,      .... 
Adam  Millar,  Yew  Bank,  Helensburgh,    .... 
L.VCHLAN  MACKINNON,  Jun.,  Advocatc,  Aberdeen, 
His  Grace  The  Duke  op  Northumberland,  Alnwick  Castle, 
James  C.  Roger,  Friars  Watch,  Waltharastow,  . 
Sir  John  Struthers,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  15  George  Square, 
G.  Lawson  Tait,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  Birmingliam, 
Alexander  Thomson,  Trinity  Grove,  Trinity  Road, . 
William  Troup,  Eastwell,  Bridge  of  Allan, 
William  E.  Williams,  Architect,  Tjeicester  Sqiwre,  London, 
George  Williamson,  37  Newton  Street,  Greenock,    . 
William  Yeats  of  Aquharney,  Aberdeenshire,   . 




The  following  Kc|K>rt  by  Dr  Christison,  Secretary,  of  events  of  interest 
to  the  Society  which  have  i^ccurre^l  during  the  jiost  Se,s^ion,  was  read : — 

Kepurt  ox  Evbsts  of  Last  Session,  1899. 

The  Council  having  considered  that  a  statement  .of  important  recent 
occurivnces  connectetl  with  the  Six*ieiy  and  the  ^luseum  would  introduce 
some  variety  into  the  meri»ly  fi»rmal  business  of  our  Annual  Meeting,  and 
could  hanlly  fail  to  interest  the  Fellows,  1  wa>  t^immissioned  to  draw- 
up  such  a  statement,  and  this  has  Kvn  dune  under  the  heads  of 
Historical  or  Uusiness  and  An*haH»higical  event«N 

Under  the  tirst  head,  one  of  unusual  imin^rtance,  has  been  our 
connectiiui  with  a  Parliamentary  Conimitt*v  ap)iointed  in  October  of 
last  year  mainly  *'  io  consider  and  suggest  n^gulations  for  avoiiling  midue 
comitetition  Knween  mus^ninis  sup)^»rt<^l  out  of  public  funds  in  Sct»tland 
ami  Ireland  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Uritish  Museum  on  the  otlier, 
for  the  ac^piisition  of  objtvis  of  aniitpiarian  or  hist<»ric  inten?st;  and  for 
ensuring  that  in  the  ras*»  oi  obj»y-ts  which  fr^»m  their  origin  or  associations 
aiv  of  |M\uliar  intenv<t  either  to  S<N*tland  ««r  Inland,  the  mus^'um  in  the 
c»>uutry  s*>  iuton\Niotl  should  U-  atfordt**!  an  ojij^frtunitv  of  purchasing 
them  Ivforo  ihey  an*  :uipn"n^l  by  any  otlur  institutions  sup]K>rted  out 
of  public  funds." 

This  intjuiry  anvM'  fnuu  the  ]am'bas<-  by  the  llritish  Museum  of  certain 
aniclos  found  in  In^land,  which  iho  Irish  authorities  demanded  should 
W»  lriUi>forn^l  lo  their  National  Museum.  Uut  we  in  Scotland  had  a 
grievaniH?  of  our  own,  which  utxvssimly  cann-  within  the  sci>pe  of  the 
impiiry,  vif .,  the  ]Mmhas»>  by  the  Uritish  Musinim  at  a  «de  in  London 
•^f  tbo  tUcnixon  l^hH^^h,  iti  spiio  of  nn  intimation  to  their  authoritieB 
iVmii  Mr  i";ufr.^i\  who  has  long  act<\l  for  us  in  purrhasing  articles  offered 
f  <r«-  III  ilu-  Metn^i%itlis«  thai  \h<^  S^icioty  dc«iml  to  acquire  lliis  Sooltiah 
:trtiole  fi<r  our  National  Mu^ouni,  a  daim  whidi  on  all  ] 
had  Kvn  onirtcously  acknowMgdlw^Hiilgf^ 


Tills  change  of  attitude  on  the  part  of  the  British  Museum  seriously 
nicusieed  the  prosjwrity  of  our  National  Museiun,  and  a  representation, 
warmly  supporteil  by  I-^jrd  Lothian,  our  lV(?sident,  was  made  to  the 
Trustees  of  the  British  ^Euseum,  pointing  out  the  scandalous  nature  of 
such  a  competition  between  two  (government  institutions  supported  by 
public  funds,  and  requesting  that  the  Glenlyon  Brooch  should  Ix^ 
transferre*!  to  the  Scottish  National  Collection.  Our  representation  was 
supporter!  by  the  Board  of  ^ranufactures  and  the  Secretary  for. Scotland, 
and  privately  by  the  Duke  of  Argj'le,  Tx)rd  Ro8el)ery,  and  other  Scottish 
patriots  of  influence.  The  Tnistees  replied,  however,  that  they  had  no 
l)0wer  to  part  with  any  article  once  acquired,  but  offered  to  have  a 
replica  of  the  brooch,  Jis  well  as  of  another  ancient  Scottish  brooch  in 
the  British  Museum,  made  for  dejKJsit  in  our  Scottish  Museum.  This 
offer,  under  the  circumstances,  was  accepted  by  the  Council,  but  they 
expressed  to  the  Secretary  for  Scotland  a  hope  that  some  means  might 
be  found  of  preventing  such  comj)etition  in  future,  and  of  establishing 
our  superior  claim  to  Scottish  articles.  The  Parliamentary  inquiry, 
therefore,  c^me  most  opportunely  for  us,  through  the  pertinacity  of  the 
Irish  Members,  who  insisted  in  Parliament  upon  their  national  rights 
in  a  manner  which  is  too  rarely  followed  by  the  Scottish  Members  in 
similar  questions  affecting  our  own  country. 

Tlie  Committee  consisted  of  Tx)rd  Rathmore,  Chainiian  ;  Sir  John 
Lubbock,  and  Sir  John  Evans,  who  might  l>e  considered  as  representing 
the  British  Museum ;  Mr  Thomas  IL  (xrattan  Ksmonde,  and  Sir  Her})ert 
Maxwell,  ds  representing  Irish  and  Scottish  interests ;  lastly,  Mr  John 
Morley,  who  as  an  Englishman,  a  Scottish  M.P.,  and  an  Irish  sym- 
pathiser, stood  in  a  somewhat  different  }x)sition  from  the  others. 

The  Council  were  desirous  that  our  evidence  should  be  given  either 
by  Sir  Arthur  Mitchell  or  Dr  Joseph  Anderson,  whose  knowledge  of  the 
affiun  of  the  Society  and  the  Museum  has  been  so  long  and  so  intimate, 
bot  as  both  of  them  were  tmalJe  to  go,  the  duty  devolved  on  me, 
witii  Mr  Carfrae,  whose  evidence  regarding  the  Glenlyon 


My  examination  ranged  over : — 

(1)  The  modes  by  which  objects  were  obtained  for  the  Scottish 
National  Museum,  particularly  through  the  action  of  *  Treasure  Trove.' 

(2)  The  nature  of  the  understanding  by  means  of  which  comi)etition 
with  the  British  Museum  had  been  avoided  prior  to  the  Glenlyon  Brooch 

(3)  The  reason  for  its  breaking  down  in  that  case. 

(4)  The  expediency  of  relaxing  tlie  Rules  forbidding  the  parting  with 

(5)  The  means  of  doing  so. 

(6)  The  means  of  securing  for  each  Museum  the  first  choice  of  objects 
appertaining  to  its  own  area,  and  of  avoiding  the  risk  of  the  loss  of 
objects  through  the  delay  that  might  thus  be  caused. 

The  examination  of  Mr  Carfrae  turned  mainly  ui)on  the  sale  of  the 
Glenlyon  Brooch,  and  his  previous  experiences  with  the  British  Museum. 

Our  evidence  is  printed  at  full  length  in  the  Report  now  on  the  table. 

The  chief  recommendations  of  the  Committee  are  briefly  as  follows  : — 

That  whenever  it  comes  to  the  knowledge  of  the  officers  of  any 
one  of  the  National  Museums  that  any  object  of  i)eculiar  interest  to 
another  National  area  has  been  offered  or  is  likely  to  be  offered  for  sale, 
information  should  be  given  to  the  authorities  in  that  area,  so  that  they 
should  have  the  first  opportunity  of  acquiring  it,  an  understanding 
being  arrived  at  as  to  what  constitutes  a  rejisonable  price,  and  care 
b(»ing  taken  to  prevent  the  risk  of  loss  of  the  object  through  delay. 

That  the  Regulation  prohibiting  the  Museums  from  parting  with 
objects  should  be  relaxed,  but  that  the  conditions  would  need  to  l)e 
carefully  considered,  and  should  probably  be  confined  to  such  articles  as 
tlie  Trustees  are  willing  to  transfer  l)y  exchange  or  otherwise. 

As  to  the  incident  of  the  (Uenlyon  Brooch,  the  opinion  is  expressed 
that  it  was  mainly  due  to  a  misunderstanding  between  Mr  Re^id  of  the 
British  ^Museum  and  Mr  Carfrae,  and  that  had  the  Regulations  allowed 
it  the  Brooch  would  probably  have  been  handed  over  to  the  Scottish 
National  Museum  after  its  purchase  by  the  British  Museum. 


Tin?  Kei)ort  of  tlio  Comraittoo  may  be  coiifiidered  jus  favcmrable  on  tlie 
whole  to  our  interests.  It  is  true  tliat  it  merely  makes  recommendations 
and  that  these  have  no  legislative  force,  Imt  it  is  not  likely  that  in 
future  any  action  will  Ikj  tjiken  in  defiance  of  these  recommenda- 
tions ;  and  should  any  such  attempt  l)e  made  we  can  take  our  stand  on 

An  event  of  no  less  im}K>rtance  in  our  history  has  l)een  the  application 
to  the  Treasury  for  a  renewal  of  the  five-years  annual  grant  of  j£200  for 
the  purchase  of  articles  for  the  Museum,  of  books  for  the  Library,  and 
for  binding.  This  grant  has  proved  of  the  titmost  service,  as  without  it 
(the  Coin  C.ibinet  fund  fr<mi  which  we  had  previously  made  our 
purchases  being  exhausted)  we  should  have  been  reduced  for  these 
purjKKSc^s  Ui  an  uiniual  sum  of  about  £20,  derived  from  the  admission 
money  on  the  two  days  a  week  when  a  charge  is  made  at  the  door.  An 
allowance  of  <£200  a  year  for  the  alH>ve-mentit>ne4  imrjwses  cannot  l>e 
called  extravagant,  an<l  in  ItwX  it  has  not  hitherto  proved  sufficient,  but 
this  may  have  l)een  the  result  of  unusual  expenditure  on  the  Librarj', 
which  frrmi  want  of  means  we  had  l)een  obliged  to  starve  for  some  years 
>>efore  the  grant  was  obtained. 

AVe  have  also  lieen  authorise<l  to  api)roach  the  Treasury  for  a  sjMicial 
errant  for  the  purchase  of  objects  or  collections  of  olvjects  of  great 
historical  or  anti(piarian  interest  to  Scotland,  the  cost  of  which  could 
not  well  l>e  defniyed  out  of  the  annual  grant  of  X200;  but  there  are 
some  practical  difliculties  in  the  working  of  this  privilege,  and  we  have 
only  once  l)een  al)l(^  to  avail  oui-selves  of  it.  This  was  in  the  purchase 
of  the  Penicuik  *  L'lte  Celtic'  llronzes  in  1894,  when  the  Treasury 
sanctioned  a  s|>ecial  grant  of   £45. 

Passing  U)  events  of  arclueological  importiuice,  the  excavation 
undertaken  l>y  the  Society  at  Camelon  deserves  the  first  notice.  This, 
as  you  are  no  doul>t  aware,  is  in  succession  to  similar  work  already 
carried  out  at  Birrens,  Hirrenswark,  and  Aitloch.  All  these  undertakings 
form  part  of  a  general  scheme,  adopted  by  the  Council,  for  investigating 
the  Roman  remains  in  Scotland,  as  far  as  our  funds  will  admit.     It  is 


coiiteiuplatcd  to  clcal  first  with  tln^  stroni^ly  fortiliiMl  *  Stations,'  where  it 
is  to  Ini  pn»sinn(»(l  tliat  tlic  iK!cnj>atioii  l>y  tlio  Romans  was  of  gn*ater 
duration  tlian  in  the  *  Camps '  with  a  comparatively  weak  fortification. 
Our  choice  of  Canielon  was  <lecicled  hy  information  fi-om  Mr  MacLuckie, 
a  Fellow  of  the  Society,  that  one-half  of  the  Station  had  l)een  feued  for 
the  erection  of  new  foundries,  and  that  the  work  had  already  been  liegiin 
on  the  ground.  This  was  in  last  spring,  and  we  immediately  applied  to  Mr 
Forbes  of  Callendar,  the  proprietor,  and  to  the  fann  tenant  for  leave  to 
excavate,  which  was  readily  grantc^d  by  both.  The  work,  now  drawing 
to  a  close,  has  been  steadily  carried  on  for  about  six  months  under  the 
general  superintendence  of  ^fr  Thomas  Ross,  and  we  have  l)een  singularly 
fortunate  in  having  the  regidar  and  volunttiry  services  of  Mr  M. 
lUichanan,  Falkirk,  a  trained  dniughtsman  and  surveyor,  who  has 
planned  everything  week  by  week  as  the  work  progressed.  "VVe  have 
also  been  much  indebted  to  IVfr  MacLuckie  for  general  advice  in  con- 
ducting our  negotiations  and  operations.  "We  were  fortunate  also  in 
securing  the  services  of  Mr  Alexander  ^Fackie  as  Clerk  of  Works,  who 
had  already  had  considerable  experience  in  conducting  excavations  for  us 
at  Abornethy  Fort  and  at  Birrenswark. 

The  Station  at  Camelon  resembles  r>irrens  in  consisting  of  two  rec- 
tangles in  apposition,  antl  we  were  only  able  to  excavate  a  jiortion  of  the 
southern  one,  as  the  construction  of  the  new  foundries  went  on  rapidly 
during  our  work,  but  the  northern  one,  which  has  not  yet  been  feued  for 
Iniilding,  has  l)een  sufficiently  excavated  to  yield  as  i)erfect  a  plan  of  the 
Station  as  we  got  either  at  IJirrens  or  Jit  Ardoch.  The  finds,  also,  were 
fully  as  interesting  as  those  fouiul  in  our  former  excavations,  except  that 
we  found  no  inscriptions  to  throw  light  on  tlie  date  of  the  place,  as  we 
ilid  at  Uirrens.  I  will  not  anticipate  further  the  full  description  of  the 
excavations,  which  in  tlie  course  of  the  session  will  be  communicated 
to  the  Society. 

Altliough  tliis  was  tbe  only  work  of  the  kind  undertaken  by  the 
Society  last  year,  the  results  of  several  other  important  excavations  were 
laid  before  it  during  the  session. 


One  of  these,  «)ii  the  farm  of  Hyiulfonl  near  Liiiiark,  was  luulertjikeii 
by  Mr  Aiidrciw  Smitli,  wlio  lias  since  l)ecome  a  Fellow  (»f  our  Society. 
The  site  is  in  a  marshy  hollow,  whieh  lM»comes  (juite  a  lake  in  a  rainy 
season,  and  the  remains  could  only  he  th«ilt  with  successfully  in  summer, 
when  dry  weather  prevailed.  As  was  expected,  the  place  proved  to  l)e  a 
crannoff,  and  a  large  number  of  very  interesting  relics  were  discovered, 
which  were  exhihited  when  the  paper  l)y  Dr  Munro  describing  the  ex- 
cavations w^as  read.  The  occurrence  of  a  considerable  number  of  articles, 
which  are  characteristic  of  Roman  sites,  was  specially  remarkable,  and 
was  a  warning  to  antiquarian  excavators  not  to  found  too  hastily  upon 
finds  alone  as  j)roof  of  the  origin  of  ancient  remains. 

The  restdts  of  the  other  excavation,  at  LhimUick,  on  the  Iwink  of  the 
Clyde  near  Dumluirton,  were  partially  communicatexl  by  Mr  John 
Bruce,  who  in  conjunction  with  another  Fellow  of  the  Society,  the  late 
^fr  Adam  Millar,  and  Mr  Donelly,  the  discoverer  of  the  remains,  under- 
took the  excavation  on  behalf  of  the  Helensburgh  Antiquarian  Society. 
The  work  was  mainly  done  l>y  their  (nvn  hands,  notwithstanding  its 
anhious  nature,  owing  to  the  site  being  only  exposed  for  a  few  hours  at 
low  tide.  As  it  was  not  quite  ccmipleted,  however,  and  as  the  lx)xes 
containing  the  finds  had  l)een  miscarried  by  the  railway  on  the  evening 
when  Mr  Bruce  read  his  paper,  he  luis  kindly  consented  to  recjist  it  for 
the  present  session,  when  it  will  be  read  and  tlie  whole  of  the  finds 
exhibited.  Some  of  these,  as  you  are  pi*obably  aware,  are  of  a  jKiculiar 
kind,  and  have  given  rise  to  controversy,  their  genuineness  having  been 
strenuously  denied.  lUit  whatever  may  l)e  thought  of  them,  they  will 
lie  Imnight  l)efore  the  Society  by  Mr  Bruce  in  a  manner,  I  believe,  to 
which  no  excej)tion  ciin  be  taken. 

Excellent  work  has  also  lx»en  done  by  th(i  ^Farquis  of  Bute,  fonnerly 
Vice-Presid<mt  of  our  Society,  in  excavating  the  foundations  or  rei)airing 
the  fabric  of  medijEval  buildings  in  various  parts  of  Scotland,  and  in 
excavating  the  site  of  the  anci(?nt  ecclesiastical  settlement  at  St  iilane's, 

Useful  excavations  have  also  been  earned  out  bv  Sir  Francis  Tress 


Barry,  an  Honorary  Fellow  of  the  Society,  at  Keiss,  Caithness.  Tlie 
results  have  lK»en  witnesse^l  from  year  to  year  by  Dr  Joseph 
Amlerson,  wlio  will  communieate  them  to  the  SiK'iety  in  the  present 

It  is  not  often  that  the  Society  can  In*  congratulated  on  the  receipt  of 
a  legacy.  I^ast  year,  however,  at  the  annual  meeting,  the  Council  had 
the  sjitisfaction  of  announcing  that  a  former  much-esteemed  Fellow  of 
the  Society,  the  Hon.  Mr  Bouverie  Primrose,  had  IxKjueathed  to  us 
unconditionally  the  sum  of  £150.  This  sum  the  Council  have  disposed 
of  hy  adding  it  to  the  Rhind  Legacy  Fund  for  Excavation,  having  been 
induced  to  do  so  ])y  the  increasing  import^mce  attached  to  this  mode  of 
promoting  the  study  of  archaeology  in  our  own  country.  It  has  l)een 
resolved  to  use  the  interest  oidy  of  the  Khind-Prinu-ose  Fund  in  defray- 
ing the  expense  of  excavations,  and  as  this  amounts  to  little  more  than 
XI 3,  it  can  suffice  for  but  very  limited  undertakings.  It  is  to  be  hoped, 
liowever,  that  the  Fund  may  prove  the  nucleus  to  which  additions  may 
be  made  by  legacies  or  gifts  from  otlier  })atriotic  archaeologists. 

The  Council,  in  carrying  out  their  scheme  for  tlie  excavation  of  Roman 
sites  in  Scotland,  have  been  o])liged  to  dmw  considerably  ujxjn  the 
Capital  Fund  of  the  Society.  Ihit  expenditure  from  this  source  cannot 
l)e  prudently  carried  mucli  furtlier,  and  unle^ss  the  Excavation  Fund 
can  be  considerably  supplemented,  large  undertakings  of  this  kind 
must  be  given  u]>.  This  would  be  a  misfortune,  not  only  from  the 
archflcological  point  of  view,  l>ut  for  the  interests  of  our  Society.  In 
these  days,  when  scientific  or  cjuasi-scientific  societies  are  so  niimerous, 
and  the  comi)etition  for  menil>ers  is  so  great,  we  can  only  continue  to 
maintain  interest  in  our  work  by  re^ison  of  its  high  character,  and  one  of 
the  most  eflectual  means  of  doing  this  is  by  the  systematic  prosecution 
of  excavation,  a  kind  of  research  which  lies  so  peculiarly  in  the  domain 
of  aR'haeology,  and  which  it  is  not  advisabbj  that  ])rivate  pei*sons  who  are 
not  exixirts  should  undertake. 

We  have  reason  to  l)elieve,  indeed,  that  our  excavations  have  led  to 
considerable  additions  to  our  Fellowship,  and  thus  the  expenditure  has 


not  l>eeu  unproductive  from  the  financial  i>oint  of  view.  I  need  hanlly 
remind  you  of  another  gain,  in  the  addition  to  the  National  Museum 
of  many  articles,  scmic  of  them  of  great  money  value. 

The  Khind  Lectureship,  for  the  endowment  of  whicli  the  Society  is 
indebted  to  a  former  Fellow,  Mr  A.  IF.  Rhind  of  Sibster,  has  supplied 
an  annual  series  of  lectiires,  open  to  the  public  as  well  as  to  the  Fellows, 
for  twenty-two  years.  During  that  time  many  different  as[)ects  of 
archaeology^  and  ethnology  (chiefly  in  their  relations  to  Scotland)  have 
Ixjen  presented,  and  perhaps  there  has  })een  none  more  interesting  or 
more  likely  to  be  generally  appreciated  than  the  course  for  the  current 
year  to  l)C  delivered  by  Mr  Thomas  Ross  on  Architecture  in  Scotland. 
I  need  hardly  remind  you  of  the  admirable  course  on  Heraldry  of  last 
year  by  the  Lyon  King-of-Arms. 

We  owe  to  the  generosity  of  a  distinguished  Fellow,  still  living, 
another  Fund,  the  Gunning  Fellowship,  which  has  proved  of  great 
service  in  promoting  tlio  study  of  Archaeology.  For  some  years  the 
interest  accruing,  amounting  formerly  to  £40,  and  of  late  to  about  £30, 
has  l)een  paid  to  Mr  Romilly  Allen,  for  the  puqwse  of  obtaining 
«lrawings  and  photographs  for  the  great  work  on  the  Early  Christian 
Monuments  of  Scotland^  wliich  he  and  Dr  Joseph  Anderson  were 
appointed  to  edit  in  1893,  antl  which,  1  am  glad  to  Ikj  able  to  say,  is 
now  approaching  completion. 

Last  year  the  Gunning  Fellowsliip  was  conferred  on  Mr  Coles,  with 
the  view  of  his  investigating  and  planning  the  remarkable  group  of 
Stone  Circles  near  l^mchory.  His  Report  will  l)e  presented  in  the 
course  of  this  session,  and  I  shall  oidy  say  of  his  investigation  that  in 
one  case,  by  a  slight  excavation,  he  discovered  that  a  circle  which  has 
hitherto  been  supi>osed  to  be  single,  is  in  reality  double.  This  is  an 
apt  illustration  of  the  advantage  of  combining  excavation  with  the  ex- 
ternal examination  of  fiehl  remains.  How  many  vain  theories  have  been 
started  as  to  the  origin  and  purjKJse  of  stone  circles  from  a  mere  surface 
examination,  which  might  never  have  been  started,  or  at  least  would 
have  been  held  in  check,  by  a  revelation  of  what  was  })elow  the  surface  ! 

12  I'fiorKKi^TNnH  ov  rrrK  kdciety,  November  so,  i899. 

lliTi%  iJh'Ii,  irt  jiiiotln'i'  w'uh'  field  of  iii([uirv,  by  niean.s  of  pick  and 
rt)Mu|e,  liitliiMto  iiliiioHl*  nntoiiclicd. 

hill'  wiml,  tihnW  we  Huy  of  the  still  vjinter  field  of  tlie  Prehistoric  Forts, 
ill  thn  exeuviitioii  of  wliii'h  Hcjiife  ji  he^^iiiiiinj;  lias  been  nuule,  although 
ill  no  other  wjiy  eun  we  urrive  iit  a  knowhMlge  of  their  structure  and  of 
their  phu'e  in  Sr(»ttiHh  hintory?  I  could  almost  regret  that  the  Society 
have  iinilertukiM)  the  exeavation  of  Roman  *  Camps'  in  preference  to  our 
own  Native  Kortn.  The  scu'-rets  that  lie  beneath  the  ruins  of  the 
CnhiihuHH^  I)iiminnafi^  and  hundrotls  of  other  native  fortresses,  are 
not  loKH  worthy  of  being  brtMight  to  light  than  the  relics  left  be- 
hind by  the  Koinan^  and  I  trust,  although  it  may  not  })e  in  my  day, 
that  \\w  StHMety  will  yet  be  enabltMl  to  \nidertake  this  eminently 
|»atriotio  and  almost  unlimited  lield  of  impiivy. 

'V\\\\^  far  I  have  8|H»kon  only  of  pndiisti»rie  nmiains,  but  what  of  the 
numebm!*  median  al  ruins  of  easth^s  ehundios,  and  ablteys  or  their  sites 
that  aiv  so  thieklv  soattoi^Hl  over  our  country  f  Would  not  our  know- 
ledge^ of  lheu\  U^  gi'tvdlv  pi\>motiHl  by  excavation  f  What  can  be  done 
in  this  way  has  Uvon  shown  bv  the  Mai>piiv<  of  Bute,  and  nearer  home 
b\  o\n'  lVvsi\b^nt,  who,  bv  a  v\m>f\d  exeavatiou,  has  as^vrtaine*!  the  exact 
mAMU^vl  plvO\  of  the  Ab)v\  i'hurv^h  at  NewKutlo.  This  kind  of  work, 
a|'|vux^nth,  uu>;\\l  U^  let't  iv*  the  lanvb>l  prv*[»rietors  on  \v!i»»ts<*  prv^j^erty  the 
\vutou>  aw  fv^uuvU  b\U  tVw  v^f  them  ha\e  fv^Uv»\vt\l  Uie  twample  of  the 
iwv^  \ivdslon\en  \  havo  uam^sl  ;  and  il  uuv  K*  {h;i5  tho  ia>k  can  only 
^v  .^vvv^uuvlixh^st   wuh  iho  >;\ysh\tU  ^^f    tlic   r»^»^»r»o^»^>s   ^n*  aid   of  our 

V*.l  ihi^  v\^iou'l  \'  vU'Hv'  wi'ltov,;  t\:^ 
v'\\v^>-0>.^*i-     -^    '»^'    "^  ^^'        '"*'    '•     ^"     ^• 

k   i-ul 

^-  NN  ::u-^ 

•  '.M  W  niis^l 

CV-.'M    '' 

t  \\v'   >v':M 

I  <r^j>*^*  .>f  such 

K  •>-.(• 

•       t r* r ' \-v    >' , 

I  <•.::•  fi>^  {Hre- 

V  '•.•.\   r 

«l    ^^^  xl     f  N    ^ 

—  <  iH-^-iium: 

'v         \' 

■^  •.     '.  .\  V 

r   :hr^v 


■•■■    i.^    wh... 

.  ■        *  ^* 

•      -V.              ■•     \         . 

y  :-:>L  •  c 


The  most  recent  addition  of  importance  to  the  Library  is  a  hirge  and 
valuable  collection  of  Bible.H  and  Testaments,  numbering  no  less  than 
124,  bequeathed  to  it  by  the  late  Mr  John  Haxton,  Markinch,  to  whom 
we  are  all  the  more  indebted,  as  ho  was  in  nu  way  connected  with  our 

As  far  as  our  slender  means  allow,  we  endeavour  to  keep  imce  in  the 
Library  with  the  advance  of  Archaeological  Research,  but  even  restricting 
our  purchases  as  we  do  to  works  relating  directly  or  indirectly  to  Scottish 
Arcliaeology,  we  have  been  obliged  to  pass  over  many  that  should  have 
found  a  place  on  our  shelves,  tuid  the;  Library  is  far  from  lx»ing  so  well 
supplied  as  the  only  Archaeological  Library  in  Scotland  ought  U)  Ikj. 
Many  of  our  Dictionaries  and  Books  of  Reference,  too,  are  out  of  date, 
and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  £1000  could  be  well  spent  in  gradually 
sui)plying  our  more  pressing  wants,  but  the  innnediate  exjKjnditure  of 
even  a  fourth  of  that  sum  would  enable  us  to  till  many  blanks,  the 
existence  of  which  is  an  actual  hindrance  to  work  at  the  present  moment. 
Is  it  too  much  to  hope  that  in  these  (hiys,  when  the  wealthy  in  Scotland 
are  not  only  more  numerous  than  of  old,  but  are  more  animated  with 
the  ixitriotic  desire  not  to  allow  their  country  to  lag  behind  others  in  the 
^  field  of  science,  some  one  will  Ihj  found  willing  to  assist  a  S(x:iety  which 
makes  known  not  its  own  wants  so  much  as  those  of  the  imi)ortant 
National  Institution  that  has  been  ])laced  under  its  charge  ? 

Tlie  Treasurer  submitted  a  statement  of  the  Society's  Funds,  which 
was  ordered  to  be  printed  and  circulated  among  the  Fellows. 

The  Secretary  read  the  Annual  Rejjort  to  the  l>oard  of  Trustees,  as 
follows  : — 

Annual  Report  to  the  lIonoura])le  tlie  lioard  of  Trustees  for  Manu- 
factures in  Scotland  l)y  tlie  Society  of  Anti(iuari(»s  of  Scotland,  with 
reference  to  the  National  ^fuseum  of  Anti(piities  under  their  charge, 
for  the  year  ending  30th  September  1899  : — 

Duiing  the  past  year  the  Museum  has  licen  open  to  the   public  as 


f(jrmerly,  and  has  l)ecii  visited  by  20,485  persons,  of  whom  19,110  were 
visitors  on  free  days,  and  1375  on  pay  days. 

The  number  of  objects  of  antiquity  added  to  the  Museum  has  been 
589  by  donation  and  1105  by  purchase.  The  number  of  books  and 
pamphlets  added  to  the  Library  hius  been  144  by  donation  and  131  by 
purchase,  and  the  binding  of  alK)ut  70  vohimes  hiis  been  proceeded 

Among  the  more  important  additions  to  the  Museum  are : — a  Collec- 
tion of  Flint  Implements,  etc.,  from  Berwick,  Roxburgh,  and  Selkirk 
shires,  presented  by  Mr  Thomas  Scott,  A.R.S.A. ;  three  Collections  by 
the  late  Mr  William  Galloway,  Corr.  Mem.  8. A.  Scot.,  amounting  to 
upwards  of  800  specimens  of  Implements  of  Stone,  Bone,  and  Deer- 
horn,  from  three  shell  mounds  in  Oronsay  ;  a  Bronze  Sword  and  other 
objects  found  with  other  swonls  already  in  the  Museum  in  digging  the 
foundations  of  a  house  in  Grosvenor  Crescent,  Edinburgh,  in  1869 ;  a 
Collection  of  objects  obtained  during  the  recent  excavaticm  of  a  Hill 
Fort  on  Castle  Law,  Abernethy  ;  and  another  Collection  obtained  during 
the  excavation  by  the  Society  of  the  camps  and  earthworks  on  Birrens- 

wark  Hill,  Dumfriesshire. 

I).  CuRiSTisoN,  Secretary, 


Monday,  llth  December  1899. 

The  Hon.  JOHN  ABERCEOMBY,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

A  Ballot  having  been  taken,  the  following  Gentlemen  were  duly  elected 
Fellows : — 

Col.  James  Allardyce,  LL.D.,  of  Calquoich,  3  Queen's  Terrace,  Aberdeen. 
Sir  Ralph  W.  Anstruther,  Bart,  of  Balcaskie,  Pittenweem. 
John  G.  Alexander  Baird,  Esq.,  M.P.,  of  Wellwood  and  Adamton. 
John  Christison  Oliphant,  M.A,  23  Charlotte  Square,  Edinburgh. 

The  following  articles,  acquired  by  the  Purchase  Committee  for  the 
Museum  and  Library  during  the  recess,  7tli  May  to  30th  November, 
were  exhibited : — 

Small  polished  Stone  Axe,  32  inches  in  length  by  1*  inches  in  width, 
broken  on  the  sides  towards  the  Imtt,  found  on  the  north  side  of  Loch 
Tay,  near  Kenmore. 

Polished  Stone  Axe,  4  J  by  3  inches,  the  butt  broken,  found  at  Easter- 
ton  of  Gagie,  parish  of  Murroes,  Forfarshire. 

Charter  by  Alexander,  Commendator  of  Culross,  to  Adam  Erskine  of 
I^unimarle,  of  a  tenement  in  Culross,  1582,  with  seiil. 

Earthenware  Jar  in  which  the  Grangemouth  hoard  of  silver  coins  was 
contained.  The  jar  was  recovered  in  fragments,  but  is  now  reconstructed. 
It  is  an  ordinary  water  jar  of  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  of  a 
greyish  clay  with  a  yellowish-green  glaze,  having  a  narrow  neck  and  a 
loop  handle  at  one  side.  It  wants  the  rim  and  the  hantlle,  and  is  11 J 
inches  in  height  and  9*^*  inches  in  greatest  diameter  at  the  shoulder, 
tapering  to  4 J  inches  diameter  at  the  base.  It  is  ornamented  on  the 
upper  part  by  a  band  of  slightly  incised  wavy  and  concentric  lines.  The 
jar  was  dug  up  in  July  hist  in  the  course  of  some  excavations  for  the 
Caledonian  Railway  near  the  docks  at  Grangemouth.      There  seem  to 


have  been  two  jars — at  letist  one  piece  of  tlie  bottom  of  a  similar  jar 
having  been  preserved  among  the  pieces  of  this  one.     In  the  jar,  or  in 
l>otli  jars,  there  was  a  large  hoard  of  silver  coins,  of  which  1094  were* 
recovered  as  Treasure  Trove.     The  following  is  a  list  of  the  coins  re- 
covered : — 

Elizabeth  Shillings,      . 


„         Sixpences,    . 


James  VI.  Half-crownip, 


,,         Shillings, 


„         Sixpences, 


„         Sixpences  (Irish), 


„         Thistle  Merks  (Scottish), 


„         Quarter  Thistle  Merk  (Scottish), 


Charles  I.  Half-crowns, 


„         Shillings, 


„         Sixpences, 


Foreign  Dollai-s  and  parts,  etc. — 

Spanish,  Belgian,  German,  etc.,      .         .       243 

lletained  for  the  National  Museum - 

James  VI.  Half-crowns,  ...  2 

Charles  I.  Half-crowns,  ...  8 

„  Nobles, 2 

Total,         .     1094 

As  the  bulk  of  the  coins  are  English  of  the  reigns  of  James  VI.  and 
Cliarles  I.,  the  dei)osit  was  probably  made  during  the  time  of  the  Civil 

Whorl  of  grey  sandstone,  2  inches  in  diameter,  with  slightly  incised 
lines  on  one  surface,  found  at  Melrose. 

Collection  of  imj)lements  of  flint  and  stone,  found  on  the  farms  of 
81ij)perrioM  ami  l^)ch,  near  West  Linton,  IVeblesshiro,  comprising:  — 

Small  polislu'd  Axe  of  indurated  clay-shite,  21  inches  in  length  by  1 J 
inches  in  breadth  at  the  cutting  edge,  somewhat  damaged. 

l*olislied  Adze  of  greenstone  of   i)eculiar  form,  flat  on  <jne  side  and 


swelling  from  both  ends  towards  the  centre  on  tlie  other,  tlie  sides 
sliglitly  incurved  longitudinally,  the  ends  alike  and  neither  very  sharp, 
the  edge  being  in  a  plane  at  right  angles  to  the  shaft,  tlie  whole  surface 
much  weathered.  It  measures  6]  inches  in  length  hy  2  inches  in  width, 
and  closely  resembles  in  form  and  character  the  fine  implement  of 
polished  flint  from  Ferny  Bme,  Slains,  Al)erdeensliire,  figured  in  the 
ProrePAlings,  vol.  x.  p.  598,  and  also  the  adze-like  implement  from  Little 
Barras,  Drumlithie,  Kincardineshire,  figured  in  vol.  xviii.  p.  77.  Adzes 
of  this  form  are  rare  in  Scotland,  those  being  the  only  examples  known. 

Five  Arrow-liea<ls  of  flint. 

Small  Saw  of  flint  formed  from  a  flat  flake,  1  \  inches  in  length. 

Scraper  with  tang,  2  inches  in  length  by  ^  inch  in  thickness. 

Eight  Knives  or  implements  with  worked  edges,  one  l)eing  triangular 
and  worked  on  all  three  sides. 

I^rge  oval  Scrai)er,  2^  by  1|  inches  in  diameter,  and  five  smaller 
Scrapers  ;  and  a  number  of  flakes  and  partially  worked  chips  of  flint. 

Collections  of  flint  implements  from  Culbin  Sands  and  from  Cllenluce 

The  following  Donations  to  the  Museum  and  Library  were  laid  on 
the  table,  and  thanks  voted  to  the  Donors  : — 

(1)  By  the    Right   lion.   Sir    Herukrt    Maxwell,    Bart.,   M.P., 
F.S.A.  Scot. 

Bead  of  variegated  glass  (fig.  1),  dark  blue  witli  a  wavy  line  of  paler 
blue  going  roimd  the  middle,  and  at  equal  distances 
three  projecting  knol)S  with  parallel  stripes  of  red, 
white,  and  l>lue  running  in  the  direction  of  the  pro- 
jection of  the  knobs,  found  in  a  cairn  at  Kirkchrist, 
AVigtownsliire.  A  bead  precisely  similar  in  pattern, 
Imt  with  the  wavy  line  white,  was  found  a  good  *^^rkdiri^  ^)' 
many  years  ago  in  lona. 

Spoon  of  horn,  the  bowl  nearly  circular  and  2\  inches  in  diameter, 




the  liandle  broken,  total  length  of  bowl  and  handle  now  5  inches,  found 
in  the  Moss  of  Kingheel,  parish  of  Mochruni,  Wigtownshire. 

Axe-haninier  of  greenstc^ni;,  wedge-shaped  and  perforated  for  the 
handle.  It  measures  8 J  inches  in  length  hy  4 J  inches  in  greatest 
breadth  and  3  inches  in  thickness.  The  shaft-hole  is  2  inches  in 
diameter.     Found  at  Drumfad,  parish  of  CUasserton,  Wigtownshire. 

Axe-hammer  of  gre(Mistone,  wedge-shaped  and  perfomted  for  the 
handle.  It  measures  8 J  inches  in  length  ]>y  4  J  inches  in  breadth  and 
2 J  inches  in  thickness.  Tlie  shaft-hole  is  2|  inches  in  diameter.  The 
implement  is  somewhat  damaged  on  one  side.  Found  at  Mochrum, 

Part  of  the  frontal  portion  of  the  skull  with  one  antler  attached  of 
the  Irish  Elk  (Megaceros  hibernicus)  found  in  the  river  Cree.  The 
antler  is  of  tlie  right  side,  and  is  imperfect ;  the  beam  measuring  lOJ 
inches  in  circumference  at  the  junction  with  the  skull,  and  8^  inches  at 
the  thinnest  part  before  it  begins  to  expand  into  the  palmated  portion, 
only  a  small  part  of  which  remains.  The  whole  length  of  the  beam  and 
the  imperfect  palm  is  now  2  feet  4  inches. 

(2)  Bequeathed  by  the  late  John  Haxton,  Markinch. 

A  collection  of  IJibliis,  Testaments,  and  Psalm  l>ooks,  printed  in 
English,  130  volumes.  The  following  descriptive  list  is  compiled 
partly  from  notes  made  by  the  testator  himself: — 

1.  The  Byble.     Translated  into  Englysh  by  Tlnmias  Matthew.     1537. 


This  copy  lias  all  the  titles,  but  wants  the  preliminary  matter.  There  are 
some  leaves  in  facsimile,  so  that  the  text  is  nearly  perfect.  The  disputed  text 
in  John's  First  Epistle,  Chap.  v.  7  :  "  For  ther  are  thre  which  beare  recorde 
in  heaven  the  father  the  worde  and  the  wholy  goost.  And  these  thre  are 
one,"  is  printed  within  brackets  in  smaller  type.  In  John  xx.  the  words 
of  Thomas,  "  and  put  my  fingers  into  the  ",  are  omitted.  In  the  First  Epistle 
to  the  Corifithians  xi.  the  words,  "  This  cup  is  the  New  Testament  in  my 
blood,"  are  also  omitted. 


2.  The  Bible.  Translated  into  Engl3\sho  by  Richai-d  Tavemer. 
1539.     Folio. 

Thw  copy  is  very  imperfect,  but  wonderfully  clean.  It  has  all  the  peculiar 
marks  of  Tavemcr's  translation.  The  first  title  I  had  as  well  as  the  colophon. 
The  word  'peace*  is  always  spelled  *peax.'  The  boards  of  the  book  are 
made  of  beecti — a  poor  wood  to  use,  so  liable  to  worm. 

3.  The  Bible  in  Knglyslie.  (Crannier's.)  Printed  by  Edwiirde  Whit- 
church.     1541.     Folio. 

This  is  commonly  called  the  Great  Bible,  and  is  the  edition  printed  in 
November  1541. 

4.  The  Byble.  (Matthew's  Translation.)  Imprinted  at  London  by 
Thomas  Raynalde  and  William  Hyll.     1549.     Folio. 

This  copy  belonged  to  Andrew  Jervise,  and  has  his  autograph.  It  has  very 
peculiar  initial  letters  in  Leviticus  and  Deuteronomy.  In  Jeremiah  viii.  23 
the  reading  is,  "I  am  heuy  and  abashed,  for  there  is  noo  more  Treakle  at 
Galaad."    No  other  Bible  that  I  know  has  this  spelling. 

5.  The  Byble.  (Matthew's  Translation.)  Imprinted  at  London  by 
Jolin  Daye  and  William  Seres.     1549.     Folio. 

This  is  a  good  copy,  and  almost  perfect  The  type  is  black-letter,  anffular 
and  wiry.  Iii  the  Book  of  Revelations  there  are  twenty-two  small  woodcuts, 
of  which  the  seventh  to  the  last  have  each  a  rhyming  couplet  printed  at 
either  side.   That  at  the  seventeenth  figure  says  : — 

The  Romysche  marchauntes,  the  priestes  of  Bal, 
Do  wepe,  houle  an  crye  at  Babylon's  falL 

6.  The  Byble.  (Cranmer's.)  Prynted  by  Edward  Whytcluircbe. 
1549.     Small  folio. 

This  edition  has  been  printed  apparently  at  two  different  times.  It  is  in 
black-letter,  and  in  some  parts  of  the  impression  the  words  Lord  and  God  are 
in  Roman  capitals,  while  m  others  they  are  in  the  common  black-letter  type 
without  initial  capitals. 

7.  The  Vhole  Byble.  Translated  into  Englyshe  by  Miles  Coverdale. 
Prynted  for  Andrewe  Hester.     1550.     4to. 

This  copy  is  imperfect.  It  was  printed  in  Zurich  by  Christopher  Froschover 
for  Andrew  Hester  "  dwellinge  in  Panics  Churchyard  at  the  sygne  of  the  whyte 
horse."    It  is  very  scarce.     The  type  is  an  angular  Swiss  or  German  letter. 

20  FROCKKMNGS  OF  THE  SnCTETT.  PfiCEMBEE  11,  ]«». 

S.  TL^  PvM-r.    <^(.uibrv>.)    Imj.nii:*-!  .ii  L^fl:»*!-ii  V-t  Tbiotis  Petri, 

A  tac-  >:^>T,  imaHt  ptHecf.     This  edilX'Q  «-»»  pniiK»i  br  Xxi:^ft&  HtH  "^  iar 
oeirtaizie  b:cie<t«  loc^icI>r«.  wi>»e  names^  '<e  -zui-o.  their  K«^es^  ctf  vfcx^  ske 

iiaRueHLj  pi^L  iiTaKiT  :c  :c»fr  a&zir  <*iii^.cts  a:^^.    T^ji»  .rcy  ^ik^  l«fm  Dale 

tzztesis  *:  lit  ih»t  irss  i2fcC*if:»r  re  ^zjj*  sreZ-ZiC.     All  ibe  5^':ij»  T^^eorot  w-  skii 

Tat  TzTiiiii*.  Tni»:j*.  Ttti*:!-?-. 

::.  TijT  l^  i^.     Ai  •.;t-tv..  :  :^^:.:-:  't  K-viLj^i  HlH      i5-wX.      «50l 
':ritt*:!iK*.'     TicK  A?fr  axiLT*  ki'i  vxci-is.     7!i25  .1:1:  y  iuj.  lijf  vx:  pienKS  Vat 

C:T..»i      :T::       4:. 

ikXii.  lilt   zzltL-'^mc''.   zt  Lie    "•."L'lTiti    ,1:    Z2k    i-o  -i.-*.    rxZZ**:    Hi*£rj:ic?.'noiL   laie- 
r^!fS^i»:ac  lito  4i  tifcxirkii/r  iirtr^i  :»:c>':  '••.:i  :.r  L-:ii  ":cqd^i:i  Tiie.--*  2«:rs- 

_i.     _  :•:   ^;    L-..         :::.•;    :.':      ■  ^'  •  . 

.     -   •:-       ♦   0. 

Tl^  a-  ^OteCTi^  •    "-;?C-1jJ7i-J?iI«:v"-  fcs-  -.:«.      '   •  ^  -"" 

:    :■■-    -  .-.   ::■ 

:'~  c  ,1.  Kkisaip 

-f     i      *  ~i>tis*»:.  i-^   «J«  '  uu,"*:  iiii.v.  ■^'    '  r     I  ; 

•  -.      ■.  ^->  .-^ 

*  *:»j   0:at:nl  7±i 

a-  ilii-:.    lT«i^  "-I1:     ^"IJ:       i     -J*:     N.  *      V->.;i...  ■    :" 


-  i^  •:    '..i*t    SoJCw*- 

Z;:ii:    v-uf  zii:a    :.".:ri,  ■      r-,;:.      i  :x      -i:     '». 


■.«?  ij,c  a 

3l.hCLLi$  It  "U-S^  l».ir  :  !►:    .0.  Ssv  :          K  '  .:.v   ;. 

, '   •  i,~i     •    " 


A  -"VU-OduU    4^    -!•:    ii--     -k.       tv      :^».v       1  •     ,.       .^      •.  .    1..        .  J^ 


*^^  ^aid  charaes  of  Rychard  Cannarden."  The  first  volume  is  paged  in  three 
PJ"^^"^*  and  ends  with  this  tailpiece :  "  The  ende  of  the  Ballet  of  Ballettes  of 
^^^«:non,  called  in  Latyn  Canticum  Canticorum." 

^  "^^  Tlie    Bible.     ((Jcnevaii    version.)     rrinted   at   (Jeneva   by   John 

^^^pin.     1569.     4to. 

.  *^«i.i8  copy  was  got  in  London  after  much  research.     It  wants  the  general 
Slj^^  and  the  dedication  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  a  leaf  of  the  curious  Almanac. 
J  "^?  title  of  the  New  Testament  is  dated  1568.     The  text  appears  to  be  all  right. 
^  beautifully  bound  by  Riviere. 

lo.  The  Holie  Bible.     (Craniner's.)     Imprinted    l)y   Jhou  Cawoode. 

^5^9.    4tu. 

This  is  the  last  edition  of  the  Great  Bible.  It  appears  that  there  were  three 
V^itions  of  this  size  in  this  same  year.  This  is  the  one  that  has  the  birds  in  the 
^tial  letter  in  Genesis,  the  others  havinjj  a  centaur.  It  has  a  note  from  a 
Conner  owner  signed  A.  E.  E.,  and  dated  1831,  stating  that  he  found  it  in 
Vorkshire,  and  connecting  Cawood  the  printer  with  the  Cawoods  of  Yorkshire. 

16.  Tlie   Holi   Bible.     (Bishops'  version.)     London,  Riehanlc  Jugge. 

1569.     4to. 

This  is  the  second  edition  of  the  Bishops'  Bible,  and  marks  the  transition  to 
the  division  of  the  text  into  verses,  these  being  numbered  in  the  middle  of  the 
lines,  or  as  they  terminate.  It  is  a  thick  volume,  paged  in  three  parts,  the 
pages  often  wrong  numbered,  and  contains  some  curious  out-of-the-way  notes 
about  Columbus. 

17.  The    holie    Bi])le.     (Bishop.^'    version.)     Imprinted   by    Ricbarde 

Jugge.     1572.     Folio. 

This  is  the  second  edition  of  the  Bishops'  Bible  in  folio,  and  is  known  as  the 
Leda  Bible,  the  subjects  of  the  initial  letters  in  some  of  the  books  being  taken 
from  Ovid's  MftamorphoseA.  At  the  commencement  of  the  Epistle  to  the 
Hebrews  the  initial  letter  is  a  W(K:>dcut  representing  Leda  and  the  Swan.  The 
type  throughout  is  black-letter,  hut  the  Psalms  are  given  in  two  versions 
in  parallel  columns,  that  of  the  Great  Bible  in  black-letter,  and  a  new  version 
in  Roman  letter. 

18.  The  holy  r>yble.     (Bisli<.ps'  version.)     Richard  Jugj^'e.     1573.    4to. 

Til  is  copy  wants  the  prelim  inarv  matter,  but  luis  all  the  text,  and  is  in  good 
condition.  The  tailpiece  at  the  end  of  the  I>ook  of  Revelations  is  an  elaborate 
device  with  a  pelican  on  its  nest  in  the  (Centre  feeding  its  yountr  with  its  blood, 
round  which  is  on  the  inner  buixler  pko  l?:oe  kk(}E  et  greoe  and  on  the 
outer  LOVK  kkpytii  the  lawe  oukyetii  the  kynoe  and  is  good  to  the 
coMMENWELTHE,  with  figures  of  Prudence  and  Justice  on  either  side  and  the 
monogram  of  Richard  Jugge  underneath. 

22  PBOCEEDIXGS   OF  THE   .SWIETY,   DECEMBEB   11,  1899. 

19.  XlitfUn.K'.     (bi>li...i^>' version.)    Uv  Ki.  liiinlJugge.    1574.    Folio. 

This  edition  Las  at  the  24th  chapter  •>!  Joshua  a  foldiiig  map  of  Canaan, 
dated  1574,  which,  however,  i*  from  the  same  block  used  by  Ceverdale  in  his 
Bible  of  1535.  This  copy  wants  the  title^^ge  and  some  of  the  preliminary 
mattrr,  l<Tit  i^  otherwise  in  Ter^'  fair  condition.  At  the  end,  bound  in  with  the 
Bible,  is  a  part  of  a  work  entitled  77i/  Zy-^^  -/  H*>Uf  SiiindeSj  PropKeies^ 
ratrvirchi^^  dr.,  by  John  Mar1i^:k,  autih.T  of  the  first  Conooidanoe.  The 
'  lires '  .«re  arrang^  in  alphabtrtical  order,  and  the  part  here  inserted  reaches 
f  r».m  Aap.-n  tu  Michol,  5>  |.iage& 

20.  Tli^  H-ly  BiMv.     ( Bi<hop:«'  v.-rs:«»!i. »     L.nd«»n,  Ltica^s*  Harrison. 


Tliis  copy  wiint.-  all  the  preliminary  matter,  al«jut  twenty  It^ves.  The  titles  of 
the  £e<(*na  part  and  cf  the  New  Te-^iament  aivr  original,  the  others  made  up. 
Thry  hare  a  verk-  elal-»rate  f  nine  work  nith  a  mermaid  gazing  into  a  mirror  at 
the  ioA  of  the  o«riitrv-pitn.*.  Tht*  centre-picce  in  the  title  of  the  Xew  Testameftit 
has  the  symlH^ls  of  the  four  Evan^irlist*  at  the  four  ox.'merp,  St  Matthew  as  an 
Angel,  St  Mark  ik?  a  Livu.  St  Luke  ;is  an  <  >x.  and  St  John  as  an  Eagle.  The 
Icxt  is  full  of  ern.Ts.  Psalm  xxxTii.  2i»  rvads :  **The  righteous  shall  be 
punished,*  and  the  Epistles  to  the  Hebivi»-s  and  to  Titus  are  both  titled 
~  Second  Epistle.'' 

21.  The  h««ly  Biblo.     (Bishops'  voi>:.:i.>     I.«'iidon,  Richanle  Jugge. 

1575.     \U\ 

This  is  the  A*\-eiiih  iniition  i^f  tht-  Bislu^jV  Bible,  and  a  coud  oopv,  being 
almost  txnnplete.  The  tirsl  title  is  in  facsimile  :  the  Calendar  and  Book  of 
Common  Prayer  are  at  the  be^nning  and  the  device  of  Richard  Jugge  at  the 

-2.  T\w  \\\\Ai\     ImpriiUfd  at  l.i^iuh»n  1  y  Chri<i..'..her  Biirker.      1576. 

This  is  rouij^^n's  i\'visiv>u  of  the  lienevan  version,  and  the  first  Geneva  Bible 
]»riutod  in  England.  Thi^  oo}\\  wanu^  the  litlo,  but  is  full  of  manuKript  notes 
in  a  i\mtom]vrary  hand  s^Muetinu^eJ  ui  Kujjlish  and  s^>motimes  in  Latin.  At 
the  end  is  the  motViv;\l  wrsivm  of  the  IValms  1  y  Stemhi^ld  and  HopkuiBi  with 
the  tuiKvs  J^iid  an  explanatory  uotv  to  the  rwdor  jjiving  the  A>l-fa  notation. 

*Jo,    rh«^  ImMi  and   llol\  Sivipiuivs  couteiiu\l  in  the  C^lde  and  I^ewe 
rostamrnl,  tiau>lalod  aiv.M\hn>:  to  iho  Kbtuo  and  Greke,  &c.     Printed 
in  l'MnilM»i:;h  lu^  Aloxanilor  Arbulhno^  IVintor  to  the  Kii^gis  Mu4 
d\\»  Ilin-;  al  \o  Kirk  nf  foihU      1570*     FoWtv 


■'^^^Xewe  Testament  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Clirist,  conferred  diligently 
^^'^       the  Greke,  &c.     At  Edinburgh,  I'rinted  by  Thomas  Bassiindyne. 

^^^  is  is  the  first  edition  of  the  Bible  printed  in  Scotland,  begun  by  Thomas 

^^^*>-iidyne  and  issuwi  after  his  death  by  Alexander  Arbuthnot.     It  is  a  reprint 

^  ^^'^e  Greneva  Bible   of   156 J.-    At  the  end   of  the  thirteenth  chapter  of 

^^^^tion  is  a  note  explaining  the  "  number  of  the  Beast"  in  which  is  a  Greek 

^^.'^^^^   printed   in  rude  Greek  letters.    This  is  the  first  specimen  of  Greek 

pnrxt;  ing  in  Scotland.    The  woodcut  of  the  Royal  Arms  of  Scotland  is  the  same 

**  ^V^at  used,  in  Bellenden's  Cronikli\  printed  at  Edinburgh  by  Thomas  David- 

^^   Xii  1542,  but  smaller.     This  copy  is  not  perfect,  wanting  the  preliminary 

^*^^t;cr  and  several  leaves.      The  Edinburgh  Public  Library  possesses  a  good 

'J^'y  which  I  could  have  got  in  Manchester.     It  seems  at  one  time  to  have 

.    ^^g©d  to  a  Patrick  Lindsjiy,  and  what  is  very  curious,  this  copy,  which  I  got 

^1^  Brechin,  lias  on  the  title-jiage  of  the  New  Testament  the  inscription  : — 

'  t^atrik  Lindesay  off  barnyards,  ye  first  off" — the  rest  of  the  date  Deing  cut 

*^y  by  the  binder.     At  the  commencement  of  the  Apocrypha  on  a  blank 

space  is  "P.  Bamyardis  "  twice  rei)eated.    There  is  little  known  of  the  Forfar- 

»*nire  family  of  the  Lindsays  of  Barnyanls,  otherwise  called  The  Haugh  of 

Tannadice,  whose  castle  of  Barnziiird,  as  it  is  termed  in  Monipennie's  Briefe 

I^escription  of  Scotland,  stood  about  two  miles  north  of  the  castle  of  Finhaven 

(Laml  of  the  Lindmys,   2nd  edition,  p.   208).     Jervise  states  tliut  they   were 

hereditary  constables  of  Finhaven.   Patrick  Lindsay,  *  ai)parent '  of  Barnyards,  is 

mentioned  in  the  llegister  of  the  Great  Seal  in  1590.     In  1592  he  had  a  charter 

from  the  crown  of  the  lands  of  Tannadice,  Bamyanls,  and  GlenquiclL     This  is 

probably  the  Patrick  Lindstiy  of  Barnyards  who  possessed  the  Bible. 

24.  The  Holy  Bi])le.     (Bishops'  version.)     London,  by  assignment  of 

Chr.  Barker.     1578.     Folio. 

This  edition  called  the  Dotted  Bible  is  printed  page  for  page  with  that  of 
1574.  This  copy  wants  the  title-page.  At  the  commencement  of  each  Gospel 
there  is  a  woodcut  of  the  Evangelist  represented  as  writing  his  Gospel  with  his 
symbol  beside  him  ;  but  for  the  woodcut  of  Matthew  is  substituted  that  of 
Mark,  which  is  also  repeated  in  its  proper  place  at  the  commencement  of 
Mark's  Gospel. 

25.  The    Bible.      (Genevan    version.)      Imprinted    at    London    by 

Christopher  Barker.     1579.     4to. 

This  copy  wants  the  first  title  but  has  all  the  text,  with  Tables  and  supputa- 
tion  of  years. 

26.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  London,  Christopher  Barker  (?). 
1580.     4to. 

Tliis  copy  having  no  titles  had  to  l^  exauiined  closely  to  find  that  it  corre- 


sponds  to  the  edition  of  1580  in  Lea  Wilson'tj  Catalogue.  Tlie  supputation  gives 
1580.  The  date  1578  in  the  address  to  the  Christian  Reader  continues  to  be 
given  in  much  later  copies  and  is  therefore  no  criterion. 

27.  The  Bibk'.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Chris- 
topher I^irker.     1581.     4  to. 

This  copy  has  all  the  text  and  the  title  to  the  New  Testament,  with  Tables', 
and  John  Day's  Metrical  Psalms,  and-  i>art  of  the  Prayer  Book. 

28.  The  Bible.  ((Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Chris- 
topher Barker.     1582.     4t(). 

This  couy  is  slightly  imiKjrfect  and  wants  the  first  title  but  has  the  title  to 
the  New  Testament,  and  John  Day's  Metrical  Psalms  of  1581. 

29.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  vei*sion.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Cliris- 
toi)her  Biirker.     1583.     4to. 

This  copy  is  imperfect  at  the  beginning,  but  has  at  the  end  "  Two  right 
profitable  and  fruitfull  concordances,  or  large  and  ample  Tables  Alphabetical!"  ; 
and  John  Daye's  Metrical  Psalms,  1583. 

30.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  vei-siou.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Chris- 
topher Barker.     1583.     Large  folio. 

This  is  the  largest  Genevan  or  *  Breeches '  Bible  ever  its<ue<l.  Curiously  it 
has  Cranmer's  prologue.  This  copy  is  not  quite  complete,  but  is  otherwise  in 
very  good  condition. 

31.  The  Bible.  (Uisboj)^'  version.)  Imprinted  at  lA)nd«ni  by  Chris- 
topher Barker.     1584.     4t<). 

This  copy  wants  the  preliminaries,  but  the  text  is  complete  and  it  is  other- 
wise in  good  onler.  it  is  a  rather  rare  edition  in  the  black-letter,  with 
numerous  mai-ginal  references  and  note's.  The  title-pa^e  of  the  New  Testament 
has  the  aymlwls  of  the  four  Evangelistrf  and  figures  of  Faith  and  Humility. 

32.  The  Bible,  ((tenevan  versinn.)  Imprinted  at  Lnii«lnn  by  Chris- 
tojiher  Barker.     1585.     4to. 

The  first  title  is  wanting,  but  the  text  is  c<»mplete.  and  the  coi)y  in  g<HKl  con- 
dition. It  has  no  Metrical  Psalms,  but  at  the  end  the  two  Tables  of  Concordance 
of  extraordinary  length. 


33.  Holie  Bible.     (Bishops'  version.)     Imprinted  at  Londuii  by  Cliris- 
topher  Biirker.     1585.     Folio. 

This  is  the  fourteenth  edition  of  the  Bishop^  Bible,  and  the  most  beaiitiful 
[  them  all,  the  typos 
by  Koberger,  Nuremtj 

of  them  all,  the  typoffrai)hy  being  only  excelled  by  that  of  the  Vulgate  printed 

34.  The  Bible.  (Cjlcnevan  version.)  Imi)rinted  at  London  by  Chris- 
topher Barker.     1586.     4to. 

A  gorxl  copy  but  .somewhat  smoked.  It  lias  not  the  Metrical  Psalms,  but  at 
the  end  two  Tables  of  Concordance  of  great  length. 

35.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Chris- 
topher l^rker.     1587.     4to. 

Tliis  is  Tomson's  revision  of  the  Geneva  text.  On  the  fly-leaf  l^etween  the 
Old  and  New  Testaments  there  is  pasted  a  small  Sabbath  School  ticket  bearing 
a  woodcut  representation  of  Joseph's  brethren  dining  with  him,  and  the 
following  memorandum  in  Mr  Haxton's  hand  : — "  This  S;iy)bath  School  ticket 
was  inserted  by  me  between  the  beading  of  the  lxx»klK)ard  of  our  seat  in  l^rk- 
liead  Establif^hed  Church  in  the  year  1828,  and  found  and  taken  out  by  me  64 
years  afterwards,  on  20th  August  1892." 

36.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
1  )eputies  of  Christoi>her  Barker.     1589.     4to. 

Tliis  copy  seems  t<j  be  a  gathering,  as,  while  the  title  to  the  Old  Testament 
bears  the  date  1589,  that  of  the  New  Testament  is  dated  1592.  The  Metrical 
Psalms,  also,  printed  by  John  Windet,  are  dated  1592.  The  Book  of  Common 
Prayer  inserted  before  tlie  Psalms  api)ear8  to  be  of  later  date.  An  elaborate 
Table  of  Genealogies  by  J.  S.  inserted  at  the  Ix'ginning  ai)pear8  to  be  also  of  later 

37.  The  Bible.  ((Jenevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.      1593.     4to. 

This  is  Toms<.>n's  revision  of  the  (Jeneva  Bible.  The  first  title  is  wanting. 
The  New  Testament  bears  the  daUt  1593  and  at  the  end  of  the  tables  is 
the  date  1594.  Bound  in  with  the  P>i})le  is  an  interesting  copy  of  **  The  CL 
Psalms  of  David  in  Scots  Meter  ;  after  the  forme  that  they  are  to  bee  sung  in 
the  Kirke  of  Scotland.  Edinlmrgh.  Printed  ])y  the  Heires  of  Andro  Hart. 
Anno  Dom.  1632."  On  the  back  of  the  title  of  the  New  Testament  is  tlie 
following  inscription  : — "  Ex  Libris  Alexanderi  Nai>er.  Alexander  Naper  est 
mihi  nomen.  Scriptum  per  me  Alexanderum  Naper  apud  Biichaple  nono 
calendas  Maij  millesimo  sexcentesimo  nonagesimo  tertio." 


38.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  l)y  the 
Deputies  of  Christoplier  Barker.     1593.     8vo. 

This  copy  of  a  very  rare  edition  was  got  at  Sir  George  W.  Dasent's  sale.  By 
a  note  on  tne  fly-leaf  with  his  autograph  it  appears  that  ne  bought  it  in  Hohn  in 
1844  for  tw^elve  skil lings  or  alx)ut  fivepence  English.  So  far  as  I  know  this  is  a 
perfect  copy  but  is  rebound  with  the  old  boards  and  edges  as  they  were.  Save 
an  imperfect  coj^y  in  the  British  Museum  from  which  the  real  date  was  ascer- 
tainea  I  have  never  heard  of  another.  It  closely  resembles  a  Bil)le  printed 
at  Cambridge  by  John  Legate,  1591,  only  this  edition  is  paged,  and  Legate's 
was  not 

39.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1594.     4to. 

This  copy  wants  the  first  title  but  has  the  title  to  the  New  Testament.  Tlie 
text  is  in  black-letter  as  most  of  the  Genevans  are,  but  the  head-lines  and 
marginal  notes  are  in  Roman  letter.  Tlie  New  Testament  has  a  large  numljer 
of  iflustrative  plates  inserted. 

40.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deimties  of  Christopher  Barker.     1594.     4to. 

This  is  a  rather  poor  copy  of  a  Bible  that  has  given  rise  to  much  si)eculation, 
as  the  New  Testament  is  wrongly  dated  1495. 

41.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  London,  Printed  by  John  Windet, 
for  the  Assignes  of  Richard  Day.     1594.     4t(). 

This  is  Tomsc^u's  revision  and  a  beautiful  copy,  clean  and  perfect,  with  both 
titles.     It  has  no  Psalms. 

42.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imi)rinted  at  London  l)y  the 
Dei>uties  of  Cliristopher  Barker.      1596.     4to. 

This  copy  lias  all  the  text  but  wants  the  first  title  and  the  other  preliminary 
matter,  it  has  at  the  end  the  two  Tables  of  Concordance  and  a  description  of 
Canaan  and  the  bordering  countries. 

43.  The  Holy  Bible.  (Bishops*  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by 
the  Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1595.     Folio. 

This  is  a  line  copy  with  all  the  titles  and  Ijeautifully  bound.  It  came  from 
the  collection  of  Mr  Fry,  one  of  our  greatest  collectors. 


44.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1597.     Small  folio. 

This  ia  Tomson's  revision,  and  is  somewhat  like  the  edition  of  1562  in 
general  appearance.  It  is  in  Roman  letters  and  wants  the  first  title,  but  is 
otherwise  a  good  copy. 

45.  Tlie  Bi]>le.  (Clenevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1599.     4t(), 

This  is  a  very  curious  edition  of  the  Geneva  Bible  in  black-letter.  Lea 
Wilson  does  not  seem  to  have  had  a  copy  of  it,  as  it  differs  from  all  the  copies 
of  1599  which  he  had  in  his  possession,  except  No.  77  of  his  Catalogue.  It  is 
distin^iished  as  the  *Hee'  Bible,  Ijecause  Ruth  iii.  15  reads,  "and  hee  went 
into  the  citie,"  where  all  previous  editions  have  either  "and  shee  went  into 
the  citie,"  or  "  and  went  into  the  citie." 

46.  Tlie  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1599.     4to. 

This  is  Tomson's  revision  and  a  beautiful  copy,  liaving  a  black  line  printed 
round  the  i>age,  and  a  number  of  woodcuts  in  the  text.  In  the  doggerel  verses 
at  the  beginning  there  is  a  curious  substitution  of  *  de '  for  *  the,'  which  suggests 
tliat  it  may  have  been  printed  abroad  : — 

"  Here  is  de  tree  where  truth  doth  grow 
To  leade  our  lives  therein ; 
Here  is  de  judge  that  stints  the  strife 
\VTien  mens'  devices  faile." 

liev.  XX.  12  also  reads :  "I  saw  the  death,  both  great  and  small,  stand  before 
God."  The  Metrical  Psfidms  of  Sternhold  and  Hopkhis  at  the  end  are  preceded 
by  the  hymns  Veni  Creator,  The  Humble  Suit  of  a  Sinner,  Venite  Exultemus, 
The  Song  of  St  Ambrose  called  Te  Deum,  The  Song  of  the  Three  Children, 
The  Song  of  Zacharias,  The  Son^  of  the  Blessed  Mary  called  Magnificat,  Tlie 
Song  of  Simeon  called  Nimc  Dimittis,  The  Symbole  or  Creed  of  Athanasius 
called  Quicunciue  Vult,  The  Lamentation  of  a  Sinner,  The  Lord's  Prayer  or 
Pater  Noeter,  and  The  Ten  Commandments,  with  the  music  for  each. 

47.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Iuiprint<Ml  at  London  l)y  the 
Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1599.     4t(>. 

This  is  one  of  the  many  editions  of  Tomson's  revision  of  the  Geneva  Bible 
printed  with  this  date.  It  has  two  first  titles,  one  with  the  border  containing 
woodcuts  of  the  four  Evangelists  surromided  by  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel  ana 
the  twelve  Apostles,  and  the  other  with  a  small  woodcut  of  the  hraelites  cross- 
ing the  Red  Sea. 


48.  The   Bible.     (Cienevau  version.)     Tmpriuted  at  I^ndou   by  the 

Deputies  of  Christoplier  Barker.     1599.     4to. 

This  is  another  of  Tomson's  revision.  Matthew  vii.  17  reads:  *'So  euery 
good  three  bringeth  foorth  good  fruite,  and  a  coonipt  tree  bringeth  foorth  euill 
fruite."  At  the  end  there  is  bound  in  with  the  volume  a  copy  of  the  Book  of 
Common  Prayer  printed  by  the  printers  to  the  University  of  Cambridge,  1635. 

49.  The    Bible,     (Cieuevan  vei*sion.)     Titles  wanting,  but   evidently 

Tomson's  revision.     1599.     4 to. 

This  is  an  imi)erfect  copy,  but  it  has  the  curious  map  showing  the  forty  years' 
wandering  of  the  Israelites  in  the  book  of  Numbers,  and  the  curious  woodcut 
of  Ezekiel's  vision  at  the  beginning  of  Ezekiel. 

50.  The   Bible.     (Genevan  version.)     Imprinted  at  Ix)ndon   by  the 

Deputies  of  Cliristoi>her  Barker.      1599.     4to. 

This  is  another  of  the  1599  editions  of  Tomson's  revision.  Zechariah  iii.  2 
reads :  "  Is  not  this  a  brain  taken  out  of  the  fire  "  for  Is  not  this  a  brand.  It  has 
on  the  fly-leaf:  "Edinburgh,  21st  July  1778.  Gifted  by  the  Miss  Falls  to 
Simon  Eraser." 

51.  The   Bible.     ((Jenevan    version.)     Imprinted  at  London   by  the 

Deputies  of  Chnstoi)lier  Barker.     1599.     4to. 

A  good  copy,  comi)lete  and  well  bound.  It  is  No.  G  of  Lea  Wilson's  Catalogue. 
In  Ruth  iii.  15  the  reading  is  :  "She  went  into  the  citie,"  and  in  Zecliariah  iii. 
2,  "  Is  not  this  a  brain  taken  out  of  the  fire." 

52.  The  Bible,  ((lenevan  version.)  lnii)nnted  at  London  by  the 
Deimties  of  Cliristoi>lier  Barker.     1599.     4 to. 

This  is  also  a  good  copy,  complete  and  well  bound.  Matthew  vi.  2  reads : 
"  Therefore  when  thou  giuest  thme  almes,  thow  shalt  make  a  trumi)et  to  be 
blowen  before  thee  as  the  hypocrites  do." 

53.  Tlie  I)iMe.  (Genevan  version.)  Imi»rinte(l  at  London  by  the 
Dejnities  of  Christopher  Barker.      1598.     4to. 

This  is  a  ])lack-letter  copy,  the  New  Tcstiment  l)eiiig  dati*d  1581.  It  is 
slightly  damaged  at  tlie  beginning,  but  is  otherwise  in  fair  condition  and  well 

54.  The  Bible,  ((lenevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  the 
Deputies  of  Christo}»her  r>arker.      1599.      4to. 

The  imprint  of  the  Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker,  1599,  is  given  on  the 


titles  both  of  the  Old  and  Xew  Testaments,  in  this  copy,  and  it  has  the  omission 
of  the  word  *not'  in  Matthew  vi.  2,  like  other  copies  of  the  same  date.  But 
the  colophon  at  the  end  of  the  Tables  has :  "  Imprinted  at  Amsterdam  for 
Tlioraas  Crafoorth,  by  John  Fredericksz  8tam,  dwelling  by  the  South  Church 
at  the  Signe  of  the  Hope,  1633."  The  Metrical  Pwdnis  are  "Imprinted  by  I.  L. 
for  the  Company  of  Stationers,  London,  1633." 

55.  The  Bible.     (Cienoviui  version.)     Imi)riiited  at  lA>ndon  by  R()])ert 

Barker.     1600.     4t(». 

This  is  a  black-letter  copy  and  is  apparently  the  first  Bible  printed  by  Robert 
Barker,  son  of  Christopher  Barker.  Ruth  iii.  15  reads  as  in  the  1599  black- 
letter  copy :  "  Hee  went  into  the  citie,"  most  of  the  others  reading  "  Shee,"  or 
"  And  went  into  the  citie." 

56.  The  Bible.     (Genevan  version.)     Tonison^s  revision.     1600.    4to. 

This  copy  is  iu  Roman  letter  and  without  date  or  printer's  name.  It  is 
commonly  called  the  Goose  Bible,  from  the  figure  of  a  goose  on  the  title-page  of 
the  Metrical  Psialms,  and  from  which  it  is  supposed  to  have  been  printed  at 
Dort.  The  last  two  leavei*  of  the  Tables  Ixjaring  the  imprint  of  the  Deputies  of 
Chri}*tr>pher  Barker,  I^fjiidon,  1599,  appear  to  be  an  insertion. 

57.  The  Bible,     ((lenevan  version.)     Tonison\s  revision.      Imprintcnl 

at  I^:>nd()n  by  Robert  Barker.     1602.     Folio. 

Tliis  is  a  l.)eautiful  copy  in  fine  binding.  It  has  the  two  titles  and  colophon 
dated  1602,  but  the  Metrical  Psalms  at  the  end  have  the  imprint  of  John 
Windet  for  the  Assignesof  Richard  Day,  1595.  At  the  })eginning  is  a  fine  copy 
of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  without  date,  but  with  a  pronision  of  orna- 
mental initial  letters,  many  of  which  are  evidently  representations  of  classical 
scenes  proba])lv  from  Ovid's  Metamorphoses  as  in  tlie  Bishoi^s'  Bible  of  1572. 
The  Psalter,  wliich  also  precedes  the  Bible,  l>ears  the  imprint  of  Robert  Barker, 

58.  The  Holy  Bible.      (Bishops'  version.)      Imprinted  at  London  by 

Robert  Ikrkcr.     1602.     Folio. 

A  black-letter  copy  with  ornamental  initial  letters.  It  lias  some  curious 
readings  :  Psalm  xxvii.  29,  "  The  righteous  shal  \ye  punished " ;  Ecclesiastes 
xi.  1,  "  Lay  thy  bread  upon  wet  faces,  and  so  slialt  thou  find  it  after  many 
days"  ;  Jeremiah  viii.  22,  "Is  there  not  Triacle  at  Oilead?"  This  copy  lias 
the  old  cliain  attachttd  to  the  wooden  Inxirds  by  which  it  had  been  fastened  to  a 

59.  The  Bible.  ((Icnevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert 
Barker.     1603.     4to. 

This  must  be  a  rather  rare  edition,  and  is  a  nice  copy,  excellently  printed  in 

30  FKOCEEWXG-S  OP   THE  S0C7CTY,   DECEMBER  11,  1399L 

H/>fnu)  letter  aiyl  ral*H  in  i^l  rr/oud  lli*r  pa^««.  In  il»e  dr^scripdoo  of  the 
w'\rk(A  fDftn  in  Job  xv.  ^  u  a  cnrioa^  n^syWiij. :  *^  h^cAJue  he  hath  covered  his 
f^te  with  hi*  Catri«»,and  liath  cr/lloi«s  in  hi>  liinke.*  Alao  the  woid  "world" ia 
omitUsf]  in  Luke  ii.  J.  At  tlie  Ijeginnin^  a  black-letter  copy  of  the  Book  of 
r>/fnni<>n  I'ravfrr,  163^;,  L^  lio»ind  in  with  the  T«»lTime.  The  Sletrical  Psalms  at 
the  end  liave  the  date  1  fSV>. 

60.  The  iJible.  (Genevan  version.)  Iniprinle*!  at  London  by  Robert 
Il^irker.     1005.     4  to. 

Thij!  in  a  very  gorjd  cony  in  black-letter  of  the  i»ure  CJenevan  Bible  of  1560. 
It  W  the  Iarg»-' Table?  of  CV^nrordance,  but  no  Metrical  Psalms.  On  a  fly-leaf 
at  tlie  Ix^nniiitf  of  the  New  Testament  it  is  iuBcribed  :  **  Marie  GrifUi  her 
booke  1016,"  and  "  Roger  Weever  and  Rebeckha  Weever  there  booke  1647." 

01.  The  Bible.  ((Genevan  version.)  Tomson's  revision.  Imprinted 
at  lyjndon  by  Koljert  Barker.     1600.     4to. 

Tliis  is  a  nicely  bound  copy,  wanting  the  first  title,  which  is  a  facsimile,  but 
having  the  original  title  of  the  New  Testament,  which  is  dated  1606,  though  the 
ot^lophon  at  the  end  lias  1605.  It  has  the  Metrical  Psalms  A  1606,  and  a  copy 
of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  of  1680  is  bound  in  at  the  commencement  of 
the  volume. 

62.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinteil  at  London  by  Robert 
Barker.     1608.     4  to. 

This  is  a  i)Oor  copy.  It  wants  the  title  to  the  Xew  Testament,  which  is 
8U])plied  in  facsimile.  It  has  no  Metrical  Psahus.  On  the  first  title  is  the 
inscription  :  "  Charles  Woolnough  is  y<^  true  owner  of  this  Booke." 

63.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert 
Barker.     1608.     8vo. 

Tliis,  though  rather  a  poor  copy  of  a  somewhat  rare  edition,  is  complete.  At- 
the  beginning  is  a  quaint  woodcut  of  the  Temptation  in  the  Garden  of  Eden  witls. 
all  the  beasts  roaming  around. 

64.  The  Bible.     (Genevan  version.)     Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert 
Barker.     1609.     4  to. 

This  is  a  fair  copy  with  red  lines  round  the  page,  and  has  inserted  a  portraJ.'iK 
of  its  former  possessor,  Rev.  .loseph  lviiii(;y,  PortK*a,  being  a  gift  to  him  from  \Si'^ 
Chamberlain,  an  eminent  IVijitist  missionary. 

05.  The   Holie   Biblo    faithfully   translated    into   English  out  of  ttmM 


Authentical  Latin  <fcc.  by  the  Englisli  College  of  Doway.  Printed  at 
Doway  by  Laurence  Kellam,  at  tlio  Signe  of  the  Holie  Lambe.  1609. 
2  vols.  4to. 

This  copy  is  in  fine  condition  and  well  bound.  This  translation  of  the  Old 
Testament  is  the  first  English  version  printed  for  the  use  of  the  Roman 
Catholics  The  English  translation  of  the  New  Testament  which  goes  with  it 
was  first  ])rinted  at  Ilhemes  in  1 582. 

66.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Tonison's  revision.  At  Edin- 
burgh, Printed  by  Andro  Hurt,  and  are  to  bo  sold  at  his  Buith,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  gate,  a  little  beneiitli  the  Crosse.  Anno.  Doni.  1610. 

This  is  the  second  edition  of  the  Bible  printed  in  Scotland  and  was  highly 
thought  of,  many  subsequent  impressions  making  a  merit  of  beins  "  conform  to 
the  ^ition  printed  by  Andro  Hart."  Yet  it  is  by  no  means  absolutely  correct. 
In  Exodus  XXX.  12  a  whole  line,  or  clause,  "  that  there  be  no  plague  among 
tbem,"  has  been  missed  out.  Similarly  in  Deuteronomy  xiii.  9  the  words  "  ami 
then  the  hands  of  all  the  people "  are  likewise  wanting.  A  number  of  Dutch 
maps  inserted  in  this  copy  have  very  quaint  and  curious  vignettes  at  top  and 

67.  The  Bible.     (Genevan  version.)     Tonison's  revision.     Imprinted 

at  London  by  Robert  Barker.     1610.     4to. 

This  copy  wants  the  first  title,  which  is  supplied  by  a  facsimile  of  1599.  It 
has  the  New  Testament  title  of  1610  and  the  colophon  is  dated  1611.  At  the 
end  are  The  Psalmss  of  David  in  Meeter,  with  the  tunes,  printed  by  Andro  Hart. 
On  the  fly-leaf  at  the  begirming  is  a  memorandum :  "  Robert  Watson  lx)ught 
this  Bible  at  Berwick  in  1670,  price  2s.  7d." 

68.  The  Bi])le.  (Genevan  version.)  Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert 
Ikrker.     1611.     4to. 

Tliis  copy  wants  both  title-pages,  but  the  colophon  gives  the  date  1611. 
Bound  in  with  it  are  the  Metrical  Psalms  of  Stemhold  and  Hopkins,  printed  at 
London  for  the  Company  of  Stationers,  1610. 

69.  The   Holy  Bible.     Royal  or  Authorised  version.     Imprinted  at 

Ix)ndon  by  Robert  Barker.     1611.     Folio. 

This  is  the  second  of  two  impressions  of  the  Authorised  version  issued  in 
1611,  as  is  indicated  by  the  absence  of  the  large  woodcut  of  the  Arms  of  King 
James,  and  the  presence  in  its  place  of  the  letterpress  title  to  the  Genealogies. 
The  text  is  in  black-letter  with  ornamental  initials.     This  copy  wants  the  first 

^  ,,:."  "•''>^-'" 

""W <■"•■■''•         ■"^'■ 

0 -^^ '• 

.  *«<^ 

,     ,.v     .VV! '»••'■  "■'■" 

.  ••»  •-i.i -jaKi  "'*' 

•.   --it'. 



75.  The  Holy  Bible.     Royal  or  Authorised  version.      Imprinte<l  at 

London  by  Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill.     1619.     4to. 

This  copy  of  the  Authorised  version  in  Roman  letter  is  not  in  first-rate 
condition,  but  the  text  is  complete,  and  it  has  prefixed  the  curious  map  and 
description  of  Canaan,  which  is  very  often  wanting.  In  1st  John  v.  13  there  is 
a  curious  misprint  of  "  the  Sion  of  God  "  for  "  the  Sonne  of  God." 

76.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Imprinted  at 
London  by  Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill.     1620.     4to. 

This  copy  of  the  Authorised  version  in  black-letter  is  complete.  The 
colophon  has  the  date  1621,  and  the  Tables  of  Concordance,  which  *^  will  serve 
as  well  for  the  translation  called  Geneva,''  are  dated  1622. 

77.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Imprinted  at 
London  by  Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill.     1622.     8vo. 

This  is  a  nice  copy  of  the  Royal  version  in  Roman  letter,  and  has  the  edges 
gilt  and  finely  ornamented,  and  the  text  and  preliminaries,  and  the  Metrical 
Psalms  of  Stemhold  and  Hopkins,  all  complete.  Between  the  fly-leaves  at  the 
end  is  inserted  part  of  a  leaf  of  a  manuscript  Book  of  Hours  of  apparently 
about  fourteenth  century  date. 

78.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Imprinted  at 
Loudon  by  Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill.     1625.     4to. 

A  fairlv  good  copy  of  this  edition  of  the  Royal  version  in  black-letter,  with 
Speed's  (Genealogies  and  the  map  and  description  of  Canaan  prefixed,  and  the 
Metrical  Psalms  of  Stemhold  and  Hopkins,  dated  1626,  boimd  in  at  the  end. 

79.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Printed  at 
London  by  Robert  Barker.     1632.     Svo. 

A  fine  copy  of  this  rather  rare  edition,  in  the  original  stamped  Morocco  bind- 
ing, but  without  the  clasps.  It  has  all  the  titles  and  the  Metrical  Psalms 
complete.  The  Book  of  Common  Prayer  prefixed  wants  the  title  and  following 
leaf.  A  woodcut  of  the  Royal  Arms  occupies  the  reverse  of  the  general  title. 
No  copy  of  this  edition  was  exhibited  at  the  Caxton  Celebration  in  1877.  It  is 
not  in  Lea  Wilson's  Catalogue,  and  only  one  copy  is  mentioned  by  Lowndes. 

80.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Printed  by  the 
Printers  to  the  King's  Most  Excellent  Majestic.  Edinburgh,  1633. 

This  is  the  first  edition  of  the  Royal  or  Authorised  version  of  the  Bible 
VOL.  xxxiv.  c 


Srinted  in  Scotland.  It  has  no  Metrical  Psalms,  but  at  the  end  is  A  Briefe 
'oncordance,  printed  by  the  Assises  of  Clement  Cotton.  The  first  title  is  set 
in  an  elaborate  border  woodcut  with  the  four  Evangelists  each  with  his  proper 
s3rmbol  in  the  four  comers.  On  the  page  preceding  the  title  is  a  quaint  wood- 
cut of  the  Temptation  and  Fall. 

81.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Edinburgh, 

This  copy  wants  the  ilrst  title,  but  has  the  engraved  frontispiece  of  Adam 
and  Eve  in  the  Garden.  It  also  has  prefixed  a  copv  of  the  Book  of  Common 
Prayer  of  the  same  date,  and  at  the  end  the  Metrical  Psalms  of  1637. 

82.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authoriseii  version.  Imprinted  at 
London  by  Rolxjrt  Barker  and  the  Assignes  of  John  Bill.  1634. 

Another  edition  of  the  Authorised  version  in  black-letter  with  ornamental 
initials.  This  copy  is  not  in  the  b^t  condition,  and  wants  the  first  title-page 
and  some  leaves  at  the  end. 

83.  The  Holy  Bible;  faithfully  translated  into  English  out  of  the 
Authentical  Latin,  &c.,  with  Arguments,  Annotations  &c.  by  the  English 
CoUedge  of  Doway.  Printed  by  John  Cousturier.  1635.  2  vols. 

This  edition  of  the  Douay  version  of  the  Bible,  printed  in  Rouen,  is  in 
Roman  letter  with  ornamental  initials.  It  has  only  the  Old  Testament  and 

84.  The  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Printed  at  Lon- 
don by  Robert  Barker  and  the  Assignes  of  John  Bill.     1637.     8vo. 

This  copy  has  prefixed  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  (the  title  of  which  is 
wanting)  and  the  Genealogies  with  the  description  and  map  of  Canaan.  At 
the  end  is  a  copy  of  the  Metrical  Psalms  of  1638. 

85.  The  Bible.  (Genevan  version.)  Tomson's  revision.  Printed 
by  Thomas  Staifortl,  And  are  to  be  sold  at  his  liouse  at  the  signe  of  the 
flight  of  Brabant  u\Hm  the  ^lilk  Market,  over  iigiiiiist  the  Deventer 
Wood-Market.     Anistenlam,  1640.     Folio. 

This  edition  is  said  on  the  title-page  to  be  "according  to  the  copy  printed  at 
Edinburgh  by  Andro  Hart,  in  the  year  1610,"  but  it  is  by  no  means  free  from 



printers'  blunders.    In  the  text  are  inserted  a  number  of  woodcut  maps,  among 

w-Iiicli  IB  one  at  Numbers  xxxiii  showing  the  forty  years'  wanderings  of  the 

Israelites,  with  very  curious  pictorial  representations  of  the  more  important 

ev^Gixtim  during  the  ioumey  from  Egypt  to  Canaan.    At  the  end  are  the  Metrical 

I*8alEi3s  of  Stemhold  and  Hopkins  of  1638,  without  the  music. 

36.  The  Holy  Bible.     Koyal  or  Authorised  version.     Printed  at  Lon- 

*^^i^    \)y  Robert  Barker  and  the  Assignee  of  John  Bill.     1642.     8vo. 

Tti-ia  copy  is  complete,  but  has  been  very  closely  cut.  It  has  both  the  en- 
^.'^'v-^sd  titles.  At  the  bc^nning  of  Genesis  there  is  a  vignette  of  the  Tempta- 
^^?*^  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  and  at  the  bc^nnin^  of  the  New  Testament  a 
7!^S^^x^tte  representing  the  four  Evangelists  with  their  symbols.  At  the  end  is 
^'^?  Oncordance,  1642,  followed  by  the  Metrical  Psalms  of  1643.  In  Matthew 
^iJ*^-  23  the  word  "not"  is  omitted,  so  that  it  reads,  "Is  this  the  Son  of 

^7.  Tlie    Holy   Bible.     Royal   or   Authorised    version.     Printed   by 

^^ger  Dainel,  printer  to  the  University  of  Cambridge.     1648.     ISmo. 

.  *  his  copy  has  the  engraved  title  with  Moses  and  Aaron  on  either  side,  and 
^^o-w  the  Koyal  Arms  a  picture  of  London  with  old  London  Bridge  in  the 
^^^^round.     A  peculiarity  of  the  text  is  that  in  Genesis  xix.  4  it  reads  "  y" 

^«n  of  Sodom,"  and  "  y«  people,"  but  everywhere  else  the  word  *  the '  is  given 

^  the  modern  spelling. 

88.  The  Holy  Bible.  Printed  by  John  Field,  printer  to  the  Parlia- 
ment.    London,  1653.     24mo. 

This  copy  has  the  engraved  title  with  Moses  and  King  David  on  either  side 
and  the  four  Evangelists  with  their  symbob  below.  It  has  no  Metrical  Psalms. 
The  peculiarity  of  the  text  is  that  Ist  Timothy  iv.  16  has  "  the  doctrine  "  instead 
of "  thy  doctrine." 

89.  The    Holy   Bible.     Royal   or   Authorised    version.     Printed    by 

John  Field,  printer  to  the  Universitie,  Cambridge.     1668.     4to. 

This  edition,  in  very  small  but  clear  tyjHj  printed  on  thin  paper,  has  been 
called  the  Flat  Bible  or  the  Preachers'  Bible.  This  copy  has  the  stamp  of  a 
former  possessor,  Bindon  Blood,  with  his  crest  and  the  date  1795  on  the  back 
of  the  first  title. 

90.  The   Holy   Bible.     Royal    or    Authorised    version.     Printed   by 

John  Baskett,  Oxford.     1717.     Folio. 

This  is  the  Vinc^r  Bible,  so-called  from  an  error  in  the  running  title  at 
Luke  XX.,  where  it  reads,  "  The  parable  of  the  vinegar,"  instead  of  "  The  j^arable 
of  the  vineyard." 


91.  Tlie  Holy  Bible.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Printed  at  the 
Clarendon  Press,  Oxford.     1801.     4 to. 

This  impression  has  been  called  "  The  Murderers'  Bible,"  from  the  reading  in 
Jude,  verse  16, "  These  are  murderers,"  instead  of  "  These  are  murraurerB."  There 
are  several  other  gross  printers'  blunders  in  the  text. 

92.  The  Newe  Testament  translated  by  M.  Wil.  Tyndall.  1549. 

A  good  copy  carefully  repaired  at  the  beginnuig  and  wanting  two  leaves  in 
Coruithians.  There  is  no  place  given  in  the  title,  but  it  is  supposed  to  have 
been  printed  in  Antwerp.  In  2nd  Corinthians  x.  11  there  is  a  curious  reading : 
"Let  hym  that  is  soche  thinke  on  his  wyfe";  and  in  1st  Peter  ii.  13  the 
words  "  Unto  the  king  as  the  chief  head  "  are  omitted. 

93.  The  New  Testament.  Excusum  Londini  in  Officina  Thomae 
Gualtier  pro  J.  C.     1550.     Bvo. 

A  complete  copy  :  the  title-page  in  red  and  black  with  engraved  border, 
having  the  monogram  of  Grafton  and  AVTiitechurch  at  the  foot.  The  text  is 
in  Latin  and  English  in  parallel  columns,  the  Latin  in  Roman  letter  and  the 
English  in  black-letter.  In  Romans  vi.  the  present  verse  6  is  omitted  in  the 
English  though  rendered  in  the  Latin  opposite. 

94.  The  Newe  Testament.  Imprinted  at  London  by  Richard  Jugge. 
1552.     4to. 

This  is  Tyndale's  vereion,  revised,  and  finely  printed  in  black-letter  with 
many  woodcuts  inserted  in  the  text.  The  title-page  has  a  portrait  of  Edward 
VI.,  and  on  the  reverse  is  a  copy  of  the  "  byll "  autnorising  the  printing  of  the 
edition  and  the  sale  of  copies  at  the  reasonable  and  convenient  price  of  "  twenty 
and  two  pens  for  every  boke  in  papers  and  unbounde,"  In  the  woodcut 
illustration  to  Matthew  xiii.  the  devil  is  pictured  with  a  wooden  leg,  sowing  tares 
among  the  wheat. 

95.  The  Newe  Testament.  Printed  at  Geneva  by  Conrad  Radius. 
1557.     12mo. 

This  is  the  first  Testament  in  English  in  which  the  text  is  divided  into 
ninnbered  verses.  The  translation  is  W  illiain  Whittingham's,  and  the  version 
differs  entirely  from  the  (Genevan.  It  is  printed  in  Roman  type  with  marginal 
notes  and  ornamental  initial  letters  at  the  iHigimiings  of  the  l)ooks.  On  the  last 
leaf  is  a  list  of  "  Fautes  conmiitted  in  the  printing.'' 

96.  The  Newe  Testament.     London,  Richard  Jugge.     1566.     4to. 


This  edition  has  the  text  of  that  of  1552,  and  the  same  woodcuts  are  used  in 
the  gospels  though  differently  placed.  The  woodcuts  in  the  Apocalypse  and 
the  initial  letters  are  different  The  headlines  of  this  impression  are  in  Koman 
type,  while  those  of  the  1552  edition  are  Italic. 

97.  The  Newe  Testament.  Printed  at  Geneva  by  John  Crespin. 
1568.     4to. 

This  edition  lias  been  supposed  to  l)e  part  of  the  Bible  of  this  date.  This 
copy  wants  the  title,  but  nas  a  title  of  the  Whole  Booke  of  Psalmes  with  the 
imprint  of  1569  at  the  end  of  the  volume,  though  the  Psalms  themselves  are 

98.  Tlie  Newe  Testament.  Printed  at  London  by  Christopher  Barker. 
1575.     12mo. 

This  is  a  good  copy  of  a  rather  rare  edition  of  the  (Genevan  version.  It  bears 
a  memorandum :  "  This  was  sometime  the  booke  of  Abigail,  one  of  the 
daughters  of  Humfrey  Hales  esquier,  first  maried  to  Captaine  Sampson  and 
after  his  decease  to  Luke  Sprakeling  gent."  On  another  ]>age  is  the  signature  of 
Robert  Sprakeling,  1604. 

99.  The  ^ew  Testament.  Englished  by  L.  Tomson.  Imprinted  at 
London  by  Christopher  Barker  dwelling  in  Ponies  Churchyeard  at  the 
signe  of  the  Tigre's  Head.     1576.     8vo. 

This  is  the  first  edition  of  Tomson's  revision  of  Beza's  translation.  The  title- 
page  has  a  woodcut  of  the  angel  appearing  to  the  shepherds.  A  copy  of  the 
Metrical  Psalms  of  1638  is  bound  in  with  the  volume. 

100.  The  New  Testament,  translated  out  of  the  Authentical  Latin  in 
the  English  College  of  Kliemes.  Printed  at  Rhemes  by  John  Fogny. 
1582.     4to. 

This  IB  the  first  edition  of  a  translation  from  the  Vulgate,  which  created  some 
controversy.  Tlie  notes  contain  many  Eastern,  Greek  and  I^atin  words,  so  that 
Fuller  called  it  a  translation  which  needed  to  be  translated. 

101.  The  Newe  Testament.  Tomson*s  revision  of  the  Geneva 
version.     Imprinted  at  London  by  Christopher  Barker.     1583.     4 to. 

This  is  the  handsomest  edition  of  Beza's  version  of  the  New  Testament, 
printed  in  a  bold  black-letter  type,  with  large  ornamental  initials  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  different  books,  and  smaller  ones  at  the  beginnings  of  the 


102.  Tlie  Newe  Testament.  Tomson's  revision.  Imprinted  at  Lon- 
don by  the  Deputies  of  Christopher  Barker.     1596.     4to. 

This  is  another  black-letter  copy  of  Tomaon's  revision  of  Beza's  version,  very 
similar  to  the  last.  On  the  fly-leaf  at  the  end  is  inscribed  in  a  contemporary 
hand  the  couplet : — 

Eyther  be  as  thou  semes 

Or  seme  as  thou  art. 

Tliis  is  followed  by  another  stanza  in  the  same  hand  :  —  • 

When  I  lend  I  am  a  f  rend 
But  when  I  aske  I  am  unkynde 
So  oft  my  f rend  I  make  a  fooe 
"Where  fore  I  will  no  more  doe  soe. 

103.  The  New  Testament.  Translated  out  of  Greke  by  Theod.  Beza 
and  Englished  by  I^  T.  Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert  Barker.  1604. 

A  very  well  used  copy  of  this  tuiy  edition,  almost  complete. 

104.  The  New  Testament.     Tomson's  revision  of  Beza's  translation. 

Imprinted  at  London  by  Robert  Barker.     1610.     8vo. 

A  much  used  copy,  almost  complete,  and  considerably  cut  down  in  the 

105.  The  New  Testament.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Imprinted 
at  London  by  Robert  Barker.     Anno  Doni.  1612.     4 to. 

This  edition  of  the  Royal  version  is  printed  in  long  lines  in  a  bold  black- 
letter  type.  It  follows  the  text  of  the  Bible  of  1611,  and  in  2nd  Timothy  iv. 
13  the  words  "  and  the  books  "  are  omitted.  Bound  up  with  it  is  a  copy  of  the 
Metrical  Psalms  with  the  times  of  1()21. 

106.  The  New  Testament,  faithfully  translated  into  English  out  of  the 

Authentical  Latin,  with  Annotiitiona,  in  the  English  College  of  Rhemes. 

Printed  at  Antwerp  by  James  Seldenach.     1G21.     12mo. 

This  is  the  third  edition  of  the  Rhemish  version.  The  Annotations  follow 
the  text  and  exceed  it  in  bulk,  the  text  extending  to  285  pages  and  the  Annota- 
tions to  350  pages. 

107.  The  New  Testament.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  Printed  at 
Cambridge  by  the  Printers  to  the  University.     1628.     32mo. 

A  fairly  good  copy  wanting  the  last  leaf.     It  has  been  supposed  to  be  the 


first  New  Testaiuent  printed  at  Cambridge,  but  tbere  were  Bibles  and  Testa- 
ments printed  there  as  early  as  1591,  though  this  is  probably  the  first  edition 
of  the  Authorised  version  issued  from  Cambridge. 

108.  The  New  Testament.     Royal  or  Authorised  version.     Imprinted 

at  London  by  Bonham  Norton  and  John  Bill.     1628.     32mo. 

This  copy  is  much  like  the  last,  but  has  been  more  used,  and  is  quite 

109.  The  New  Testament.  Royal  or  Authorised  version.  London, 
printeii  by  Rol)ert  Barker,  and  by  the  Assignes  of  John  Bill.  1631. 

Til  is  edition  is  printed  in  black-letter  in  long  lines  with  the  headings  of  the 
chapters  and  the  marginal  notes  in  Roman  letter.  The  title  has  an  engraved 
Ijorder,  and  is  disfigured  by  a  misprint,  "  Chist "  for  "  Christ" 

110.  The  New  Testament,  faithfully  translated  into  English  out   of 

the  Authentical  I^tin.     The  Fourth   E<lition,  enriched  with  Pictures. 

Printed  by  John  Costurier.     [Rouen]  1633.     4to. 

This  edition  is  printed  in  Roman  letter  in  long  lines.  The  pictures  are  those 
of  the  four  Evangelists  with  their  symbols,  each  at  the  beginnmg  of  his  Gos])el, 
and  the  Pentecost  at  the  beginning  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles.  St  Paul  is  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Ei)istles,  ana  St  John  in  Patmos  at  the  beginning  of  the 

111.  The  New  Testament.     Royal  or  Authorised  version.     Eilinburgh, 

l*rinted  by  the  printers  to  the  King's  Most  Excellent  Majestic.     Anno 

l)om.  1633.     8vo. 

Tliere  were  two  editions  of  1633  printed  at  Edinburgh,  one  "  printed  by 
Robert  Young,"  the  other  as  above.  Tliis  last  impression  seems  to  have  been 
very  limited  and  copies  are  seldom  met  with.  Tliis  is  an  interleaved  copy  and 
quite  perfect. 

112.  Reprint  of  Tyudale's  edition  of  the  New  Testament,  first 
published  in  1526.     Ix)ndon,'5^aniuel  Rigster.     1836.     8vo. 

113.  The  New  Testament  in  English  translated  ])y  John  Wycliffe 
circa  1380,  now  first  printed  from  a  contempomry  manuscript  in  the 
Monastery  of  Sion,  Middlesex.  Printed  at  Chiswick  by  Charles 
Whittingham  for  William  lackering,  Picadilly,  London.     1848.     4 to. 


114.  Reprint  of  The  First  New  Testament  printed  in  the  English 
I>{ingiiage  (1525  or  1526),  translated  from  the  Greek  by  William 
Tyndale,  reproduced  in  facsimile  with  an  Introduction  hy  Francis  Fry, 
F.S.A.     Bristol,  1862.     8vo. 

115.  The  New  Testament.  A  Facsimile  Reprint  of  the  Genevan 
Testament  printed  by  Conrad  Badius,  1557,  with  the  initial  and  other 
woodcuts.     London,  Samuel  Bagster  <fe  Sons.     1842.     8vo. 

116.  The  Psalmcs  of  Dauid.  Trvely  opened  and  explaned  by 
Paraphrasis,  set  foorth  in  Latine  by  that  excellent  learned  man  Theodore 
Beza  and  faithfully  translated  into  English  by  Anthonie  Gilbie.  At 
London,  Printed  by  John  Harrison  and  Henrie  Middleton.  1580. 

117.  The  whole  Booke  of  Psalmss  collected  into  English  meeter,  by  T. 
Sternhold,  I.  Hopkins  and  others,  conferred  with  the  Hebrue,  with  apte 
notes  to  sing  them  withal.  Imprinted  at  London  by  Johne  Days. 
1581.     8vo. 

118.  The  Whole  Booke  of  Psahnes,  collected  into  English  Metre  by 
Thomas  Sternhold,  John  Hopkins,  and  others,  with  apt  notes  to  sing 
them  withall.  London,  Printed  by  John  Windet  for  the  assignes  of 
Richard  Day.     1601.     12mo. 

119.  The  Whole  Booke  of  Psalmes,  collected  into  English  Meeter  by 
Thomas  Sternhold  and  John  Hopkins  and  others,  &c.  Ix)ndon,  Printed 
for  the  Companie  of  Stationers.     1617.     12mo. 

120.  The  Epistles  and  Gospels,  with  a  brief  Postyll  upon  the  same 
from  Trinitie  sonday  tyll  Advent,  drawen  forthe  by  divers  learned  men 
for  the  singuler  conmioditie  of  al  good  christians  and  namely  of  Prestes 
and  Curates.     Imprinted  in  London  by  Rychard  Bankes.     [1541.]     8vo. 

121.  The  Paraphrases  of  Erasmus  on  the  New  Testament.  Printed  at 
London  ])y  Edwarde  Whitchurch.     Folio.     1548. 


122.  A  IMaine  Discovery  of  tlie  Whole  Revelation  of  Saint  John. 
Set  foorth  by  John  Nni>eir  L.  of  Marchistoun  younger.  Edinburgh, 
Printed  })y  K«]>ert  Waldegrave.     1593.     4to. 

A  good  wpy  of  this  rare  trwitise  by  John  Napier  of  Merchiston,  afterwards 
known  as  tiie  famous  mathematician,  and  the  inventor  of  calculation  by 
logarithms.  The  book  is  interesting  as  containing  the  earliest  notice  of  the 
discovery  of  a  Roman  Altar  at  Musselburgh,  which  gives  the  words  of  the 
inacription : — "and  even  at  Musselburgh,  amonff  oumlves  in  Scotland,  a 
foundation  of  a  Romane  monument  lately  found  (now  utterlie  demolished) 
bearing  this  inscription  dedicatorie  —  Apollini  Granno  Quintiu  L%iciu8 
Saiinvinm  Proconsul  A\ig" 

123.  The  (Jospel  according  to  Saint  Matthew  and  part  of  the  first 
chapter  of  the  Go8i>el  according  to  Saint  Mark  translated  into  English 
from  the  Greek,  with  original  notes.  By  Sir  John  Cheke,  Knight, 
Secretary  of  State  to  King  Edwanl  VI.  With  an  Introductory  Account, 
by  James  Goodwin,  B.D.     Cambridge,  1843.     8vo. 

124.  The  Prophete  Jonas.  With  an  Introduction.  By  William 
Tyndale.  Repro<iuced  in  Facsimile;  to  which  is  added  Coverdale's 
version  of  Jonah.  With  an  Introduction  by  Francis  Fry,  F.S.A. 
London,  1863.     8vo. 

Tliere  was  also  Exhibited  : — 

(1)  By  the    Right  Hon.    Sir    Herbert   Maxwell,   Bart.,   M.P., 
F.S.A.  Scot. 

A  wooden  effigy  of  an  Ecclesiastic  2  feet  8^  inches  in  height,  found 
in  a  moss  near  the  Priory  of  Whithorn.  The  wood  seems  to  be  oak 
blackened  by  long  immersion  in  peat.  The  figure  is  vested  in  ceremonial 
vestments.  The  arms,  which  have  not  been  carved  out  of  the  block  but 
inserted,  are  gone.  The  mitre  is  of  the  later  shape,  indicating  a  period 
probably  not  earlier  than  fifteenth  century.  The  effigy  is  shown  in  the 
accompanying  illustration  to  a  scale  of  one-fifth. 

Tlie  following  Communications  were  retid  : — 

Ptoceedin^s  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries    of  Scotland 


FORTS,  'camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,  FORFAR,  AND  KINCARDINE.      43 


AND  KINCARDINE.    By  D.  CHRISTISON,  M.D.,  Secretary. 

Having  at  various  times  visited  and  made  rough  plans  of  nearly  all 

forts  in  this  large  district,  and  being  privileged  to  use  the  plans  and 

iptions  of  the  few  that  I  have  not  seen,  but  which  have  already  been 

iblished  in  our  Proceedings  by  Mr  Alex.  Hutcheson,^  I  am  thus  able 

give  a  tolerably  exhaustive  account  of  the  whole. 

The  course  of  my  investigations  naturally  led  me  to  see  also  a  good 
ly  of  the  *  Roman  Camps '  of  the  district,  and  of  the  obscure  field- 
rorks,  the  precise  nature  of  which  cannot  be  ascertained  without  ex- 
■rating  them — if  then.  Of  the  latter,  I  have  attempted  to  give  some 
ecount,  and  I  have  referred  briefly  to  others  of  the  same  kind  that  I 
»ve  not  seen,  classing  them  all  in  a  group  by  themselves ;  but  I  have 
lofc  descril>ed  the  *  Roman  Camps,'  because  the  sulvject  is  so  large  as  to 
Bquire  separate  treatment. 

The  map  (Plato  I.)  shows  the  general  elevation  of  the  land  by  the 
Ontour  lines  of  500  and  1000  feet  above  the  sea,  and  the  principal 
beams.  To  avoid  overcrowding  with  names,  the  only  inhabited  places 
ntered  are  the  larger  towns  and  such  of  the  villages,  generally  of  great 
ntiquity,  as  are  near  the  forts  and  serve  as  guides  to  their  position, 
hsides  the  forts  and  the  obscure  field-works  noticed  in  the  text,  the 
Eoman  Camps,'  although  undescribed  for  the  reason  just  given,  have 
>een  introduced  on  the  map  to  give  some  additional  value  to  it  as  a 
ecord  of  the  fortified  works  of  the  district.  All  the  works  either  have 
heir  special  designation  attached,  when  they  have  one,  or  are  named 
tfter  the  hill  on  which  tliey  stand,  or  the  nearest  inhabited  place.  Tlie 
iifierent  classes  are  distinguished  by  tlie  marks  explained  on  the  map, 

I  *  "  Notes  on  the  Stone  Circle  near  Kenmore,  and  of  some  Hill  Forts  in  the  neigh- 
Wurhood  of  Aberfeldy,  Perthshire,"  by  Alexander  Hutcheson,  F.S.A.,  Architect, 
fBroughty  Ferry,  /Vo^*.  S.  A,  Hcot.,  xxiii.  356. 


and  lus  the  objects  in  each  class  are  taken  in  the  text  from  the  south  and 
west  north wanl  and  eastward,  their  place  on  the  map  should  be  the 
more  easily  found.  Certain  oliscure  works  in  Glenlyon,  which  lie  l^eyond 
the  map,  are  given  from  the  Onhiance  Survey  on  a  separate  little  chart 
(tig.  55). 

My  plans  are  orientetl  with  the  north  to  the  top  of  the  Figures,  and 
they  are  on  the  scale  of  120  ft  to  the  inch,  unless  when  otherwise 
stite*i.  The  protile**  are  usually  on  twice  that  scale.  All  heights  of 
ramparts,  etc.,  are  perpendicular  heights. 

A  few  contractions  of  words  that  occur  frequently  are  used  in  the 
text  Most  of  these  are  easily  enough  understood,  and  all  that  seem  to 
require  explanation  are  O.M.  for  Ordnance  Map  ;  O.S.A.  and  N.S.A.  for 
the  Old  and  Xew  Statistii*al  Accounts  of  Scothuid. 

General  Description  of  the  District. 

The  district  dealt  with  nearly  corresponds  with  the  South  Pictland 
of  Skene,  including  the  vaguely  defined  Fortrenn,  but  without  Fife, 
which  is  reluctantly  excludeii,  as  I  have  no  personal  knowledge  of  its 
forts.  It  is  a  district  well  defineii  by  nature  as  well  as  by  the  isolation 
of  its  forts  from  other  groujvs.  On  the  east  it  is  bounded  by  tlie  North 
Sea,  On  the  north,  a  wide  elevated  tract  destitute  of  forts  divides  it 
fn>m  the  AWnleenshire  gnnip.  On  the  west,  the  Gnunpians,  also 
entirely  without  forts,  limit  the  unit^nl  grouj^s  of  Angus  and  the 
Meiirns,  and  if  in  Perthshire  the  fort.**  do  creep  up  tlie  Highland  glens  it 
is  only  to  find  tluMusclves  cut  oflf  by  a  vast  sivice  from  gix^uj^s  further  west. 
Finally,  on  the  s*nith,  a  tongue  of  high  tableland  pn>jecting  from  the 
Highland!^  towanU  the  Ochils  op|M»sito  (Uoncagles,  and  the  Ochils  running 
thence  to  the  Firth  of  Tay,  ft^rni  a  well  markcii  Knindary. 

Beside.*?  towns  oi  iniiH^rtance  al  the  present  day,  or  in  some  instances 
long  Wfore  it  the  district  contains  AUTnithy.  Foru»viot,  and  Sci>ne,  the 
now  decaye^l  capit^ils  of  tlie  l^ct^Ss  lvside>  Ihnidurn.  the  proliable  chief 
stn^nghold  of  Fortrenn,  als<^  m.vny  villai^es  wlioso  great  antiquity  is  testified 


by  the  carved  stones  still  existing  at  them,  and  although  the  number  of 
forts  is  comparatively  small,  there  is  no  other  district  in  Scotland  that 
contains  so  great  a  proportion  of  large  and  im|)ortant  examples. 

The  country  people,  particularly  of  Angus  and  Mearns,  although 
allocated  in  our  military  system  to  Highland  regiments,  appeared  to  me 
to  be  of  a  marked  Liowland  type  in  character,  manners,  and  appearance ; 
and  the  very  small  proportion  of  Highland  names  on  the  tombstones  in 
the  churchyards,  even  those  on  the  Higldand  border,  indicates  a  small 
admixture  of  blood  with  the  neighbouring  Celts.  I  have  been  furnished 
by  my  friend  Dr  Beddoe  with  the  following  note  on  this  sulyect : — 

"  Surnames  in  Laurencekirk  Kirkyard, — Every  tombstone  was  counted 
separately,  but  four  or  five  identical  surnames  on  one  tombstone  were 
reckoned  as  only  one. 


Surnames:  Highland,. 



„           Border  or  Lothian, 



Doubtful,  . 



„           Others, 

.     192 


Some  of  those  stated  to  be  of  doubtful  origin  may  have  been  really 
Highland  ones ;  the  *  others '  were  of  various  Lowland  Scotch  tyj^s,  or 
common  to  England  and  the  Scotch  Lowlands.  The  inference  I  draw 
is  that  there  has  not  been  much  immigration  from  the  Highlands  since 
this  part  of  the  country  was  Saxonised, 

In  illustration,  I  may  add  the  following  facts  extracted  from  the 
Parish  Registers  of  Muthill  in  Perthshire : — 

Out  of  200  entries  of  names  in  the  years  1697  to  1700,  83,  or  41*5 
per  cent,  were  of  Highland  type.  But  in  200  names  taken  from  the 
Registers  of  the  period  between  1845  and  1886,  only  32,  or  16  per  cent., 
-were  distinctly  Highland.  In  this  case  the  change  of  i>optdation  seems 
to  have  been  due  to  a  current  setting  in  from  the  Ix)wlands,  or  perhaps 
partly  from  the  Highland  families  moving  into  the  large  towns." 

The  distinction  of  race  is  also  strongly  brought  out  by  the  difference 


in  tlie  colour  of  hair  and  eyes,  as  ascertained  by  Dr  Beddoe  in  observa- 
tions made  in  1898,  but  not  yet  published. 


A  strictly  scientilic  or  accurate  classification  of  objects  that  have 
suliered  so  much  from  gradual  decay,  and  so  much  more  from  the 
ruthless  hand  of  man,  and  which  are  often  so  ovei-grown  with  turf  and 
weeds  that  without  excavation  we  cannot  even  he  sure  whether  they 
are  of  earth  or  stone,  is  obviously  impossible.  The  best  I  can  make  of  it 
is  to  divide  the  o])jects  under  the  following  chief  heads  : — 

I.  p]arth works  and  prokable  Earthworks. 
II.  Stone  Forts  and  probable  Stone  Forts. 
III. .Sites  of  Forts  with  little  or  no  remains. 
IV.  Dubious  works  or  sites,  marked  Fort  or  Camp  on  the  O.^F. 
V.  Dubious  works  or  sit(^s,  possil)ly  miliUiry,  not  marked  Fort 
or  Camp  tm  the  O.^I. 


(a)  Earthwork  Resembling  a  Typical  Mote. 

1.  If  division  of  our  .subject  be  difficult,  subdivision  is  still  more  so,  but  it 
may  l>e  said  that  only  one  work  can  be  structurally  classed  without  doubt  na 
a  SloU*.  Tliis  is  the  Cairn  Beth  of  the  O.M.,  the  Cairn  Ikddie,  Caer  Bed, 
Ciwr  Beth  or  Macbeth^s  Castle  of  the  N.S.A.  Tlie  true  local  name  appeiirs 
to  have  l>een  Cairn  Jieddie,  and  the  Caer  Bed  or  Beth  are  probably  interpreta- 
tions to  leiul  up  to  Macbeth's  Castle,  a  title  which  I  cannot  trace  to  an  earlier 
source  than  the  N.S.A.  Tlie  site  is  5  m.  N.E.  of  Perth,  7(X)  yds.  N.W. 
of  St  Martin's  Churcli  at  the  bottom  of  a  gentle  hollow,  clase  to  a  small  rill, 
and  2.")0  ft.  alx)ve  the  s(M.  Hie  work  is  niueh  ploughed  down,  but  still  shows 
the  ]>lan  (fig.  1)  of  a  typical  mote  with  a  squarish  1){1.«h' court  snrrouudi»d  by  a 
trench,  the  moti^  or  mound  descending  on  one  side  into  the  trencli.  The  niotii  is 
now  only  8  or  10  ft.  liigli  and  tlie  trench  almost  tilled  up,  but  the  writ<T  in  the 
N.S.A.  siys  that  twenty-fourye^ars  In-fore  he  wrote,  a  great  ([uantity  (^f  eart,h  wa.** 
removed,  and  even  after  his  time  the  O.M.  rejiresents  it  as  well  ]>'rve<l,  the 
mote  having  a  tlat  toj*  50  ft.  in  diameter,  the  base  court  measuring  230  by 
200  ft.  insith',  and  the  trench  40  to  45  ft.  in  width. 

FORTS,  'CA^fPS/   ETC.,  OF   PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      47 

(h)  Earthworks  with  somk  Structural  Rf>semblanck  to  Military  MoTEii, 
OR  WITH  Mote  or  Moat  Marked  at  them  ox  the  O.M. 

I  have  placed  together  all  the  works  with  tlie  term  Moat  or  Mote  attached  to 
them  on  tne  O.M.  Unfortunately  the  term  is  there  used  in  various  senses,  but 
by  favour  of  Colonel  D.  A.  Johnston,  R.E.,  Director  of  the  Survey,  I  am  enabled 
to  state  in  the  following  paragraphs  in  which  ca.se8  it  designates  a  mound,  and 
in  which  merely  a  trencii  connectwl  with  a  fort.  The  information,  however, 
came  too  late  to  enable  me  to  recast  this  unsatisfactory  subdivision.  In  the 
present  revision  of  the  ma|)8,  the  distinction  between  Motr,  a  military,  generally 
circular  eminence,  and  iV/oa/,  a  trench,  is  to  Ijo  observed,  and  neither  term  is  to 
be  used  for  an  ordinary  mound.  It  is  questionable  whether  in  any  case  in  the 
district  the  term  is  traditional  and  looal,  or  whether  any  of  these  works  have 
been  military  motes.  Most  of  them,  as  far  aw  structure  goes,  have  nearly  an 
ecjual  claim  to  the  title  of  mote  or  fort. 

2.  Inchbrakii*. — On  a  level  field  2i  m.  E.  of  (•rieff,  in  the  gi-ounds  of 
Abercaimey,  150  ft.  above  the  sea,  is*  this  puzzling  structure.  Moiit  marked 
on  it  on  the  O.M.,  as  shown  in  fig.  2,  signifies  the  surrounding  trench,  which 
with  its  appurtenances  is  s(»  drawn  there  as  to  Ik*  not  quite  intelligible  ;  I 
have  therefore,  while  adopting  the  form  and  dimensions  of  the  Ordnance  Plan, 
represented  the  enclosing  trench,  etc.,  so  as  to  corres})ond  with  my  section  A  B, 
which  is  given  on  a  larger  scale. 

In  fonu  the  work  is  a  long,  pretty  regular  oval,  rather  broader  at  the  E. 
tlian  the  W.  end,  and  the  dimensions  over  all  are  nearly  900  by  360  ft.  The 
structure  rises  gradually  into  a  much-flattened  dome,  not  more  than  25  ft. 
above  the  level  of  the  surrounding  ])ark,  but  it  is  j»retty  steeply  scarped  for  a 
perpendicular  height  of  6  to  8  ft.  down  to  the  trench,  which  is  only  3  ft.  wide 
ana  is  l>ounded  outside  by  a  mound  18  ft.  across  and  3  to  4  ft.  high  above 
both  the  trench  and  the  field,  so  that  the  trench  is  not  a  dug  out  trench  as  far 
as  appearances  go.  An  entrance,  much  modernised,  30  ft  wide,  comes  in  from 
the  N.  near  the  W.  end,  and  at  that  i»art  there  seems  to  have  l)een  some 
levelling  of  the  interior.  H(»re  and  then*  a  slight  indication  of  a  jMirajKit  may 
be  seen  at  the  top  of  the  scarp. 

Of  the  *  Castle  of  InchbraKie '  not  a  trace  is  to  Ixj  st^en,  but  the  neglected  fine 
old  trees  and  dense  imdergi-owth  make  a  i)roi>er  examination  difficult.  On  the 
whole  it  seems  not  unlikely  that  this  may  have  been  a  Mote  of  unusual  form 
and  size,  on  which  a  mediaeval  castle  was  afterwards  l)uilt. 

3.  Moiit^  the  Law,  are  the  names  given  on  the  O.M.  to  a  mound,  Ij  m. 
S.E.  of  Dunnichen  Church  and  600  yds.  S.  of  Idvies  House.  It  is  situated 
464  ft.  alx)ve  the  sea,  on  the  summit  of  a  broad  flat  elevation  or  ridge,  com- 
manding an  extensive  view.  The  mound  rises  12  to  15  ft.  alx)ve  the 
field,  and  is  very  conspicuous  with  its  steep  green  sides  crowned  with  trees.  It 
has  a  slightly  domed  toj>  only  18  ft.  in  diametiT,  green  like  the  slopes,  but  with 
a  aniall  Yieap  of  stones  on  the  toj*.  The  slope  falls  tm  a  retaining  stone  wall  4 
ft.  high  which  girths  the  foot  with  a  circumference  of  280  ft.  There  is  no 
sign  of  a  trench,  and  the  term  Mont  {nwtt^  was  adopted  on  the  Ordnance  Plan 
for  the  very  unsatisfactory  reason  that  criminals  were  said  to  have  been  executed 
on  it.  The  small  rounded  top  seems  ill  adapted  to  the  use  of  the  work  as  a 
Mote.    300  yds.  N.E.  of  it  is  the  "  site  of  Idvies  Church,"  with  no  remains. 

y  >>""  Sire  of 


Inchbrakle  Cairlc 


•  •  •  -^*^\n.v,;i;;%fcfsM-,%nwvr;" 


Cairn  ..<';'"'•-..,  1 

/  .5." 

Callows  Law.Garayrte    3 


Scalf  forallrhfPlan^  i<fe- 

Figs.  1  to  11.  Earthworks  in  Perth,  ADgus,  and  Mcarns. 

fr'OKTS,   *  (AMI'S/   KTC,   OF   PKIJTII,    FOHFAH,   ANP    KINCAHI»INE.      40 

4.  Af'Mit,  Gallmrn  Ltuv  (lig.  3),  is  the  next  i'xainnlf,  3  iii.  E.N.E.  from 
lilt*  lajst,  \  111.  N.  of  (Iiuilyiie  Castle,  J  m.  S.S.K.  ot  (lUthrie  Church,  and 
alK>iit  :2U<J  ft.  aljove  the  W*a.  It  is  conr^jiicuoiisly  jilaatl  at  the  very  W. 
ciul  of  a  siiigiiliir,  narrow,  artilicial-lookiiig  lnit  natural  ridge  which  runs  K. 
and  W.  on  a  field  Hloi>ing  gently  from  S.  to  N.  This  mound  rises 
j^^mcltially  from  the  E.,  with  a  gently-rounded  crest  and  Bteep  sides,  15  to  2ri 
ft.    lii^li  on  the  S.  and  30  U*  45  on  the  N.    On  nearing  the  W,  end,  aft4M' 

Fig.  12.  Castlchill,  Insbewau. 

a  tiourse  of  70  yds.,  a  trench  cuts  off  the  mote,  which  risi's  H  ft.  above 
the  trench,  lias  a  fiat  top,  27  hy  18  ft.,  and  falls  steeply  about  20  feet  to  the 
S.  and  40  to  the  N.,  upon  the  field.  The  W.  fac«*  is  (luarriinl  away  (at 
6  on  the  plan  and  section)  and  shows  nothing  but  sand  and  rollwl  i)ebbles  from 
U>p  to  iHjtttnii.  Tlie  name  Gallmcs  Law  seems  n<»t  inappnipriatt*,  from  the 
following  abbreviated  reference  in  the  O.S.  account :  "  Two  artiti(rial  conical 
mounds  called  laxcn  exist  at  Id  vie  and  (iardyne.  An  old  man  told  Tliomas 
VOL.    XXXIV.  l> 


Lyel  that  he  saw  two  Highlanders  taken  with  stolen  cattle,  judged,  condemned, 
and  hanged  on  the  Law  of  Gardyne"  (early  in  the  eighteenth  century),  but  this 
is  no  reason  for  calling  it  also  a  Moat  (Mote), 

5.  Passing  now  to  the  high  tableland  upon  which  the  high  road  from  Forfar 
to  Brechin  runs,  we  come  on  the  Mote  of  Melgund  of  the  O.M.,  the  only 
instance,  within  our  review,  of  the  spelling  mote  in  place  of  moat.  The  site  is 
1|  m.  N.E.  of  Aberlemno  Church  on  the  broad  summit  of  Angus  Hill, 
451  ft.  above  the  sea.  It  is  represented  on  the  O.M.  as  a  very  small,  shapeless 
mound,  and  >>tis  prol>ably  then  undergoing  a  gradual  destniction,  which  seems 
to  be  now  complete,  as  I  could  find  no  trace  of  it  on  the  site  in  a  field  then  under 

6.  Scarcely  2^  m.  E.  of  this,  J  m.  S.S.E.  of  Aldhar  Castle,  and  2  m. 
S.W.  of  Brechin,  Mont  is  marked  on  the  O.M.  on  a  gently  sloping  field  316 
ft.  above  the  sea,  at  a  place  called  Chapel.  The  term  here  means  a  trench, 
but  it  must  have  disappeared,  and  I  coula  see  nothing  but  a  cottage  and  garden 
beside  a  square  enclosure,  fenced  by  a  low  mound,  on  the  top  of  which  was  a  " 
ruined  wall,  of  which  the  N.  side,  104  ft.  long,  and  part  of  the  E.  and  W. 
sides,  84  and  48  ft.,  remained.  The  site  seems  to  have  been  of  some  import- 
ance formerly,  as  on  the  O.M.,  besides  the  names  fJhapely  and  Priest  Shed 
(apparently  the  name  of  a  field  close  to  Moat),  there  is  a  Court  Law  200  yds.  to 
the  S.  ana  Sit^  of  Clmrch  Barns  400  yds.  S.W.  I  have  retained  this  and  the 
preceding  No.  5  in  this  class,  l^ecause  they  are  marked  *  Moat*  on  the  O.M.  But 
strictly  they  should  have  been  relegated  to  the  chiss  with  no  existing  remains. 

7.  The  last  occurrence  of  the  word  Moat  (here  signifying  trench)  on  the 
O.M.  is  at  Castlehillj  Inshewan  (fig.  12),  which  is  situated  on  the  N.  kink 
of  the  South  Esk,  about  300  ft.  above  the  sea,  2  m.  W.S.W.  of  Tannadice 
Churcli,  and  500  yds.  W.N.W.  of  Inshewan  House.  The  river  here  flows 
l>etween  perpendicular  clitfs,  and  the  fortress  is  formed  by  cutting  a  deep  trench 
landward,  where  there  i.s  a  bend  of  the  river,  the  land  side  of  the  long  oval 
being  protected  by  the  trench,  and  the  river  side  by  the  cliflf  30  or  40  ft.  in 
height,  and  the  foaming  river  rushing  along  in  its  rocky  bed  below.  The 
trench  is  remarkably  deep  and  steep,  and  from  the  configuration  of  the  ground 
the  counterscarp  is  higher  than  the  scarp  in  the  proportion  of  25  to  15  ft., 
where  highest,  about  tho  middle.  Eastward,  however,  from  the  natural  fall  in 
the  landward  ground,  the  height  of  the  counterscarp  diminislies  rapidly  as  it 
curves  towards  the  river,  and  the  entrance,  C,  is  here,  close  to  the  stream.  The 
nearly  level  and  pretty  regularly  oval  interior  measures  alx)ut  150  by  100  ft. 
A  slight  banking  up  of  the  landward  edge  may  be  remains  of  a  ramixxrt.  There 
are  no  signs  of  stone  work  and  no  stones  lie  about. 

(c)  Earthworks  with  Some  Resemblance  to  Military  Motes, 
BUT  NOT  Marked  Mote  oh  Moat  on  the  O.M. 

8.  The  only  earthwork  resembling  a  mote  in  the  Highlands  of  Perth  is  on 
the  T(yrr  UiU,\  m.  S.S.W.  of  Aherfeldy,  on  the  left  bank  of  Moness  Bum,  400 
ft.  above  the  sea,  within  50  yds.  of  the  i)ublic  rojul  to  Crieflf.  Mr  Hutcheson, 
from  whose  mper  I  take  the  plan  (fig.  13),  calls  it  a  very  distinct  and  well- 
marked  eartlien  fort,  measuring  internally  154  by  124  ft.,  rectangular  in  form. 

FOKTS,  'camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      51 

^vith.  tiv-o  trenches  ou  the  slojie,  varying  from  24  to  36  ft.  in  width,  and  rising 
40  to  45  ft.  above  the  surrounding  ground.     He  also  states  that,  on  the  ascend- 




y. ' 


^tcTionoymil  rfi-^ 

Fig.  13.  Earthwork,  Torr  Hill,  Aberfeldy.     (Mr  Hutchesoii.) 

ing  s^op®  ®^  ^^®  ^^  ^^  ^^®  ^'  °^  ^^  ^^'**'»  *'^cre  are  several  otlier  wcll-mnrked 
trenches,  which  may  have  been  thrown  up  as  outworks  tr)  protect  the  foit  on 
that  the  most  vulnerable  side. 



Tliis  work  seems  to  Iw  altogether  of  ratlier  a  Qiiique  kind.  Tt  in  so  in  the 
first  place  hecause  earthen  forts  are  exceedingly  rare  in  the  S«'0ttish  Highlands  ; 
but  it  is  also  reniarkahle  for  its  recUingidar  form.  It  will  l)e  observed  from 
Mr  Hutcheson's  plan  that,  although  the  interior  is  rectangular  with  rounded 
angles,  the  trenches  assume  a  more  circular  form.  In  these  respects  it  resembles 
the  *  Roman  Post'  of  Kaim^  Castle  between  Ardoch  and  Strageath,  and  no 
other  work  with  which  I  am  acquainted.  On  paper  the  Torhill  work  is  some- 
what su^estive  of  a  terraced  mote,  and  what  with  that  and  its  position  so  near 
to  a  low  lying  inhabited  site,  it  seems  not  unlikely  that  it  may  ne  a  work  of  the 
mote  period. 

9.  Dundee  Law. — This  conspicuous  green  eminence  rises  on  the  N.W.  side  of 
the  town  of  Dundee  to  a  height  of  572  ft.  above  the  sea,  the  last  100  ft  being 

d    ^ 

3  ;  s 


■JMni...      .^ 


>.    a  1  :* 


very     steep 

Fig.  14.   Dundee  Law. 

very  steep  all  round,  but  particularly  on  the  X.  The  summit  is  nearly  level 
but  with  a  gentle  incline  to  the  S.  and  E.,  and  the  fort  (fig.  14),  measuring 
'2()i)  by  170  ft.  over  all,  occuj^ies  the  whole  of  it.  The  work  is  peculiar  for  a 
hill  site,  l)eing  striclly  rectilmear,  except  for  a  rounded  annex  at  the  N.  end, 
which  is  outside  the  main  rami)art  and  follows  the  contour  of  the  hill  top  there. 
The  inner  area  mejisuros  about  140  by  80  ft. ;  and  the  northern  jmrt.  A,  for  a 
bre^idth  of  30  ft,  is  very  slightly  raised  al)ove  the  southern  i>art,  B,  and  ha«»  a 


11.  1|  111.  S.E.  of  Glamis  Church,  |  m.  N.W.  of  Arniefoul  hamlet,  in 
Hayston  wood  (now  much  cut  down),  fully  700  ft.  above  the  sea,  on  the 
top  of  a  lofty  ridge  commanding  a  fine  view,  is  this  circular  little  work 
(fig.  5),  consisting  of  a  flat-topped  mound  not  more  than  5  or  6  ft  high, 
i^O  ft.  in  diameter  on  the  toi>,  sloping  gently  to  a  slight  rampjart,  if  it  may 
be  so-called,  12  ft.  broad  ana  only  a  foot  or  two  in  height,  which  environs  it 
all  round,  the  over-all  diameter  being  alx)ut  120  ft.  Many  rounded  pebbles 
of  considerable  size  show  in  chance  breaks  of  the  mound,  but  no  stones  suitable 
for  building.  The  ground  for  a  great  distance  round  alx)ut  has  been  surface- 
quarried  for  slate. 

12.  At  Canterla7id,  J  m.  N.N.W.  of  the  farm  of  that  name,  Ij  m.  E.  of 
Marykirk,  4j  m.  N.  of  Montrose,  406  ft.  above  the  sea,  on  the  level  summit 
of  a  ridge  at  the  very  S.W.  end  of  Garvock  Hill,  with  a  commanding  view 
to  the  S.  and  W.,  stands  a  work  (fig.  6)  closely  resembling  the  last,  being 
nearly  circular,  and  having  a  central  mound  6  ft.  high  but  only  20  ft.  in 
diameter  on  the  flat  top,  with  sides  sloping  gently  to  an  encircling  mound 
not  2  ft.  liigh,  which  differs  from  that  at  Arniefoul  in  being  double  with  some 
compartments,  perliaps  changes  due  to  digging.  The  central  mound  has  also 
been  much  dug  into,  revealing  the  same  composition  as  at  Arniefoul. 

(d)  Apparent  Earthworks  that  ark  probably  Forts  and  not  Motes. 

13.  Beginning  from  the  south  and  west,  as  under  the  previous  head,  the 
first  in  this  class  is  the  Fort  of  the  O.M.  and  Pod  of  Roy  on  the  Grinnan  Hill 
of  Keir, — The  site  is  less  than  J  m.  S.W.  of  Ardoch  camp,  420  ft  above  the 
sea,  on  the  edge  of  a  steep  descent,  40  to  50  ft  high,  to  Keir  Burn,  but  only 
slightly  elevated  above  the  field  towards  Braco  village.  It  has  apparently  been 
an  earthwork  with  a  scmioval  triple  line  of  defence  (fig.  15),  j)artly  ram- 
parted and  trenched,  jwirtly  terraced,  the  l)road  oval  being  rudely  completed  by 
the  unfortified  edge  of  the  steej)  Imiik.  The  entrance,  a,  is  along  the  narrow 
crest  of  a  ridge,  h,  from  the  E.,  and  it  in  likewise  approached  by  a  rude  i-oad- 
wav,  c,  from  the  burnside  lx*low. 

Ro/s  i)lan  makes  the  work  neiirly  complete,  but  t\w  middle  half  of  the  lines 
no  longer  exists.  He  siiys  that  it  may  have  lK?en  a  work  of  the  natives  before 
the  arrival  of  the  Romans,  but  calls  it  a  (Roman  ?)  *  post.'  There  can  be  no 
doubt  that  it  belongs  to  a  common  tyi>e  of  native  fortresses.  Its  extreme  length 
is  about  320  ft,  and  the  interior  may  liave  been  about  200  by  170. 

14.  Uni.  E.N.E.of  Blackford  Church,  180  ydn.  N.W.  of  the  ci-oss-rotuls  at 
Loaninyhead,  opposite  the  mouth  of  Gleiieagles,  the  easiest  pass  through  the 
Ochils  from  Perth  to  P'ife,  is  another  Fort  (hg.  16),  5i  m.  nearly  due  E.  of  the 
last,  which  it  closely  resembles,  and  marked  *  Konian  (lamp  '  on  the  O.M.  The 
site,  i  m.  W.S.W.  of  Criett'  Junction,  occupies  the  whole  of  an  oval  eminence, 
620  ft  above  the  sea,  rising  alM)ut  25  ft  above  a  field  on  the  N.E.  side,  and  only 
8  or  10  al>ove  one  on  tlu*  S.W.  side.  This  eminence  forms  the  central  jwirt  of  a 
little  ridge,  but  is  a^jpnached  from  it  at  each  eiul  by  narr(>\v  necks,  B  and  D. 
The  entrance,  I  K,  is  not  from  either  neck,  but  from  the  field  U)  the  S.E.  The 
defences  at  the  ends,  AB  and  CD,  consist  of  a  steej)  scar[>  from  the  interior, 
falling  on  a  trench,  beyond  which  is  a  i-ami«irt  and  second  trench.  The  scarp 
and  rampart  are  in  some  i)laces  9  ft.  above  the  bottom  of  the  ti-enches  in  their 




fiDiit.  Oil  the  N.E.  face,  E,  F,  the  trenches  jiass  into  terraces  which  have  no 
iwii-ai>et*5.  On  the  S.W.  face,  where  they  are  most  i^equired,  the  defences  are 
entirt^ly  gone.  The  dimensions  of  this  oval  fort  are  al)OUt  380  hy  200  ft.  over 
all,  the  interior  l)eing  alxmt  230  by  120.* 

15.  On  the  tnlge  of  a  j*t<K»j)  wooded  Ivank,  (50  ft.  high,  which  falls  on  a  liau^h 
enclosed  to  the  S.E.  and  W.  hy  a  looj)  of  the  River  Almond,  2  m.  from  its 
mouth,  1 0()  ft.  above  the  sea,  at  JHUairiiffirtni,  is  this  semicircular  work  (fig.  7), 
the  base  l>eing  formed  by  the  straight  and  unfortified  edge  of  the  bank.  To  the 
X.  the  semicircular  lines  face  neiirly  level  ploughed  land  and  have  been  a 
good  deal  destroyed.  Whert^  most  perfect,  in  a  plantation  at  the  W.  end,  they 
consist  of  a  scarp  6  ft.  high,  with  two  momids  5  and  3  ft.  high  beyond,  on 
a  pretty  steep  sIoih*  ;  but  in  the  ctiiitre  towards  the  N.  there  is  a  terrace  10  ft. 
wide  in  rear  of  the  outer  mound.  The  inner  scai*p  is  parapetted  only  at  the 
entrance,  which  is  from  the  N.W.  Tlie  length  of  the  base  over  all  is  270  ft., 
and  the  width  of  the  interior,  which  contains  a  ixictangular  foundation,  from  N. 
to  S.  135.    Apparently  it  is  a  pure  earthwork. 

16.  The  next  on  the  list,  witliin  the  gi*ounds  of  Cidtoquey,  clo^  to  the  high 
i-oad,  2  m.  N.E.  of  Crietf,  i  m.  E.  of  Gilmeiixjn  Church,  370  ft.  above  tlie 
sea,  is  marked  *  Roman  OutposJ, '  on  the  O.M.,  but  there  can  hardly 
Ije  a  doubt  tliat  it  belongs  to  a  common  class  of  native  works,  in  whicn 
the  extn^mity  of  a  ridge  or  tongue  of  land,  whether  on  the  coast  or  inland,  is 
converted  into  a  fortre&s  simply  by  drawing  an  intrenchment  across  the  top  of 
the  ridge,  the  enceinte  elsewhere  showing  in  general  no  fortification,  and  having 
iKJcn  prolttbly  defended  by  a  jwdisade  wherever  the  natural  strength  was 
insutticient.  In  this  instance  the  ridge,  al)OUt  30  ft.  high,  rises  steeply  on  the 
N.  side,  l)Ut  the  ascent  is  generally  gentler  from  the  S.  Tlie  intrenclmient 
runs  nearly  stmight  for  alwmt  120  Ft.  acjross  the  t<3p  of  the  ridge,  and  is 
carried  j)artially  down  its  slows.  It  consit^ts  of  two  ramimila  or  mounds  and 
two  titmches  covering  a  wiclth  of  about  60  ft.,  and  is  peculiar  in  this  respect, 
that  it  is  apj»arently  designed  to  defend,  not  the  small  extivmity  of  the  ridge  t<» 
the  E.,  but  the  main  ridge,  2(X)  yds.  in  length,  t^)  the  AV.  The  easterly  mound 
in  ])articular  is  massive,  and  at  one  i)oint  ris<\*<  9  ft.  alcove  the  trench  to  the  E. 
The  straight  coui-se  of  the  intrenchment  is  pn^lwibly  the  only  reason  why  it 
has  l^een  ascribed  to  the  Romans. 

17.  R'lssing  to  the  north  and  efist  side  of  the  Tay  we  encounter  two 
earthworks  on  the  Sid  law  Hills.  The  first  is  at  Erdick,  500  yds.  W.S.W.  of 
the  ruined  castle  of  that  name,  and  1|  m.  W.  of  Kilspindie  Church.  It  is 
reared  2CK)  ft.  above  tlu*  old  Ccistle  and  890  ft.  above  the  seii,  on  one 
of  sevond  little  rather  liat-toi>i>ed  eminences  which  form  the  tiibleland 
summit  of  Pole  Hill,  the  highest  of  which  attains  940  ft.  The  green  height 
on  which  the  fort  stands  is  conspicuous  from  l)elow  and  looks  down  upon  the 
castle,  but  the  fort  is  invisible  till  the  hill  is  climlied,  as  the  works  face  ^.E.  and 
X.W.  to  the  tableland,  wheine  they  ai-e  easily  accessil)le.  In  strong  contrast  to 
the  accressibility  on  that  side,  the  ground  falls  directly  from  the  fort  with 
extreme    st^-epness   l'CX)   ft.   U)  the   S.E.,  5(K)    It.  to   the'   S.,  to   the   ebasm   of 

'  hy  an  uulortuiiiite  error  in  the  tigurcs  of  the  scale,  li«^.  3«^,  j).  yr>,  ol  my  work  on 
fCt/rlt/  Furlijirn Units  ill  HcofltnKf,  this  fort  and  the  preceding  one,  as  well  as  idl  tlie 
othei-s  in  the  said  ligure,  are  given  only  half  their  proj)er  size. 

FORTS,   *  camps/   etc.,   OF   PERTH,    FORFAR,   AND    KINCARDINE.      57 

Pitroilie  Burn,  and  to  the  S.W.  fonuH  a  deep  and  steep  cleft  in  the  liill,  like  a 
natural  trench.  As  the  position  is  a  cliaracteristic  one  I  have  given  a  general 
]>]an  of  it  (fig.  17),  while  the  fortitications  are  shown  on  the  UAiial  scale  in  fig. 
1 8.  A  slight  mound  at  the  edge  of  the  steep  descents  is  sufficient  protection  for  the 
:>ides  that  are  so  well  defended  by  nature  ;  but  towanls  the  E.,  where  the  ground 
is  weakest,  a  scarj)  7  ft.  high  falls  on  a  ten-ace,  and  tliat  again  upon  a  second 

''*'''""^^^"4«'am2i& '^"""'■"■'"'"i 

Fig.  17.   Position  of  Evelick  Foit  on  Pole  Hill. 

terrace,  with  a  wide  Irench  and  two  slight  ramixarts  or  mounds  l^yond.  To  the 
VV.  there  is  a  mu(-h  longer  sciirp  10  ft.  high,  a  single  tvrrace  9  ft.  wide  and  a 
trench  and  ningle  mound  iH'yond.  The  change  fiom  one  system  to  the  other 
takes  yhu'Xi  at  what  seems  to  havt*  l>een  the  chief  entrance,  which  passes  obliquely 
thniugh  the  lines,  but  there  wa.s  prolwibly  another  where  the  lines  end  ciistward 
at  the  steep  face.  The  broad  i>e;ir-slifii)ed  interior  mwisures  350  by  an  avenige 
of  200  ft.  on  the  O.M.  and  the  dimensions  over  all  460  by  :J80. 

18.  The  eecond  of  the  Sidlaw  Hill  earthen  forts  is  at  the  E.  end  of  the  little 



hamlet  of  Rait,  §  m.  N.E.  of  Kilspindie  Cliurch,  about  100  ft.  above  the 
aea,  and  at  the  very  foot  of  the  Braes  of  Carse  (of  Gowrie).  This 
fortress  (fig.  8)  is  of  the  same  type  as  No.  16.  A  narrow,  steep-sided  spit  of 
land,  a  sudden  contraction  of  a  gently  rounded  little  ridge  that  nms  down  to  the 
Carse  from  the  steep  braes,  is  cut  off  by  three  slighUy  curved  and  massive 

very  steep  dcsceaC,^ 

Fig.  18.  Earthwork,  Evelick. 

mounds,  30  to  40  ft.  wide  and  rising  7  to  8  ft.  a])0ve  the  two  intervening 
trenches.  A  ramp-entrance  crosses  the  lines  obliquely.  The  length  of  the  cut- 
off spit  is  alx)ut  .500  ft.,  its  height  25  to  30  ft.,  and  it  ends  uy  an  abrupt 
descent  to  the  highway  at  the  very  edge  of  the  Carse.  Its  naturally  scanty 
width  has  been  much  narrowed  by  the  quarrying  of  sand  and  gravel  from 

FORTS,  *  camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,  AND   KINCARDINE.      59 

its  western  face,  so  that  in  some  places  the  top  is  now  a  mere  crest  a  few 
feet  wide. 

19.  Pastsing  into  the  county  of  Forfar,  we  do  not  meet  with  any  unequivoiiil 
earthen  fort  in  the  interior,  but  on  the  coast  there  are  thn»e  which  are  little 
rock  fastnesses,  so  strong  by  nature  as  to  require  but  little  aid  from  art.  They 
ai^  all  of  the  'cut-off  promontory'  type.  The  first  is  Maiden  Castle  (fig.  0 
and  sketcli,  fig.  19),  IJ  m.  E.N.E.  of  Arbroath  at  the  S.  end  of  Carling- 
heugh  Bay.  A  Hat-U)pi)ed,  narrow  point  al)out  80  ft.  high  is  protected  by  a 
mural  precipia*  all   round,  except  where   it  approaches  the  land  on  the  N. 

Fi<;.  19.   Maiden  Ca.stle,  near  Arbroath. 

(where  the  precipice  is  reulaced  by  a  very  steep  grassy  slope),  and  on  the  land 
side  itself,  from  which  it  nas  been  cut  off  Ijy  a  deep  trench,  alx)ve  which  towers 
a  lofty,  massive  ram]>art  of  earth,  rising  about  21  ft.  above  the  trench  and  14 
above*  the  interior.  This  mound,  as  shown  in  the  sketch,  fig.  19,  taken  from 
the  S.,  is  very  conspicuous  on  a  coast  where  the  land  seems  as  if  it  had  Ijeen 
close-shaven  by  the  wind. 

20.  IJ  m.  to  the  N.E.,  further  along  the  coast,  and  h  m.  S.  of  Auch- 
iiiithie,  is  IauI  Castle  (tig.  10  and  sketch,  fig.  20),  forniing  the  S.  point 
of  Castlesea  Bay,  100  ft.  high,  girt  with  red  pi-ecipices,  excejjt  towards 
the  land,  where  it  has  a  broad,  straight  gnissy  front,  whidi,  falling  steeply  40  or 
50  ft,  contracts  to  a  narrow  neck  joniing  it  to  the  mainland.  This  neck  is  pre- 
cipitous on  the  N.  side,  and  slopes  steeply  to  the  rocky  sea,  so  that  the 
access  to  the  fort  is  difficult  and  even  dangerous.  Not  content  with  this,  the 
defenders  have  reared  a  massive  mound,  5  ft.  in  height  aljove  the  interior,  from 
precipice  to  precipice  at  the  top  of  the  8lopt\  The  present  jvith  skirts  oblicpiely 
up  the  sloiKi  to  the  S.  end  of  the  rami>art.  Prolwibly  this  was  the  original 
access,  as  there  are  some  signs  of  a  passage  cut  through  the  rampart  here.  The 
interior  is  at  first  of  full  breadth  in  rear  of  the  rampart,  but  (piickly  contracts 
to  a  narrow  passage  leading  to  a  small  level  s<piare  at  the  far  end,  the  highest 



point.    The  sketch  (tig.  20)  shows  the  precjipitoiis  N.  side  of  the  neck,  and  the 
perfectly  inaccessible  N".  side  of  the  fortress. 

Fig.  20.  Lud  Castle,  Auchmithie. 

21.  Facing  the  pictiircs<[ue  but  decaying  fishing  vilhige  of  Auchmithie 
(the  Mussclcraig  of  The  Antiqiuiry),  from  a  distance  of  a  few  hundred  yards, 
is  6W^  ii^ocA;  (fig.  11),  a  level- topi^ed,  square  i)rojection,  measuring  about  100 
ft.  each  side,  and  about  100  ft.  high.  1  hree  sides  are  of  i)eri>endicular  riick, 
and  the  fourth  is  cut  otl*  from  the  mainland  1)y  a  curved  double  mound  with 
two  trenches.  The  profile  of  tliose  is  very  slight,  but  they  stretch  from  edge  to 
edge  of  the  precipice  and  their  combined  width  is  00  ft.,  so  that  there  can  be 
little  doubt  that  tlie  place  has  l>een  a  fortress. 

22.  In  the  interior  of  the  Mearns  there  is  no  certain  example  of  a  coast  rock- 
fortress,  although  BomJum^  near  Stonehaven,  may  lay  some  claim  to  the  title, 
and  in  the  interior  there  are  but  two  forts  of  the  earthen  type,  one  of  which 
is  now  Ijarely  recognisable.  This  is  Castle  IHkeSj  of  the  O.M.,  h  ni.  E.  of  Arbuth- 
not  Church,  150  ft.  al>ove  the  sea,  on  a  flat  promontory  in  the  angle  of  junction 
of  the  steep  little  Chapel  Den  with  the  Bervie  Water,  raised  about  60  ft.  alK)Ve 
the  latter,  with  jiretty  steep  slojxjs  to  the  E.,  N.,  and  S.  A  distinct  enough, 
wide  and  straight  undulation  ot  the  ground,  350  ft.  long,  croj>sing  the  flat  and 
cutting  oil  the  promontory,  is  all  that  can  Ije  seen,  but  it  corresponds  in  jKwition 
with  the  rampart,  30  ft.  wide,  and  trench  on  its  W.  side  marked  on  the  O.M. ; 
and  reasoning  from  analogy,  there  can  Ikj  little  doul:>t  that  this  was  a  *  cut-oil'' 
fort  with  an  earthen  ramj>art  now  nearly  i)louglied  down,  the  interior  space 
iHiing  about  350  by  250  ft. 

23.  The  (►tlicr  Mearns  fort  of  the  earthen  class  is  2  m.  N.N.E.  of  Fetterc-airn 
Church,  jl  111.  N.W.  of  Pliesdu  ll()ns<»,  and  alnnit  a  mile  from  the  site  of 
ancient  Kincardine  Utwn  and  the  remains  of  the  castle.  It  is  the  remarkably 
strong  (rrcen  Castle  (tig.  21)  of  the  O.M.  (although  I  could  not  find  that  it  was 
known  by  that  name  locidly).     The  site  is  a  strong  one,  400  ft.  above  the  sea, 

VC>UT«,    'camps/   etc.,  of   PEKTII,    FORKAK,   ANT)    KINC^ARPINE.      61 

,j^^  j^  liig^^  lH>iiit  of  laud  overlf>okiiig  tlie  Ferdun  Water,  and  it  in  fortified  by  a 
rtiTig^*^  r5Uui)art  of  earth  8  or  J)  ft.  }»ro;ul  on  the  top,  rising  a8  much  a])ove  the 
iiitAfTior,  and  falling  stet'ply  20  to  30  ft.  in  iK'rr)endi(Uilar  height  niion  a  wide 
t,reno\\  >vith  a  coimtei'8oar]>  3  to  8  ft.  high.     The  height  of  the  rani|>iirt  al)Ove 



SO  o  so  looyf 

Fig.  21.  Green  Castle,  nenr  Kincarrlino  Castlo,  Fettercairn. 

the  interior  is  a  peculiar  character,  and  bIiows  that  it  must  luive  lx;en  defended 
from  the  broad  top,  prolwibly  from  behind  a  ywilisade.  The  dimensions  over 
all  on  the  O.M.  plan  are  about  400  ft.  by  3(K)  at  the  bi-oad  and  :200  at  the 
narrow  end  of  the  iwar-shaiHKl  structure.  Tlie  interior  within  the  rami)art  i.s 
220  by  120  and  50  ft 

62  PROCEEDINGS   OF   TITE   SOCIETY,   DECEMBER   11,   1899. 


The  Stone  Forts  of  the  district  iiumlx;r  twenty-two  ;  not  many  for  so  large  an 
area,  but  several  of  them  are  among  the  largest  and  most  interesting  in  Scot- 
land. They  are  so  distributed  as  to  be  conveniently  divisible  into  groui>8, 
situated  in  certain  mountainous  or  hilly  districts. 

(a)  Stone  Forts  in  the  Highlands  of  Perth. 

Tlie  stone  forts  in  the  Higlilands  of  Perth  are  seven  in  numl)er,  of  which  six 
are  in  the  basin  of  the  Tay.  The  solitary  one  in  the  west  of  the  county,  or  in 
the  Ixasin  of  the  Forth,  was  prol)ably  outside  the  Pictish  kingdom,  but  it  is 
noticed  here,  as  it  completes  the  list  of  Perthshire  forts. 

24.  Diimnore  on  Ben  Ledi,  a  two  miles*  walk  from  Callander,  1100  yards  W. 
by  S.  of  Bochastle  Farm,  and  350  N.  of  Tnmndoun,  lurched  upon  a  prominent 
knoll  alx)ut  400  ft.  al)Ove  the  high  road  and  Loch  Venachar,  and  600  above  the 
sea,  is  a  fine  example  of  the  type  in  which  a  semioval  front  of  fortification 
defends  the  accessible  side  of  a  fort,  the  other  side  or  Ijase  resting  on  the  edge  of 
a  precipitous  bank  (fig.  22).  In  this  case  the  bank,  which  is  on  the  east  side, 
is  about  150  ft.  high,  and  is  broken  by  rocky  faces,  and,  although  it  can  Ik* 
climl)ed,  is  impracticable  to  an  attacking  force.  To  the  west  and  north  the 
ground  falls  pretty  steeply  from  the  interior  for  al)out  a  height  of  25  ft.,  below 
which  there  is  on  the  north  a  small  enclosed  but  not  fortihed  plateau,  and  on 
the  west  a  quite  gentle  descent.  On  the  steep  part  four  parallel  abrupt  green 
mounds  circle  round,  but  large  stones  are  everywhere  eml)edded  in  them,  and 
there  can  l)e  no  doubt,  as  Miss  Maclagan  ^  points  out,  that  they  are  really  stom* 
walls  overgrown  with  turf.  These  walls  l)emg  built  on  a  steep  slope  were  much 
higher  on  the  outt»r  than  the  inner  side,  and  must  have  had  much  the  character 
of  revetements  with  .stone  toi)s  or  ixaraiKits.  The  top  of  the  inner  wall  is  now 
only  faintly  indicated.  The  height  ot  the  mounds  varies  from  6  or  7  to  10  ft. 
on  an  average,  but  in  one  place  is  a.s  much  as  13  ft.  The  second  and  the  third 
mounds  unite  as  they  circle  to  the  north,  and  there  the  front  of  fortification 
Incomes  straight.  The  flank  of  the  wall  here  is  the  wefikest  part  of  the  fort, 
as  the  ends  of  the  lower  walls  are  raisetl  only  a  few  feet  alx>ve  the  moderately 
easy  ascent  from  the  east,  and  their  front  rises  from  the  level  plateau. 

At  the  south  end  there  is  a  smaller  plateau  before  the  entrance,  which  passes 
only  through  the  fii-st  mound,  and  is  continued  by  a  footpath  \vhich  jwvsses  over 
rather  than  through  the  other  mounds,  and  is  proUibly  modern. 

The  entrance  to  the  north  platiyui,  at  the  S.  end  of  its  W.  side,  is  api)roached 
by  something  like  a  roivdway  in  front  of  the  fortitied  lines.  The  inner  area 
iiieasures  alx>ut  180  ft.  froniN.  to  S.  by  150  from  E.  to  W.,  but  a  part  of  the 
latter  measurement,  60  feet  wide  at  the  broadest  part,  is  a  rather  awkward  dope 
to  the  precipitous  edge.  A  deep  hollow  in  the  inU'rior,  moist  at  the  bottom, 
pi-obably  marks  a  partially  filled  in  well  or  cistern. 

The  ground  plan  is  foimded  on  that  of  the  O.M.,  with  which  my  tape- 
measurements  of  some  of  the  chief  dimensions  substantially  agreed. 

•  /////  Forts  (did  SUmr  Circhs  of  Scothnid^  Miss  ('hristiiia  Maclagan,  p.  .'iS  ;  and 
Proc.  .S.  A.  Srot.,  ix.  3G. 

FORTS,  'camps/  etc.,   OF   PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      63 

':>  PI 

S  ^  '^th 


^  ^  the  r 







Fig.  22.  Danniore,  Bochastle,  Ben  Ledi. 


I'lior-EEDINOS   f)F  THE   SOCIETV,  DECEMKEI!    11,   1899. 



^^JB      ^ 




/111  u 

FORTS,  *  camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,  FORFAR,  AXD  KINCARDINE.      65 

Explanation  of  the  Plan,  Fio.  23. 

North  Sif/e  of  thr  Fort, 

A  Ci'ivered  way.  ascending  from  the  plain. 
B  X  Earthen  (?)  mound. 

K  First  plateau,  with  levelled  space,  1). 
F  G  First  wall  entirely  thrown  down,  like  all  the  rest,  with  entrance  at  F. 

H  Advanced  mound,  at  foot  of  rocky  ridge  on  which  F  G  stood. 

I  Second  plateau,  a  rough  hollow. 
K  L  Its  nortn  wall  continued,  rising  abruj)tly  fmm  L,  to  the  third  plateau. 

N  Its  south  wall,  near  the  f  K)t  of  the  precipice,  cutting  off  a  possible  but 
difficult  ascent  to  the  top. 

O  Third  plateau,  50  ft.  above  the  second. 

M  Its  west  wall,  the  second  line  of  defence. 

P  End  of  its  north  wall  at  edge  of  southern  precipice. 

Q  Third  wall  of  defence,  running  from  south  ])recipice  edge  up  a  steep  slo]>e 
and  above  a  rocky  bluff  to  foot  of  a  cliff  near  the  top. 

T  Level  top  60  to  70  ft  diameter,  defended  by  little  cliffs  joined  by  walls. 

Wed  Side  of  III,'  Fort, 

S  First  wall,  about  half-way  up,  drawn  along  ed;<e  of  a  steep  rocky  sloiie  from 
top  of  south  to  top  of  north  preci])ice.  A  narrow  passage  runs  in  its 
rear,  from  which  rises  the  rocky  ascent  to  the  second  wall.  Near 
the  north  end  is  an  entrance,  approached  by  a  path  u})  the  hill  from 
the  plain. 

R  Second  wall,  on  edge  of  steep  rocky  slope,  drawn  from  precipice  to  preci- 
pice, and  very  near  the  top. 

25.  Dundum, — Elsewhere  ^  I  have  given  a  full  dej?criptioii  of  this  interesting 
hill-fortress,  and  I  shall  quote  here  merely  the  chief  points,  elucidating  them 
by  a  plan  and  two  views  taken  from  photographs  (figs.  23,  24,  25).  The  name 
of  the  hill  on  the  O.M.  is  Dunifillan,  and  it  i^  not  marked  as  having  a  fort. 
But  I  found  that  the  recognised  name  of  the  hill  on  the  spot  is  Dunum,  and 
that  it  was  occupied  by  an  undou])ted  fort.  It  is  therefore  in  all  probability 
the  Duitiduim,  identifie<l  by  Skene'-  as  the  priucipil  stronghold  of  Fortrenn, 
althoa^h  he  does  not  seem  to  have  l^een  aware  that  any  remains  of  a  fortress 
still  existed  on  the  hill.  Tliat  distinguished  authority  points  out  that  Dundiiru 
is  twice  mentioned  by  the  early  annalists  as  the  seat  of  historic  events  : — (1 ) 
A.D.  6d3,  Obsessio  Dninatt  et  Duinduirn  ;  (2)  a.d.  878-9,  when  mrrrtuiLS  est  in 
Duwleorn  is  recorded  of  King  Girig  ;  and  Dr  Skene  holds  that  the  identity  of 
the  place  is  proved  by  the  lines  of  St  IJerchan  (Uth  century) — 

"  By  him  shall  be  attacked  the  powerful  house. 
Ah,  my  heart !  on  the  Umks  of  the  Earn 
Red  sliall  be  the  colour  of  the  house  Ijefore  him, 
He  shall  fall  by  the  men  of  Fortrenn." 

The  site  is  on  an  abrupt,  craggy,  isolated  hill,  rLsiiig  almost  to  a  point,  and  the 
walls  of  the  fort  have  l^een  built  from  crag  to  crag,  or  along  the  edges  of  precijiices 
^  Efirlif  Fo^rtifiw^ivns  in  HcoHnnd,  1898. 
'^  CrZtic  Scotland,  i.  pp.  261,  330. 
VOL.    XXXIV.  E 



'    i 



I    ^ 

FORTS,  *  camps/   etc.,  OF   PERTH,   FORFAR,  AND   KINCARDINE.      67 

and  steep  descents,  just  as  the  nature  of  the  ground  dictated.  The  hill  rise8  to  a 
height  ot  500  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  200  above  the  haugli  of  the  Earn,  a  mile 
below  its  exit  from  Locheam,  in  the  midst  of  one  of  the  most  charming  scenes 
in  Scotland.  Its  form  is  somewhat  triangular  (fig.  23),  the  southern  side  rising 
by  a  nearly  inaccessible  precipitous  face  from  the  Alt  logain,  the  western  by  a 
very  abrupt  ascent,  bi-oken  by  steeply  sloping  ice-smoothed  rock-faces  and  little 
cliffs,  while  the  northern,  rising  abruptly  at  first,  eases  off  suddenly  into  three 
rough  irregular  plateaux,  E,  1,  O,  raiseii  one  above  the  other  from  W.  to  E., 
and  lioimded  on  the  S.  by  a  mural  j>recipice,  X  N,  which  rises  to  the  toj)  of 
the  hill,  completely  cutting  off  the  two  lower  plateaux  from  the  top,  but 
leaving  a  difficult  access  from  the  third  along  the  edge  of  the  southern  precipice. 

The  view  from  the  N.W.  (fig.  24)  shows  the  defences  on  the  nortnem 
side.  Above  the  group  of  trees  on  the  left  is  the  outer  moimd  (B  X  on  the  plan). 
Above  the  next  three  trees  is  the  mound,  H,  in  Jidvan(!e  of  the  first  wall  of  de- 
fence. Tlie  next  two  trees  stand  on  the  debris  from  the  N.  wall  of  the  second 
plateau.  Then  comes  the  continuation  of  this  wall  up  the  sloj)e  to  the  third 
plateau.  This  plateau  lies  too  high  to  show  much,  but  its  N.  wall  is  seen 
running  above  the  steep  tree-covered  slope  to  the  sky-line,  and  the  great  debris 
mass  ofits  W.  wall,  the  second  wall  of  defence,  is  conspicuous  running  to  the 
foot  of  a  rock,  above  which  is  the  third  wall  of  defence,  with  a  tree  and  bush 
on  the  sky-line.  Highest  of  all  is  the  debris  from  the  wall  round  the  summit. 
Strictly  speaking,  the  building  of  the  walls  is  only  inferred,  as  none  is  visible, 
but  there  can  hardly  be  a  doubt  that  the  masses  of  debris  conceal  the  bases  of 
regular  walls. 

All  these  ijoints  can  be  made  out  in  fig.  25,  taken  from  the  W.  (some  trees 
are  omitted),  the  N.  ends  of  the  two  walls  of  the  western  side  being  also 

The  fort  is  about  600  ft.  in  length  by  an  average  width  of  450,  without 
reckoning  the  first  plateau,  E,  which  perlia{)6  was  not  intended  to  be  seriously 
defended.  The  contained  area,  therefore,  is  very  large  for  a  Highland  fort,  but 
the  liabitable  sj^ace  is  limited  to  the  hollow  of  tlie  second  plateau,  to  the  third 
plateau  (much  curtailed  by  rocks),  and  to  the  summit,  with  some  tolerably  level 
ground  at  the  foot  of  its  little  cliffs  on  the  E.  and  S. 

26.  Two  *  Forta '  are  marked  on  the  O.M.  in  Glenalmond  before  it  ojxins  up 
on  the  lowlands  of  Pertli,  both  of  which  I  liave  seen.  One  of  these,  however, 
at  South  TtUchan  does  not  seem  to  me  to  bear  any  resemblance  to  a  fort,  and 
I  have  placed  it  in  the  class  of  dubious  remains.  The  other  is  Ihin  Marcy  6  m. 
N.N.E.  of  Crieff.  On  the  N.  side  of  *  the  Sma*  Glen,'  on  the  top  of  a  heathery 
hill,  1520  ft.  above  the  sea,  with  a  steep  descent  of  850  ft.  to  the  Almond  River 
on  the  S.W.,  and  with  short,  steep,  rocky  descents  elsewhere,  except  eastwards, 
where  the  approach  is  nearly  level,  but  by  a  narrow  neck.  The  enclosed,  irregu- 
larly oval  top  is  almost  level,  and  is  girdled  by  an  overthrown  stone  wall, 
resting  with  its  inner  side  on  the  very  edge  of  the  slope  and  the  outer  one 
several  feet  lower,  with  rudely  built  portions  still  standing,  but  no  well- 
built  face  remaining.  Many  of  the  stones  are  large.  Tlie  cross  diameters 
cjf  tbe  interior  are  150  and  90  ft,  and  the  thickness  of  the  wall  was  prob- 
ably 8  to  10  ft.  Annexed  t^)  tbe  E.  and  most  accessible  side  is  a  crescentic 
\\ork  with  a  greatest  inttM-ior  width  of  30  ft.  and  enclosed  l>y  a  wall  300  ft. 
long,  similar  in  size  and  condition  to  that  of  the  main  work.     I  have  given  no 



■:M   ■: 

^    &•.,:..  .^:,.v:. 

1  :••%:' 



FORTS,  'camps/  etc.,  OF   PERTH,  FORFAR,  AND  KINCARDINE.      69 

plan   of  this  work,  as  Mr  Hutchesoii's  plan  of  Caisteal  I>ubh^  No.  30,  might 
aJmoet  stand  for  it,  although  the  latter  is  niucli  larger. 

27.  Passing  now  to  the  valley  of  the  Tay  and  its  upper  trilmtaries,  the  most 
remote  work  is  Dun  Gedl,  on  Creag  a'  Chabteal,  90()  f  r.  above  the  sea,  ^  ni.  N.E. 
of  Fortingall,  Qlenlyon.  It  has  been  well  noticed  by  Mies  Maclagan,  as  well  as 
by  Mr  Hutcheson,  who  describes  it  as  standing  on  the  summit  of  a  hill  with  a 
considerable  extent  of  easy  sloping  ground  around  it ;  circular  in  form,  58 

Fig.  26.  Dun  Mac  Tual.     (Mr  Hutcheson.) 

ft.  in  diameter  within  the  wall,  which  averages  10  ft.  in  thickness,  showing 
the  outside  and  inside  faces  intact  in  several  places  ;  the  masonry  very  massive, 
being  erected  almost  wholly  of  stones  separated  either  naturally  or  by  art  from 
the  hill,  and  splitting  easily  into  cubes. 

28.  The  fort  highest  up  the  Tay  proper  is  the  very  intei-esting  *  Fort'  of  the 
O.M.,  Caisteal  Mac  Tuathal  of  Mr  Hutcheson,  or  hun  Mac  Tiud,  2J  m.  E. 



of  Fortiiigall,  1000  yds.  N.W.  of  Tayniouth  Castle,  900  ft.  above  the  sea,  on  one 
of  the  eastern  spurs  of  Dniminond  Hill.  The  chief  facts  in  Mr  Hiitcheson's 
very  full  and  accurate  account,  which  I  give,  will  \ye  clearly  understood  from 
his  reproduced  plan  (fig.  26).  The  fort  occupies  the  summit  of  a  bold  projecting 
rocky  knoll  witti  precipitous  slopes  to  the  S.  and  E.,  but  descending  less  steeply 
on  the  other  sides.  The  walls  follow  the  contour  of  the  hill  to  suit  the  exigen- 
cies of  the  site,  and  thus  form  a  very  irregular  somewhat  st^uare  figure,  the 
inner  area  measuring  about  300  by  210  ft  A  B  on  the  plan  is  a  short  wall 
branching  off  to  include  a  natural  platform.  The  curved  wall  at  the  N.E. 
angle  encloses  a  space  about  165  ft.  long,  where  there  is  a  spur  rising  towards 
the  summit.  On  the  W.,  the  most  vulnerable  side,  two  additional  walls  have 
been  thrown  up  on  the  side  of  a  hollow,  some  25  ft  deep,  that  separates  the 
fort  from  the  ascending  slope  of  Drummond  Hill.  At  the  bottom  of  this 
hollow  is  a  spring  of  water.  The  main  wall  of  the  fort  is  nmch  broken  down,  but 
in  places  the  outer  and  inner  faces  still  stand,  and  I  give  a  sketch  (fig.  27),  which 



Y\<r.  27.  Roiuaiiis  of  Wall,  Dun  Mac  Tiial. 

I  took  many  years  ago,  of  a  portion  of  the  outer  face,  where  it  is  best  preserved. 
Mr  HutchesoH  judgt's  from  the  ([uantity  of  stones  lying  below  this  face  that  the 
original  heiglit  must  have  Immmi  12  to  15  ft.  The  width  here  at  the  base  is 
some  9  ft.  ;  the  (»ut<jr  face  is  almost  iH!rpendicular,  but  the  inner  slopes  con- 
siderably. Mr  Huteheson  st'ites  that  tht^  name  is  attributed  to  Tuathal,  son 
of  Ai-gutso,  Al>lx)t  of  l)unk<'l(l,  uientioned  in  the  Annals  o/  Ulster  as  having 
died  in  a.d.  Hd.'). 

29.  The  Don^  Tijiulnn,  1  m.  S.S.K.  of  Al)erfeldy,  oecupies  the  summit 
of  a  commanding  height,  1100  ft.  al>ove  the  sea,  and  is  described  by  Mr 
Ilutcheson  as  being  an  almost  couii)lete  circle,  110  ft  in  diameter  inside  the 
wall,  which  is  from  14  to  15  ft.  thick.  It  is  almost  entirely  destroyed,  but 
the  outside  and  inside  faces  am  be  clearly  seen  to  liave  been  formed   of  un- 


dressed  blocks,  from  2  to  4  ft.  long,  closely  set.  There  are  appearances  of  a 
narrow  entrance  on  the  W.  side.  Three  trenches  or  earth  worts,  150  ft.  long 
and  12  to  15  wide,  give  additional  protection  to  the  most  vulnerable  side,' which 
is  on  the  S.W. 

30.  Cofitle  Dow^  most  unaccoimtably  called  "  site  of  a  supposed  Pictish  fort " 
on  the  O.M.,  and  with  no  remains  marked  at  it,  is  shown  by  Mr  Hutcheson  to 
be  an  undoubted  fort  (fig.  28).     It  is  situated  2^  m.  W.  by  S.  of  Logierait 

Fig.  28.  Calsteal  Dubh,  near  Aherfeldy.    (Mr  Hutcheson.) 

Cliurch,  but  on  the  opposite  side  of  tho  Tay,  1050  ft.  above  the  fien,  on  the  top  of 
an  isolated  height  overlooking  the  valley  of  the  Tay  from  Al>erfeldy  to  Dal- 
gniae.  It  is  an  oval  of  300  l)y  213  ft.,  somewhat  sinuous  on  the  E.  The 
wall  is  much  destroyed,  but  on  the  S.W.  side  there  is  a  length  of  about  50 
ft.  tolerably  well  preserved,  showing  that  the  masonry  resembled  that  of  Dun 
Mac  Tual.  The  wall  is  thicker,  however,  ranging  from  14  to  16  ft.  .  It  is 
faced  outside  and  in  with  large  blocks.  A  crescentic  annex,  exactly  as  at  Dun 
More  (No.  26),  strengthens  the  most  vulnerable  side :  it  projects  about  80  ft. 


and  is  240  ft.  long.  This  side  is  further  strengthened  by  a  trench.  The 
entrance  to  tlie  main  fort  was  apparently  about  the  middle  of  the  W.  side,  and 
the  lunette  contains  remains  of  a  circular  structure  15  ft.  in  diameter.  In  this 
fort  and  in  others,  as  at  Dim  Mac  Tual,  Mr  Hutcheaon  noticed  evidence  of 
banking  up  \nth  earth  at  the  bick  of  the  wall. 

(6)  Stoxe  Forts  on  the  North  Slope  of  the  Ochils. 

31.  For  a  stretch  of  12  m.  from  the  W.  end  of  the  Ocliils  eastv^'ard  the 
northeni  slojie  of  the  chain  is  destitute  of  forts,  and  the  first  to  occur,  errone- 
ously marked  'Roman  Outi)ost'  on  the  O.M.,  is  3  m.  N.E.  of  Gleneagles, 
on  the  top  of  Ogle  Hill,  1  j  m.  E.S.E.  of  Auchterarder  Church,  800  ft.  above 
the  sea,  and  600  above  the  Ruthven  Water  to  the  X.  A  ridge  descending 
gently  northwards  from  Coul  Hill  (1006  ft.)  and  the  main  chain  of  the 
Ocliils  rises  but  a  few  yai-ds  to  form  Ogle  Hill  Ixifoie  falling  abruptly  to  the 
valley  of  Ruthven  Water.  An  apparently  natural  trench-like  hollow,  75  ft. 
wide  (B,  fig.  29),  sepirates  the  ridge  from  the  site  of  the  fort,  A,  which  occupies 
the  whole  of  the  little  summit  of  Ogle  Hill,  and  is  defended  towards  the  ridge, 
reckoning  from  the  interior,  first  by  a  scarp  (section  A  B),  9  ft.  high,  without 
a  parapet,  but  covered  with  louse  stones,  probably  the  remains  of  a  wall  fallen 
from  tlie  top  ;  secondly,  by  a  low  rammrt,  at  the  foot  of  the  scarp,  falling  on 
a  terrace,  which  with  a  "small  trencii  forms  an  outer  line  of  defence.  The 
termce  lias  a  rampart,  T)  E,  at  the  E.  end  only.  These  lines  ai-e  much  nijured, 
and  the  only  signs  of  defence  on  the  flanks  of  the  site  is  a  doubtfid  cfouble 
terracing.     The  interior  may  be  alx)ut  loO  ft.  in  length. 

32.  Theiiext,  also  erroneously  called  'Roman  Outpost'  on  the  O.M.,  is  5  m. 
E.  of  the  last,  on  the  top  oitkn  Effenj  (1200  ft.).  This  hill  lies  between 
the  deep  and  steep  glen  of  the  Painiey  Burn  on  the  AV.  and  the  smaller  ravine 
of  Green's  Burn  on  the  E.,  which  at  tludr  junction  are  600  ft  Wow  its  top. 
From  this  direction  Ben  Effery  luis  a  remarkably  l)old,  sharp,  coniail  apixyir- 
ance,  and  the  fort  on  the  top  is  very  strong  by  nature  on  three  sides,  pailicu- 
larly  on  the  W.,  where  it  stands  on  the  edge  of  a  umral  precipice  (E,  ng.  30), 
but'the  access  is  easy  from  the  ridge  descending  ui)on  it  from  the  S.,  and  it  is 
overlooked  from  the  sununit,  D,  of  a  little  elevation  on  the  ridge,  250  ft. 
from  the  interior  of  the  fort.  The  S.  end,  therefore,  was  defended  by  three 
parallel  drystone  walls,  B  C,  now  cast  down,  12  ft.  apart,  occupying  a  width 
of  00  It.,  which  run  straight  from  the  pivcipice  euge  for  70  ft.,  and  then 
curve  for  alx)Ut  50  ft.  more  to  the  angle  of  the  E.  face.  The  entrance  is 
through  this  curved  jxirt.  The  steep  faces  of  the  E.  side  and  N.  end  show 
traces  of  three  or  four  terraces  in  continuation  of  the  defences,  till  no  longer 
neede<l  on  once  more  touching  the  jirecipicv.  edge. 

33.  \\  m.  further  N.M,  and  3  m.  E.  of  Auchterarder,  is  a  fort  on 
liossie  Jjitir,  1061  ft.  above  the  si'a  and  900  above  the  valley.  A  single  oval 
'Ring,'  alx.ut  6<)0  by  50()  ft.  on  the  O.M.,  surrounds  the  top  (fig.  31). 
The  actual  top  is  a  level,  dry,  grassy,  jjleasjuit  space.  A,  of  about  270  by  150 
ft.  The  ring  appro;iches  it  on  the  S.  within  about  30  ft.,  and  at  a  lower 
level  of  10  ft.,  but  separates  from  it  on  the  X.  till  it  is  300  ft.  distant  and 
about  70  ft.  lower.  The  approaches  are  long  and  ditlicidt,  usually  st^'e^K'st  on 
reacliing  the  ring,  when  they  ease  off  to  the  top.     Fi-oni  the  W.  and  S.  the 




Ogle  HiU 



U  ,  I  ^i^^' 





Figs.  29,  30,  31.  Forts  on  the  Ochils,  near  Aucliterardcr. 

7-1  TKiU  KKl»INi;s   OK  TllK  sOi'IKTY,   l»EOKMBER   11,  1899. 

ili'sivui,*  ai\'  nnkv  ;uhl  alnuvl  iiuuros^iMo.  It  is  i»nlv  for  a  small  spicc  on  the 
K  \\\.\l  I  ho  .i^'j-iwuh  i?  i^'iulo.  On  iho  K.  rtn«l  X.  the  '.It-iVow  remaining  is  a 
k:i;wv\  .imi  >;»>n\  ni»'V.ii.l,  !."»  it.  hri\i«l  ai  ilu-  cntnnoe,  which  is  fn-m  tlie  E. 
1  .oul.l  mv  no  msMMin.  hiu  in  ono  pviit.  tVr  .i  streli'h  i-f  aN»ut  !>>»  IL,  there 
i!*  ,»  i\'w  oi  hj>;\*  stoui'-,  1*  Xo  :\  ft.  in  hr.cih.  ]>I:ic«rd  at  li.t-  lower  til je  of  the 
>!on\  uiimii.l.  :\vA  T  11.  U'!.»w  it>  :.^i»  i^iUv.uion  and  5ei::ion.  D\  ]«rnjiit5  the 
I V ».M»  \^t  . i  !\mi ; u- r  w ,i 1 1  1 ' ",; i I !  . : i  S : lo  5I^^^ >«\  -V  w- rv  ' \ w  -:oce  lies  1 1 nco ve nril 
\\  \W  x'VM.wwv  Or.  ::;o  iv.\.  ^vs^iMo  S.  ir.  i  W.  ji  ies  :::erv  i*  no  monml  •>r  wall, 
'*u;  i\u".v*\  .\  to:  vivo  V.  :*-.o  ^^iJ^'  of  '/iiv  usovr.:  :  .in.i  ::.vrv  :-  no  ^iim  of  an  inner 
»;»';ov.,v  :.r  :'..i-  *..  \^'  :ov. 

;i»,  vV'..:-.r/.;::.j;  >:;V.  \v.  .,  V.  r:'.-:.w.:*r'>  :i:v\::.::  a!.::*:  :'.»  X.  *Iop«*  ••£  the 
lAvc"  tor  i  ,v.>:/.v,vv  *  •  *»  v...  \u'  :\  »/:•.  ■'<■'  .■■-.£:...  S.S.E.  •:■:  F->rgandenny, 
ov.  '.V.o  :.;,•:  ■.  >:>vv  #*.,;.*  7  •■ ::.  V.\;/..  r...:  /•.  v.:  ;<>■  V.  ve  ::.e  ac-i  i«i:^lat«r*l 
%'!-.  : '  .  :  .\  :  >  I .  *  '  \  s* .  : :  >: i ■  v  "  •/ .  v .: ;  ^  ■"..:?  :  ::  -.v  w-  ex  .■artre-  i  in  1  >!!•! 
Vx  '/  ,  ■  ,:s  v.:  ;.  \\.<  :.  :W'*,  V.-t^j:  .  •.*::*.  :"  :  -cj*ri::  c  ■::  Mr  Linlaay- 
\X  vv.  ;.,•  yv  ■  ::.  ur.  \::  :..;>:.::•>:  V;  Mr  '.  ::.  0:::.:::::,':-^:^.  C,E-.  :Len  the 
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FOKT8,  *  camps/  ETC.,  OF  PERTH,  FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      75 


Plort  X  Upper  Sf  chaiv 

*^^x  XI  ■'••'- I  „ 

>«.    j«i";^^^.       T. *^--" " : 





Sections  ABiTD 

Fig.  82.  Caatle  Law,  Forgandenny. 


I'lMUKKIMNtJS   OF  rilK  SfiriETY,   DECEMBER  11,  1899. 

hilling  Mil  II  nil  I'M  iw  iiim-ihy  h|i;i('(*,  V,  willi  a  Kliirlit  diM-Hiie  \vct«twanl,  on  the  S. 
I'hli-  III  wlih-li  riHi-N  till*  iwit^  nf  tli«;  1iil1-r;iii^^.  This  slight  mound  is  prolong 
mplwiinl  nil  iiM  tn  iMii'liiM*  the  irrtaiigular  iiiai-shy  flat,  e,  at  the  foot  of  the  W. 
•  ikI  itl  llii'  Imi  liiiglit.  Kri>iii  tliu  W.  lioinufarv  of  this  apparent  reservoir 
iiiMH  I  In*  |ii'Mliiiigiiiiiiii  (if  till'  raiigc,  and  from  Uu^  N.  Itoundary  the  ground  falls 
In  llii-  |iliiiii  iiiM»  II.  U'l»»w.  Tin'  Hp;u-e8  /and  h  unite  eiistwani  in  a  wide, 
iiniily  lliil  iri|i|aimili*,  /,  wliich  is  nnfciictfl,  bo  tliat  the  eastern  flank  of /and  h 
nil*  i|Uilr  «t)irii  alllioiigh  tlio  S.  I'nmt  is  ftirlituHl. 

i'^^'^'^jiiliir^ '^t^^*^^ 

FORTS,  '  CAMPS,'   ETa,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      77 




^t  ^ 









^     8 

\  i 

'"T    5 

FOKTS,  *  camps/  etc.,  OF  PERTH,  FORFAR,  AND  KINCARDINE.   79 

from  the  W.  by  a  narrow  neck.  As  will  be  seen  from  the  plana  (figs.  34,  35), 
a  wall  lias  \yeeu  drawn  across  the  neck,  connected  by  a  short  branch  with  the 
inner  and  pro[)er  wall  of  the  fort,  and  parting  gradually  from  it  as  it  crosses 
the  neck  and  descends  towards  a  daiauied-up  little  loch  and  niai*sli  in  an 
elevated  flat  or  recess  of  the  (fig.  34).  This  wall,  although  com- 
pletely concealed  before  excavation,  was  still  stjinding  under  the  debriit  and 
earth  accumulation  to  a  height  of  from  (5  to  10  ft.,  and  was  18  ft.  wide  at 
the  base,  faced  with  excellent  masonry. 

The  wall  proper  of  the  fort,  also  showing  no  sign  of  its  existence  on  the  level 
top  of  the  site  oefore  excavation,  completely  enclosed  the  oval  interior,  which 

Fig.  36.  Outer  Face  of  inner  wall,  west  end,  Abernetliy  Fort.     (Mr  F.  R.  Coles.) 

measured  136  by  51  ft.,  and,  as  in  many  other  Scottish  forts,  was  built  with 
its  inner  face  at  the  very  edge  of  the  slope,  and  the  outer  one  some  feet,  in  one 
place  as  much  as  9  ft.,  perjyendicular,  down  the  .slo]>e  Ixjlow.  The  width  of 
this  inner  wall  was  no  less  than  from  18  to  :25  ft.,  and  it  was  still  7  ft.  high 
in  one  place.  As  at  Castle  Law  (Xo.  34),  timber  had  l>een  used  in  the  construc- 
tion, but  to  a  much  larger  extent,  as  wherever  both  the  outer  and  inner  walls 
were  examined,  squared  channels,  in  a  double  row  (wherever  the  wall  still  stood 
high  enough  to  show  the  upi)er  one),  were  found  running  in  from  the  outer  face 
for  about  8  or  10  ft.  The  regular  loop-hole  appearance  of  the  openings  of 
tliese  channels  and  the  general  character  of  the  masonrv  are  well  shown  in  the 
measured  drawing  taken  by  Mr  F.  R.  Coles  (fig.  36).  On  dissecting  a  part  of 
the  inner  wall,  longitudinal  channels  for  timber  were  also  found.  Full  details 
of  this  very  interesting  fort  will  Ihj  found  in  Proc,  S.  A,  Scot,  1898-99, 
vol.  xxxiii.  pp.  13-33. 

(r)  Stoxk  Forts  on  Moncrkiffe  Hill,  Perth. 

3G.  The  isolated  Hill  of  Monrreiffe,  725  ft.  above  the  sea,  3  m.  S.K.  of  Peith, 
rises  from  the  N.  with   a  moderate  8loi>e  to  the  edge  of   a    precipice,  from 


which  a  veir  steep  wooded  descent,  600  ft.  high,  falls  towards  MoncreiffE 
House  aiid  the  valley  of  the  Earn.  On  the  edge  of  this  moral  precipioe  twc 
forts  have  l)een  perched,  the  first  of  which,  coming  along  the  rioge  Irom  the 


'  '^ 

1^-    T^       '^  '^-^TSr...  *••.;••■..,' --^^^'-^v^^A  ^— 

\V..  ,-  »>♦■'  i:    :iS'\c  l-hr  y.';i,  ajk;  -.>  *^^'^  ^.-ATwly  ns"**viiis:.'''.h .     The  0,li 


37.  i  m,  eastward,  about  120  ft.  higlier,  and  on  the  very  summit  of  the 
liill,  is  a  comparatively  well-preserved  fort,  marked  Carruic  on  the  O.M.,  which 
gived  tlie  title  of  Moredun  Top  to  the  summit  of  the  hill.  Perhaps  this  is 
an  error  suggested  by  the  fort,  i.e.,  *  big  Fort,'  l)ecau8e  J  m.  N.E.  there  is  a  house 
marked  not  Moredun  but  Mai-eden.  The  fort  (fig.  37),  perched  on  the  precipice 
edge,  is  quite  inaccessible  on  the  S.,  and  on  the  N.  has  the  protection  of  a  long 
descent,  but  from  the  E.  and  W.  is  approjiched  by  short  slopes. 

The  remains  are  so  dilapidated  and  overgrown  that  it  is  difficult  to  plan 
them.  The  main  wall  is  apiwrently  double,  except  towards  the  precipice,  wnere 
it  is  single,  and  built  not  on  the  edge,  but  retired  about  20  it.  at  the  top  of 
a  dangeroiLs  slope"  down  to  it.  The  toUil  width  of  the  wall-mass  is  about 
40  ft.,  and  it  stands  up  nowhere  more  than  3  or  4  ft.  No  building  was 
visible  in  the  wall,  but  at  a  point  on  the  W.  four  carefully  laid  stones  in  a  row 
look  like  the  Uise  of  the  outer  face.  At  the  W.  end,  another  strong  wall 
.*iprings  from  the  fort  close  to  the  precipice  edge,  and  circles  at  a  somewhat 
lower  level  three-fourths  of  the  way  round  the  inner  wall,  nearly  enclosing  a 
considerable  crescentic  space  on  the  W.  and  X.,  but  no  connection  with  the 
inner  w.all  at  the  E.  end  can  now  be  ma<le  out.  On  this  wall  also  there  are 
traces  of  a  facing.  Still  further  out  to  the  \V.,  at  the  edge  of  a  very  steep  short 
slope,  I  found  remains  of  audther  less  substantial  wall,  but  it  could  not  be  traced 
far.  Separated  from  the  fort,  by  a  slight  hollow  to  the  N.E.,  is  another  little 
.<4tony,  flat-topped  eminence,  not  much  lower  than  the  fort,  with  a  steep  descent 
to  the  X.  ana  X.E.  Tlie  site  was  much  obscured  by  weeds,  but  seemed  to  be 
oval,  about  220  ft.  long,  and  to  be  surrounded  by  the  remains  of  a  strong  wall. 
This  is  l)eyond  my  plan. 

The  fort  j)roper  measures  over  all  alxnit  210  by  180  ft.  On  the  X.  and  E. 
sides,  in  direct  connection  with  the  wall  all  along,  and  extending  40  to  60  ft. 
into  the  interior,  is  a  mass  of  overgrovni  del)ris  3  to  5  ft.  high.  The 
only  entrance  to  the  fort  is  at  tlie  E.  end,  piercing  the  double  wall  and 
mass  of  ruins  obliquely  from  the  N.E.  In  the  raised  mass  near  the  entrance 
and  on  the  X.  side  of  the  fort  is  a  circular  8[)ace,  21  ft.  in  diameter,  sur- 
rounded by  a  moiuid-wall  3  ft.  wide.  Two  others  of  about  the  same  size  are 
near  it,  one  of  them  touching  it.  Further  W.  are  several  small,  round,  saucer- 
bliajjetl  hollows.  On  the  S.  side  of  the  entrance  the  raised  mass  contains 
eight  or  nine  similar  *. saucers,'  in  two  irregular  rows.  The  rest  of  the  interior 
is  vacant,  except  for  another  circular  enclosure,  measuring  35  by  20  ft.,  which 
touches  the  wall  on  the  S.  side. 

{d)  Stone  F(jrts  on  thk  Sidl.vw  Hillk. 

We  have  seen  that  on  the  extensive  Sidhw  range  there  are  but  two  earthen 
Torts,  both  on  the  eastern  side  ;  one,  Evelick,  on  a  high  site,  the  other.  Rait, 
low  dovni  at  the  very  margin  of  the  Carse  of  Gowrie.  The  number  of  stone 
forts  on  the  E.  is  the  name,  but  there  are  also  i)rol)ably  two  on  the  W.  side, 
although  one  of  the  latter  is  not  clearly  provtKl  to  l)e  of  stone. 

38.  On  the  E.  side  of  the  Sidlawy,  on  the  gently  rounded  top  of  J)ron  Hill, 
f;S4  ft.  al)Ove  the  sea,  h  m.  W.S.W.  of  Dron  Farm,  and  IJ  m.  N.W.  of 
Loiigforgan  Church,  is  a  foit  which  on  the  O.M.  looks  like  two  ovals  inter- 
secting each  other  longitudinally  (fig.  38).     But  on  the  ground  it  is  pretty 

VOL.  xxxiv.  F 


evident  that  it  is  really  an  oval  work,  with  one  small  crescentic  annex  on  the 
N.  and  another  large  one  on  the  S.,  springing  from  the  same  points  of  the  oval. 
The  fort  proper  measures  330  by  250  ft.  over  all.  The  greatly  dilapidated 
waU  is  generally  grass-covered,  and  only  rises  a  foot  or  two  above  the  surface. 
A  wall  1  believe,  however,  it  has  been,  as  on  the  W.  side  a  row  of  large 
stones,  extending  about  100  ft.  southwara  and  closely  set,  can  hardly  be  any- 
thing else  than  the  base  of  an  outer  casing,  and  a  less  complete  row  shows  the 
position  of  the  inner  face,  giving  a  width  for  the  wall  of  from  9  to  11  ft. 
There  are  1)a8al  stones,  also,  here  and  there  along  the  S.  face,  where   the 

.'if'-       >^v<s  VI' V--. 

.v#^-         '-^  S>,% 





Fig.  38.  Fort  on  Dron  Hill,  LoDgforgan. 

mound  is  27  ft.  wide,  perhaps  from  digging  operations  to  remove  the  stones  ; 
and  some  very  large  stones  have  been  torn  from  their  plac^  and  taken  a  short 
distance  as  if  for  wirting  away.  The  N.  and  E.  sides  have  been  almost 
completely  destroyed,  and  are  merely  traceable.  The  enclosing  mounds  of  the 
annexes  are  not  defensive  ;  they  are  very  low,  only  6  or  7  ft.  wide,  and  are 
probably  ruined  walls. 

39.  The  Laws,  on  the  Laws  Hill^  Drumsturdy,  an  outlying  eminence  rather 
than  a  part  of  the  Sidlaws  proper,  is  situated"  1|  in.  N."^  by  W.  of  Monifieth 
Church,  431  ft.  above  the  sea.     The  site  is  on  a  small  isolated  height,  partly 

fORTS,   'camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINK      83 

Precipitous,  the  easiest  access  being  at  its  E.  end,  and  the   fort  occupied  the 
mole  of  the  nearly  level  top. 

rhis  fort,  not  so  long  ago  perhaps  the  best  preserved  in  Scotland,  has  been  so 

ADocked  about,  and  the  records  of  it  are  so  confused  and  contradictory,  that  to 

«>nn  any  intelligible  idea  of  it,  difficult  enough  at  the  best,  is  impossible  with- 

2?^  soiiie  reference  to  its  modern  hirttory.     The  earliest  notice,  published  in  the 

jS^^\  -ft.  Soc.  of  Lit.  in  a  j)aper  dated  1827,  but  from  observations  made  about 

'90,  is  \^y  j)j.  John  Jamieson,  who  described  an  outer  wall,  500  paces  in  circum- 

erence,  near  the  bottom  of  the  hill  on  the  E.,  slanting  gradually  up  the  southern 

.  ?P^  t.ill  half-way  between  the  summit  and  the  brink  of  the  precipice  on  that 

wli      ^^^^  continuing  to  ascend  as  it  circled  round  till  it  reached  the  N.E.  comer 

l}^^^^  ^^^  entrance  was,  another  being  apparently  at  the  W.  end.     It  is  strange 

ux^    V^^  ^°®  ^^  seems  to  have  noticed  this  low-level  outer  wall,  but  perhaps  it 

jj^5^  ^>^^ve  been  covered  by  the  operations  to  be  described  immediately.    The 

g^    ^'^  Ai^'all,  according  to  Dr  Jamieson,  surrounded  the  summit  at  a  distance  of 

-yj.^^"^^!.  paces  from  the  outer  one,  but  varying  according  to  the  nature  of  the 

Qjj^^^^^l.    He  also  mentions  two  or  three  other  snort  walls  running  from  the  outer 

J  ^"^^  the  brink  of  the  precipice. 
f^^  ^^  X859  Mr  Neish,  at  that  time  the  proprietor,  excavated  the  site,  and  the 
j^^^*-"^^"^  are  recorded,  with  additional  notes  by  John  Stuart,  in  vol.  iii.  of  our 
-^  *^*^->  pp.  440-/)4.  Mr  Neish  states  that  before  1834  great  quantities  of  stones 
g^  ^^^  <iarried  off  for  fann  purposes,  and  Mr  Stuart  estimates,  on  the  authority  of 
£^^^^^^^1.  who  took  part  in  the  spoliation,  that  IKiOO  cartloads  were  removed  in  the 
;i^^  AJvinters  ending  1818.  Tlic  author  of  the  ^statistical  Ac/:ou7it  of  the  Parish, 
X\^    ^   confirms  this  by  the  statement  that  persons  then  alive  remembered  when 

^J'Vinis  were  5  ft.  higher  than  when  he  wrote. 
^e  ^- **  Neish  also  states  that  in  1834  the  whole  surface  was  levelled  and  portions 
1^5^^^^  wall  thrown  over  near  the  E.  end.     Finally  came  his  own  excavations  in 
?^^,  the  discharge  of  the  rublnsh  from  which  seems  to  have  been  down  the  hill 
5i^  S.E.  comer. 

^    liave  found   it  impossible  to  form   a   connected  idea  of  the  disposition 

^  J^^  nature  of  the  fortifications  from  Mr  Neish's  account  of  his  excavations  and 

tu^  very  sketchy  j>lan.*     But  for  the   difliculties  and  anomalies  suggested  by 

Vj^^se,  and  if  I  had  trusted  to  my  own  observations  on  the  spot  alone,  I  should  have 

^^  no  hesitation  in  pronouncing  the  work  to  liave  been  an  ordinary  stone  fort 

^j^  excellent  dry  maisonry  with  a  duplication  of  the  wall  at  each  end  if  not  at  the 

^idesand  without  reckoning  the  no  longer  visible  outer  wall  of  Dr  Jamieson. 

The  only  part  that  I  hacf  time  to  study  and  measure  with  some  care  was  the 
-fe.  end,  where  Mr  Neish's  excavations  were  either  most  thorough,  or  are  best 
Preserved.  As  shown  in  my  plan  and  section  (fig.  39),  the  first  tiling  met  with 
from  the  outside  is  a  terrace,  D,  15  ft.  wide,  at  the  edge  of  the  descent.  Mr 
Keish  explains  that  this  was  formed  by  the  rubbish  thrown  out  in  the  levelling 
operations  of  1834  and  in  his  own  work.  I  may  add  that  a  pleasant  terrace 
Walk  mns  all  round  outside  the  wall,  and  probably  is  everywhere  due  to  the 
Bame  cause. 

*  A  main  difficulty  in  understanding  Mr  Neish's  description  arises  from  his  treating 
the  place  as  an  area  divided  into  irregular  spaces  by  wall  faces  (instead  of  as  a 
fortification  surrounded  by  walls. 



Within  this  terrace,  and  standing,  no  doubt,  on  the  edge  of  the  original 
descent,  comes  a  wall,  C,  8  ft  wide,  with  good  facings,  exposed  for  3  ft.  of  height 
outside  and  5  or  6  inside.  The  rubble,  which  doubtless  exists  between  the 
facings,  was  jierhaps  not  laid  bare  by  Mr  Neish,  and  now  is  hidden  by  green 
turf.  Then  follows  an  interval,  B,  lietween  this  wall  and  a  second  wider  one,  A, 
which  has  ite  outer  face,  like  the  inner  one  of  the  first,  excavated  to  Uie  full 
depth,  in  one  place  7  ft.,  and  the  inner  face  only  sufficiently  cleared  to  show  that  it 
is  there.  Tins  I  take  to  l^  the  wall  of  the  fort,  going  all  round.  The  outer  wall, 
on  the  other  hand,  diverges  from  the  inner  one  eastward,  so  that  the  interval 
between  them  increases  from  8  to  12  ft.,  and  is  probably  14  or  15,  at  the  far  end. 
Thus,  as  at  Al^eniethy,  the  outer  wall  is  aj)parently  detached  from  the  main 

A        B      C         D 

Fijr.  39.  East  end  of  the  Laws  Fort,  Monifieth. 

wall  of  the  fort  at  one  end  at  least,  although  it  may  have  run  down  the  sloi)e 
to  join  Dr  Jamicson's  problematical  outer  wall.  It  could  not  be  that  wall,  as 
he  says  that  the  out<*r  wall  wa.s  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  at  this  end.  The  excava- 
tion of  these  walls  has  l)een  a  good  j)iece  of  work,  and  they  are  still  well  seen,  C 
for  U)()  and  A  for  180  ft.  of  lenj.'th. 

Tlie  wall  of  enceinte,  A.  as  I  took  it  to  Ik*,  is  exposed  at  intervals  all  round, 
and  the  W.  end,  nioi-e  lully  oi^ned  up,  .seeiiiKl  U)  have  an  additional  wall, 
although  not  distinctly  shown. 

In  Mr  Xeish's  excavations  givat  quiintities  of  rubbish  testified  to  the  fonner  ex- 
istence of  extensive  building  in  the  interior,  but  the  only  structure  of  consHjuence 
remaining  was  the  foundation  of  a  cinular  tower  with  a  wall  a  few  feet  high  and 
18  ft.  thick  and  a  jwived  area  .3G  ft.  in  diameter,  according  to  the  plan.  It 
was  of  broch  dimensions,  therefore,  but  there  was  no  oi)ening  in  the  wall,  save 

FORTS,   *  camps/   etc.,   OF   PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.     85 

'«e  narrow  entrance,  and  no  evidence  of  a  stair,  so  that  it  cannot  be  proved  to  be 
«  ^roch. 

J'^ttrijadum. — There  is  the  usual  too  common  contradictory  evidence  on  this 

P^int.     Jamieson  makes  the  startling  stfitements  that  "  This  fort  consists  of  two 

^Ms  of  vitrified  matter,  whicli  surround  tlie  hill "  ;  and  "  all  the  buildings  are 

n.  '^^^^''^y  vitrified  as  the  walls  "  ;  also  "  the  vitrifaction  is  as  jnirfect  as  that  of 

^oe  Fort  of  Finhaven."    Mr  Neish,  on  the  other  han<l,  declares  that  vitrified 

'"**5ses  -were  indeed  found  all  through  the  ruins,  and  often  as  if  used  for  backing 

op   tbe  walls  (and  here  I  may  explain  that  what  he  calls  the  walls  are  really 

^^"^11  faces,  so  tliat  he  ap^Kiars  to  mean  that  the  vitrified  masses  were  used 

jn  tlxe    rubble  Ijetween  the  faces),  but  never  as  if  the  walls  (i.e.,  wall  faces)  had 

i«eix  vitrified.    There  can  l)e  little  doubt  that  we  should  prefer  Mr  Neish's  state- 

mentw^  as  they  resulted  from  a  careful  excavation,  while  Dr  Jamieson  relied  on 

8urfa<i^  observations  ;  and  we  need  have  the  less  hesitation,  as  it  seems  extremely 

^"^^^^ly  that  anyone  would  remove  9600  cartloads  of  such  useless  building 

™^^^^ial  as  vitrified  masses  must  be.     Moreover,  I  saw  no  vitrifaction  on  the 

^^ixsive  wall  faces  now  visible,  and  as  far  as  my  observations  go,  vitrifaction 

^   i^^>r«r  foimd  uniting  the  blocks  of  a  handsomely   built  wall   face.     It  is 

P?f®^^le,  however,  that  a  vitrified  fort  existed  here  previously,  from  which  the 

V^'^^^ed  masses  used  in  the  rul)ble  work  of  the  present  ruins  may  have  Ijeen 

c,.**^»  Ih^ndnvaUy  the  first  of  the  two  stone  forts  on  the  N.W.  side  of  the 
v>^  ^^  seems  to  be  one  of  the  very  few  primitive  Scottish  fortresses  mentioned 
y  ^l:ie  early  annalists  ;  at  least  there  is  no  other  existing  claimant  for  the 
^^c^xir  of  Ixjing  the  Dunsinoen  of  the  tragedy  which  led  to  the  murder  of 
^^txxi€th.  King  of  Allmn,  in  995,>  at  Fettercaim. 

-.  ^*^  modem  times  the  first  to  notice  the  place  was  Sir  John  Sinclair,  who  in 

-li  ,^>  when  he  can  liave  been  only  eighteen  years  of  age,  gathered  its  local  tra- 

^^^iotM.2      These   were   of    little  consequence,   but  at  the  very  end  of    that 

^^tury,  James  Playfair,  D.D.,  then  minister  of   Meigle,  afterwards   Princi- 

^^  of  St  Andrews  University,  made  some  excavations,  which  were  recorded 

*^^«t  in  a  work  not  generally  accessible,^  and  again  (very  briefly  in  both  in- 

^taixces)  in  a  work  of  his  own,*  twenty  years  later.     Chalmers^  makes  some 

^^if«ible  remarks  about  the  place,  and  James  Knox  sums  up  the  information 

^own  about  it  down  to  1831,  besides  giving  his  own  impressions  from  a  per- 

^al  visit.^^ 

^  A.D.  995.  **  Cinaeth  MacMalcolaim  Ri  Alban  a  suis  occisus  est.  Tigh.  (per 
<ioIiim,  Ann.  Ult)."  **  Interfectus  est  a  suis  homiiiibus  in  Fotherken  per  perfidium 
Finyelae  filiae  Cunchar  comitis  de  Engus,  cujus  Finvelae  unicum  filium  predictus 
Kyneth  interfecit  apud  DuusinoeD.'*  Cknm.  Fids  and  Scots,  175,  287  (Skene's 
CeUic  Scotland). 

^  Beauties  of  Scotland,  Forsyth,  iv.  319-21. 

^  General  View  of  the  Afp'ieulturc  of  the  County  of  Perth,  James  Robertson,  D.D., 
1799,  i.  880. 

*  Dencriptiott  of  Scotland,  1819,  i.  488,  James  Playfair,  D.D. 

*  Caledonia,  i.  503. 

*  77m:  Tojxxfraphi/  of  ilyc  Basin  of  the  Tay,  192-202,  1831. 

.:    y!!V  N  ';rrrV.   DErEMBKR    11,    1S09. 

-  wiif  I  MH-oini  aru'iiij»t  w;ls  math'  U)  reveal  the  n-.4f:rr'rt.ikoiJ  l-y  Mr  Xainn-,  tlie  ]>r«>jnieUir  at  :Li: 

V  .  nnf'iiifii  l»yl)r  'J'.  A.  \Vi>e.'      l.'nfuituuattly,  :..■ 

•■^iihj  n?it  u.»  tlie  wfjiks,  ??'»  llmt  he  was  Inl  in:o 

-.  ./iM-  I"  '.'ornM.-t  from  my  nwn  ol>si!rvaii<'U  aiii 

-ii./'i'   MS.  n.-'unl  rif  ilui  excavations,  kept  l»y  the 

■:-»!-;i.  '."'■•lla'i-,  wlio  tof.»k  jxjirt  in  tin-  rxravati-iiL-, 

■  :.;iri:  U'  lii.-s  lieirs,  tlimugh  the  kiiidiies.s  of  the 

.    .     » T.-r  (linnh    Minister  of   ( ^irgill.     Tlu-   la*: 



'ti»i^'\n\»n'(i».'>-  ^  ^.v 

I :-.  4'\  OuiiMnniui.     ,Mi'  iliit*lu»s..ii. 

rhe  Rev.  Tlio:n;u^   l»n.»wn,    (\.IIkv,   whiJi,  huwevor,      ^ 
.-It  -iriitige. 

^  ;iA-.'iint  I  shall  in.ik.-  ii<<-  •  {   i!!  ih^...  <,.urvV--;  of  irii.>r:i^ .. ., 
.,,,   rr:v  serious  niu^.    :  a  ;•::.•::>  t.'  u'  s.  nii'  ..f 

>    .;;-.:>! rating  the   i\-.    ■^>"'  ■ 
.^  ;  i-lortaken  ti^»  »'-^:"  -^  :  ■  t' 

,.  s  I.    the  place  \w.v     •     >  -. 


S.  J.  Sr-f..  11.   •'  '       >»■ 

.;.'ix.  ;^7^.  i>-o  "-.  - 

'•■■  '  oi  I ■:•■■%  iiii;  j.-v. 

^       Mr 

FORTS,  *  camps/  etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      87 

Baxter,  who  assisted  me  in  taking  a  roii^li  plan,  corrected  afterwards  by  aid  of 
Mr  Hitcbie,  factor  on  the  estate ;  but  this  has  l>een  8U})er8eded  by  the  plan  and 
sections  (figs.  39  and  40)  placed  at  my  disposal  by  the  kindness  of  Mr  Alexander 
Mutcheaon,  architect,  F.S.A.Scot.,  who  generously  waived  his  intention  of 
writing  a  special  article  on  Dunsinnan,  when  he  heard  that  I  wjis  engaged  on 
the  present  work. 

18'              28' 

















>s^  "m 








30'  6' 









Fig.  41.  Profiles  of  Dunsinnan.     (Mr  Hutcheson.) 

The  Site.— The  hill  on  which  Dunsinnan  stands,  7^  m.  N.E.  of  Perth,  is 
part  of  a  ridge  of  the  Sidlaws,  running  parallel  with,  and  on  the  N.W.  side 
of,  the  main  chain,  but  not  inferior  to  it  in  height,  and  is  well  isolated  from  the 
other  summits  on  the  continuation  of  the  ridge  to  the  X.E.  and  S.W.  The 
ascent  from  the  N.W.  is  gradual,  but  is  steep  and  difficult  in  other  directions, 
and  the  flat-topped  fort  is  perched,  1012  ft.  above  the  sea  level,  on  a  little  green 
knoll  which  crowns  the  narrow  summit. 



The  name,  therefore,  corresponds  well  with  the  site,  if  we  accept  the  deriva- 
tion from  Dun  and  «n«,  'nipple,'  as  the  fort  stands  on  *the  nipple'  of  a  swell- 
ing hill  top ;  but  those  who  aesire  a  more  romantic  origin  will  no  doubt  prefer 
the  derivation,  which  has  also  l:>oen  suggested,  from  shanqan,  *ants,*  because 
"  Macbeth's  men  swarmed  up  and  down  like  ants  when  buildling  the  castle." 

Present  Aspect  of  the  Fortifications, — Tlie  nearly  level  top  dishes  down 
about  3  fr..  to  the  middle,  as  ascertained  for  me  by  Mr  Baxter,  and  the  only 
suggestion  of  fortification  round  the  area  is  a  slight  ridging  at  the  edge,  6  to  12 
ft.  wide,  not  always  perceptible  to  the  eye,  but  made  out  by  measurement. 
On  the  steep  short  slopes  of  *  the  nipple '  are  a  series  of  narrow  terraces,  some- 
times level,  sometimes  higher  towaras  the  outer  edge,  sometimes  becoming  veri- 
tiible  trenches,  as  shown  in  Mr  Hutcheson's  plan  ana  sections  (figs.  40, 41).  The 
trenched  character  is  most  marked  on  the  >*.,  i)articularly  on  the  line  A  A,  but 

Fig.  42.  Duiisiiinan.     (TIk*  late  Mr  A.  Stewart,  Collace.) 

even  there  the  depth  of  the  deejxist  and  lowest  trench  is  only  3  ft.  The  numln^r 
of  these  terraces  and  trenches  varies  from  three  on  the  X.K.  to  one  on  the  S., 
where,  however,  another  may  have  di^iiUH-ared  owing  to  the  steepness  of  the 
Bloj)e.  At  the  extreme  E.  end,  the  slojHi  ends  so  soon  on  a  jjrecipice  that  there 
is  little  room  for  terraces,  and  1  coiil<l  not  make  out  more  tlian  one.  Mr 
Stewart's  plan  (tig.  42)  gives  a  very  <Tami>ed  representation  of  them  and  names 
them  *  Ramjjarts,'  ])ut  this  seems  a  very  inai)pro[)riate  title  for  them.  Neither 
is  there  the  slightest  sign  of  a  lower  wall  hinted  at  by  him. 

Plateaux  hdow  the  Fort. — Innnediately  in  front  of  the  lowest  trench  on  the 
N.  there  is  a  little  level  sjvice,  )»ut  a  much  larger  plateau,  oiH)  by  200  ft.  on 
the  O.M.,  internipts  the  steep  soutliern  <lescent,  about  luo  ft.  below  the  fort, 
and  if  there  was  a  town  as  well  as  a  (Ja.stle  of  Dunsinnan,  the  site  would 
naturally  be  on  these  plateaux  and  some  neighlx)uring  e«'isy  s1ojk*s.     The  track 



of  an  ancient  wall  round  the  edge  of  the  large  plateau  is  marked  on  the  O.M., 
l)ut  I  could  see  no  sign  of  it,  looKing  down  from  the  fort. 

General  IHmeimons, — Tlie  upper  area,  from  crest  to  crest  of  the  slight  ridging 
at  the  edge,  measures  about  185  ft.  in  length  by  105  in  greatest  breadth, 
^hich  is  towards  the  W.  end  of  the  oval  sjiace.  At  the  corresponding  jMirt  of 
the  E.  end  the  width  narrows  to  65  ft.  Measured  over  all,  *the  nipple' 
^th  its  terraced  or  trenched  sides  comes  out  325  l)y  240  ft.  on  the  plan. 

Hie  Fortifications  as  revealM  by  Excnmtion. — As  we  have  sliown,  the  green 
top  and  sides  give  no  clear  indication  of  a  rampart,  but  shortly  before  1799, 
Dr  Playfair,  digging  in  from  the  outer  slope  horizontally  through  21  ft.  of  ruins, 
came  upon  a  part  of  what  he,  without  hesitation,  calls  "Macbeth's  strong 
rampart  of  stone,"  " cemented  with  red  mortar";  "as  entire  as  when  it  was 
originally  constructed,  founded  on  the  rock,  and  neatly  built  of  large  stones." 

Passing  to  the  excavation  by  Mr  Nairne  about  sixty  years  later,  it  is  amaz- 
ing, after  Dr  Playfair's  experiences,  to  find  Dr  Wise  describing  and  figuring  the 
fortification  of  the  top  as  an  earthen  vallum,  20  ft.  broad  at  the  base  and 
tapering  to  a  height  of  10  or  12  ft.  (fig.  43). 

Fig.  43.  Sectional  View  of  Dnnsinnan.     (Dr  Wise.) 

But  however  this  error  arose,  it  may  be  confidently  asserted  that  no  such 
rampart  ever  existed,  and  Mr  Stewart's  MS.  account  of  the  1854  excavations 
amply  confirms  Dr  Playfair's  description  in  all  resi>ects  but  one.  Mr  Stewart 
relates  that  the  workmen,  going  in  from  the  outside,  cut  through  a  mass  21  ft. 
thick,  finding  a  wall  "strongly  built  of  large  stones,  ix)th  inside  and  out,  while 
the  filling  in  is  a  mass  of  loose  stones,  entirely  without  manipulation  or  mortar." 
We  may  dismiss  as  fanciful,  therefore,  the  *  red  mortar '  ot  Playfair,  who  was 
probably  misled,  as  will  afterwards  appear,  by  finding  red  clay  among  the  ruins. 
Thus  the  wall  of  Dunsinnan  falls  into  line  with  the  well  ascertained  walls  of 
the  other  Scottish  stone  forts  that  have  been  proj)erly  investigated.  Mr  Stewart 
gives  no  section  along  with  his  plan  (given  in  outline,  fig.  42),  but  I  have  con- 
Btnicted  a  section  (fig.  44)  from  his  very  clear  description  which  will  aid  the 
reader,  as  we  proceed,  in  understanding  the  j)ositi()n  of  the  wall  antl  interior 
buildings.     I  need  only  point  out  just  now  the  position  of  ihe  wall  at  E. 

EiUrance. — At  present  there  is  a  very  distinct  entrance  at  the  N.E.  corner, 
penetrating  oblic^uely  through  the  defences  to  the  central  area,  and  this  entrance  is 
distinctly  mentioned  in  the  <M  StdJidicitl  Account  of  1798.  It  must  have 
existed,  therefore,  at  the  time  of  Naime's  excavation,  and  a  statement  by  Mr 
Stewart  that  the  wall  was  traced  all  round  without  finding  an  entrance,  must  Ikj 
intended  to  apply  only  to  the  stone  wall.  This  is  cjuite  likely,  as  there  was 
certainlv  no  entrance  through  the  inner  stone  walls,  at  least  near  their  base,  at 
Forgandenny  and  Abemethy  forts. 

Interior  BniUlimjs. — Dr  Playfair  states  that,  "  having  diligently  explored  the 


area,  now  3  ft.  below  the  surface,  and  cut  a  deep  trench  across  it,"  he  found 
no  vestige  of  building,  but  he  cannot  have  gone  deep  enough,  as  the  excava- 
tions of  1854  revealed  much  building  at  the  E.  ena  of  the  area. 

Here  again  Dr  Wise,  misled  by  his  imaginary  vallum,  regarded  the  chambers 
found  as  underground,  i.e.,  beneath  the  original  floor  of  the  fort ;  but  Mr  Stewart 
shows  in  the  clearest  manner  that  they  stood  on  the  floor.  Reverting  to  my 
section  (fig.  44),  constructed  from  his  description,  the  rock  floor,  D  D,  is  seen  slop- 
ing up  gradually  to  the  centre  of  the  fort :  on  this  stands  the  wall  of  fortification, 
E,  ana  within  it  the  chambers,  F  F,  and  a  passage,  H,  between  them  and  the  wall, 
besides  the  "  Queni  Chamber,"  G,  the  whole  enveloped  in  a  mass  of  ruins  and 
covered  by  accumulated  earth,  etc.,  under  the  grassy  surface,  ABC.  Unfortu- 
nately, the  construction  of  these  chambers  remains  quite  doubtful.  The  plans 
(figs.  42  and  43)  of  Dr  Wise  and  Mr  Stewart  are  utterly  irreconcilable,  and  equally 
so  are  their  descriptions,  Dr  Wise  giving  them  a  roimded  figure  with  converg- 
ing walls  and  no  mortar,  while  ^ir  Stewart  declares  that  they  are  all  square, 
with  perpendicular  walls,  and  that,  although  the  fort  wall  had  no  mortar,  "yet 
all  the  square  buildings  contain  considerable  quantities  of  red  mortar."    His 

Fig.  44.  Excavated  Wall  and  Builtliiigs,  Duiisiunaii  (from  Mr  Stewart's  description). 

expressions  on  this  point  are  rather  obscure,  as  if  he  had  not  seen  this  mortar 
actually  joining  the  stones,  but  only  lying  about,  and  he  probably  really  means 
clay,  as  he  uses  the  term  mortar  very  loosely,  in  another  sentence  speaking  of 
"  an  adniLxture  of  decomposed  bones  and  charcoal  of  wood  "as  "a  compound 

It  will  be  observed  that  Mr  Stewart  gives  on  his  plan  several  remains  of  build- 
ings not  noticed  in  Dr  Wise's  accoimt.  A  mass  of  ruin  on  the  S.  he  considered 
on  very  slender  grounds  to  have  l>een  a  tower,  and  two  passages  leading  to  it  he 
regarded  as  the  only  e^rly  British  works,  because  they  alone  had  converj^ng 
walls.  He  also  says  that  "  within  one-half  of  a  large  circular  opening  towards 
the  west  of  the  area,  which  seems  to  have  been  an  open  court,"  foundation  walls 
still  stood  a  foot  high,  but  that  the  other  lialf  contained  none. 

Vitrifaction. — Dr  Playfair  makers  no  mention  of  vitrifaction,  and  Williams, 
the  original  discoverer  of  vitrified  forts,  and  Knox  declare  there  was  none  ;  but 
Wise  found  some  deej)  in  the  excavations  of  the  chambers  ;  Laing  also  dug  out 
several  pieces,  and  Stewart  asserts,  not  only  tliat  the  whole  ruins  on  the  top 
were  full  of  vitrified  stones,  but  that  many  stones  of  the  wall  were  fused  with 
trap  rock,  sandstone,  and  quartz  into  one  lump.     This  reads  as  if  vitrified  blocks 

FORTS,  'camps/   etc.,  OF   PERTH,    FORFAR,  AND   KINCARDINE.      91 

rere  used  in  the  masonry,  and  not  as  meaning  that  the  wall  was  vitrified.  On 
tie  whole  there  can  hardly  be  a  doubt  that  the  wall  was  not  vitrified,  although 
itrified  blocks,  either  brought  from  a  distance  or  taken  from  an  older  fort  on 
lie  same  site,  may  have  been  used  as  building  material. 

JVater  Hupply. — The  excavators  found  no  trace  of  any  within  the  fort,  but 
priiigs  exist  not  far  off  down  the  hill,  and  Stewart  speaks  of  a  *Flatt'  im- 
lediately  below  the  rampart  wall  to  the  S.,  covered  by  a  "  body  of  red  mortar  " 
jlay  ?)  "  which  may  have  been  a  water  tank." 

77j^  Finds  consisted  of  (1)  a  quern  in  a  fixed  position  in  one  of  the  chambers. 
2)  A  spiral  bronze  finger  ring,  described  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Brown  as  of  most 
erfect  workmanship,  m  the  form  of  a  serpent,  the  eyes  and  scales  on  the  back 
arved  regularly  and  very  minutely.  It  was  kept  by  Mr  Naime,  but  in  a  year 
ras  lost.  (3)  And,  on  the  authority  of  Mr  Robert  Chambers,  two  round  taolets 
f  metal  resembling  brass,  one  of  them  engraved  with  the  legend :  "  The  sconce 
f  kingdom  come  until  sylphs  in  air  carry  me  again  to  Bethel"  ^ 

Corndimons. — It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  the  excavations  were  so  imper- 
3ct  and  so  unscientifically  conducted  and  reported  ;  but  on  the  whole  we  may 
onclude  that  Dimsiiman  was  defended  round  the  top  by  a  dry  stone  wall  of  the 
rdinary  fort  type  and  on  the  slopes  by  additional  works,  now  assuming  the  aspect 
f  slightly  trenched  or  level  terraces,  the  true  character  of  which  has  still  to  be 
scertained.  Also,  that  it  contained  much  building,  the  ruins  of  which,  with 
tie  accumulated  soil  of  centuries,  favoured  by  burnt  timber,  of  which  many 
races  remained,  brought  the  top  to  a  nearly  uniform  level,  completely  burying 
oth  wall  and  l^uiidings :  that  trie  evidence  as  to  the  form  and  structure  of  the 
uildings  is  contradictory  and  cjuite  unreliable  :  that  the  same  may  be  said  as 
)  the  presence  of  mortar,  by  which  probably  clay  was  meant :  that  the  few  relics 
1st  no  clear  light  on  the  origin  of  the  building :  and  finally  that  there  is 
othing  to  separate  Dunsinnan  from  the  class  of  ordinary  Scottish  forts  of  dry 

41.  Denoan  Late. — The  work  here  is  a  somewliat  questionable  example  of  a 
»ne  fort,  as  I  could  only  see  faint  evidence  of  rubble  work  rather  than  building 
1  the  very  few  breaks  in  the  massive  green  rampart.  But  Dr  Playfair  and  Mr 
Inox  both  state  distinctly  that  the  wall  was  built  of  stone  without  cement,  and 
le  absence  of  trenches,  trie  presence  of  a  stone  threshold  at  the  entrance,  as  well 
i  the  whole  aspect  of  the  enceinte,  is  that  of  a  stone  rather  than  an  earthen 

The  position  is  on  tlie  VV.  side  of  Denoon  Glen,  here  a  broad  open  valley, 
ut  at  some  distance  from  the  stream,  2^  m.  S.W.  of  Glamis  Church,  and 
39  ft.  above  the  sea. 

The  Law  stands  up  conspicuously  from  every  near  point  of  view,  being  quite 
olated  and  100  ft.  in  heiglit.  The  sides  are  steep,  and  the  south-eastern  ascent 
ids  in  a  line  of  precipice,  on  the  edge  of  which  the  fort  stands  (fig.  45).  The 
rea  of  the  fort  occupies  the  whole  of  the  level  top,  and  hence  has  a  squarish 
ral  form,  and  is  girt  by  a  single  mound,  massive  and  lofty  at  the  end 
id  on  the  N.W.  face,  where  for  a  considerable  stretch  it  is  no  less  than  10  to 
i  ft.  high  inside,  a  very  unusual  elevation,  the  base  here,  however,  being 
robably  natural.    But  even  ^^teyorecipice  edge  on  the  S.E.  the  rampart  is 

1  Picture  of  Ji^^^Mfc    rt  Chambers,  1828. 



6  to  7  ft  high.     Near  the  S.W.  angle,  however,  the  moimcl  seems  to  liave  been 
altogether  removed,  and  at  the  S.W.  end  it  is  only  4  ft.  high,  although  the 



Fif^.  45.  Denoon  Law  Fort,  Glamis. 

necessity  for  defence  is  greater  there,  and  it  is  almost  gone  at  the  N.W.  angle. 
Thus  it  would  seem  to  have  been  much  injured  at  the  S.W.  end  of  the  fort. 
There  seems  to  have  been  an  entrance  at  the  much  injured  N.W.  angle,  but 

FORTS,  'camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,  AND   KINCARDINE.      93 

the  only  difltinct  entrance  now  is  near  the  S.  angle  of  the  N.E.  end.  It  is 
7  ft.  wide,  has  a  stone  threshold,  and  passes  l^etween  the  massive  ends  of  the  ram- 
partj  of  which  that  on  the  N.  side  has  a  broad  platform  in  its  rear,  while  the 
other  has  a  short  terrace,  an  arrangement  which  flanks  and  defends  the  entrance 
inside.  The  top  of  the  rampart  is  a  mere  crest  on  the  N.W.  face,  is  somewhat 
broader,  and  has  two  or  three  little  *eaucer'  hollows  on  the  top  on  the  S.E. 
face,  but  is  as  much  as  6  to  10  ft.  broad  at  the  N.E.  end,  the  short  part  on  the 
S.  side  of  the  entrance  l)eing  pitted  with  several  *  saucer '  cavities. 

In  the  area  of  the  interior  there  are  some  inequalities  of  the  surface,  particu- 
larly a  wide  shallow  circular  hollow  at  the  N.  side,  and  a  large  irregular  mound, 
perhaps  a  rubbish  heap,  near  where  the  rampart  is  wanting  at  the  S.W.  angle ; 
these  are  probably  modem  interferences. 

The  dimensions  of  the  interior  from  crest  to  crest  are  about  380  by  an  average 
of  230  ft.  It  is  difficult  to  give  the  measurement  over  all,  as  the  position 
where  the  rampart  merges  in  the  sloi>e  is  unknown,  but  it  must  be  about  430  by 
280  ft. 

On  the  outer  slope  at  the  N.  angle  and  thence  to  near  the  entrance  in  one 
direction,  and  half-way  along  the  N.W.  face  in  the  other,  are  two  terraces,  with 
a  third  below  them  for  a  short  distance  near  the  entrance  ;  the  middle  one  and 
the  short  one  are  subdivided  by  compartments,  hi  a  manner  difficult  to  describe, 
but  shown  in  the  plan.  Possibly  these  sjmces  were  levelled  and  subdivided 
as  sites  for  houses.  Three  shoi-t  parallel  terraces  are  also  faintly  visible  on  the 
S.  side  of  the  entrance.  The  terraces  at  Denoon  Law  are  noticed  by  Alex- 
ander Gordon,  who  compares  them  to  those  of  Romanno.  They  are  also  noticed 
but  not  described  by  Knox.^  In  planning  these  difficult  objects  and  the  fort 
generally  I  had  the  benefit  of  help  from  the  Rev.  Dr  John  Stevenson  of  Glamis, 
and  my  nephew  Mr  Arthur  Cassels  Brown. 

(c)  Isolated  Fort  near  Alytii. 

42.  Barra  Hill  (or  Barryhill)  Fort  is  situated  1^  m.  N.E.  of  Alyth  Church,  on 
a  spur  of  Alyth  Hill.  Tins  long  ridge,  after  rising  from  the  W.  to  two  summits, 
966  and  871  ft.  above  the  sea,  falls  on  the  E.  to  a  neck  about  500  ft.  above  the 
sea,  over  which  passes  the  high  road  up  Gleniala,  and  to  the  E.  of  the  road  the 
ridge  again  rises  abruptlv  150  ft.  to  a  little  eminence,  680  ft.  above  the  sea, 
conspicuous  from  l>einc  thus  thrust  into  the  valley  of  the  Isla.  Here  stands 
the  fort  with  steep  rocky  descents  on  all  sides. 

The  earliest  notice  of  Barra  Hill  is  by  Dr  Playfair,  who  saw  it  probably  at 
the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,^  and  it  has  also  been  descril)ed  by  Sir  George 
Mackenzie,  whose  visit  must  have  been  early  in  the  nineteenth  century.^ 

The  fortress  consists  of  a  regular  oval  work  (fig.  46),  measuring  on  the  O.M. 
200  by  120  ft.,  occupying  the  level  summit,  and  various  appurtenances,  which 
can  only  be  understood  by  reference  to  the  plan,  founded  on  that  of  the  O.M., 
but  with  considerable  additions,  and  with  sections  by  myself.  Approaching, 
as  a  visitor  would  naturally  do,  Sfroni  the  W.,  we  first  meet  a  trifhng  moiuid- 

*  Topography  of  the  Basin  of  th'.  Taij,  p.  172,  James  Knox,  1831. 
^  Description  of  Scotland,  i.  485,  James  Playfair,  D.D.,  1819. 
^  ArduBol.  Scot,j  iv.  184. 





-— ^<*'"' 


/  "/ 

FORTS,   'camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      95 

fence,  A  A,  at  the  edge  of  the  steep  ascent,  bounding  a  plateau  at  the  foot  of 
the  fort  on  which  is  the  *well,'  B,  a  circular  grassy  hollow,  stony  at  the 
bottom,  3  ft  deep,  about  50  diameter,  and  quite  dry  at  my  visit. 

Looking  up  from  this  plateau  to  the  N.  we  see  a  steep  ascent  to  another 
plateau,  C,  25  ft.  higher,  partially  enclosed  by  a  low  mound,  D  D,  and  domi- 
nated by  the  main  work  ;  looking  now  from  the  first  plateau  to  the  E.,  another 
ascent,  E  E,  is  seen,  at  first  gentle,  then  steeper,  interrupted  by  the  wide 
terrace,  F,  and  leading  directly  to  the  rampart  of  the  fort  proper. 

Q  is  another  rough  plateau,  unfencea,  higher  than  C,  and  very  slightly 
dominated  by  the  main  work.  At  H  the  hill  descends  direct  from  the  rampart 
of  the  fort,  but  beyond  that  a  terrace,  I,  runs  round  eastward  and  southward  as 
far  as  J,  where  there  is  a  fall  of  2  or  3  ft.  to  the  trench,  N. 

Tlie  mound,  K,  about  50  ft  wide  on  the  top,  is  probably  natural,  but 
carved  into  shape.  It  bears  a  little  mound.  A:,  at  the  N\  end,  and  southward 
l^radually  narrows  to  join  the  very  regular,  evidently  artificial,  mound,  L,  the 
crest  of  which  is  5  or  6  ft.  wide,  and  which  has  in  it«  rear  a  wide  terrace,  M 

Fig.  47.  Profile  at  Barra  Hill.     (Sir  G.  Mackenzie.) 

(which  may  be  regarded  as  continuous  with  the  terrace,  IJ),  rising  only  a 
couple  of  feet  above  the  6  ft.  wide  trench,  N,  from  which  it  is  fenced  oflp  by  a 
low  moimd  only  at  the  E.  end,  0.  Beyond  L  there  is  a  little,  perhaps 
natural,  sharp-cut  trench,  T,  shown  only  in  my  section,  having  on  the  further 
side  a  narrow,  rou^h  ridge,  U,  beyond  which  is  the  steep  descent  of  the  hill. 
This  ridge  would  torm  a  good  natural  first  line  of  defence  on  the  S.  side  of 
the  fort 

Finally,  with  a  bold  command  all  round,  except  towards  the  plateau,  G,  and 
mound-head,  K,  where  it  is  but  slight,  is  the  rampart,  P  Q  R  S,  of  the  fort 
proper.  Dr  Playfair  describes  this  as  a  mound  of  earth  6  to  8  ft.  high,  on 
which  a  wall  of  freestone  was  built  without  cement,  of  which  the  foundation  of 
rough  granite  remained,  10  to  12  ft  wide,  the  same  width  as  the  top  of  the 
moimd.  I  cannot  help  thinking,  however,  that  he  was  mistaken,  as  there  is  no 
evidence  now  of  such  a  wall,  and  the  aspect  of  the  mound  is  exactly  that  of  the 
ordinary  ruined  and  partially  grass-grown  walls  of  Scottish  forts.  Neither  do 
I  know  any  example  amone  them  of  a  wall  constructed  on  the  top  of  an  arti- 
ficial moimd.  Sir  George  Mackenzie  tells  us  that  the  stones  of  the  rampart  are 
a  red  conglomerate  from  the  hill,  but  does  not  mention  any  masonry,  and  I 
could  see  none. 

Vitrifaction. — Dr  Playfair  and  Sir  G.  Mackenzie  saw  only  a  few  vitrified 
masses  in  the  ruins  of  the  rampart,  and  I  noticed  none  amidst  the  great  masses 
of  stones  that  Ue  on  its  outer  and  inner  slopes.     Dr  Playfair,  however,  describes 


a  thoroughly  vitrified  *  bridge,'  18  ft.  long,  only  2  broad  in  the  middle,  but 
widening  to  both  ends,  and  covered  with  gravel,  as  crossing  the  trench  (at  the 
point  J  in  my  plan).  But  Sir  G.  Mackenzie,  while  confirminj^  the  vitrifaction, 
says  and  shows  by  a  section  (fig.  47)  that  this  bears  no  resemblance  to  a  bridge, 
and  I  can  amply  confirm  him,  in  regard  to  its  present  state,  as  there  is  now 
nothing  but  a  slight  descent  at  J  to  the  trench,  N.  Possibly  a  rough  and  pitted 
irregularity  of  the  terrace  or  flat-bottomed  trench,  I,  near  J,  now  visible,  may 
have  suggested  the  idea  of  a  northern  side  to  this  *  bridge,'  which,  unless  it  was 
purposely  greatly  reduced  between  Dr  Plav fair's  and  Sir  George  Mackenzie's 
visits,  was  so  low  that  it  cannot  have  been  of  any  use  as  a  bridge. 

Dr  Play  fair  calls  this  the  only  vitrified  mrt  of  the  fort,  but  Sir  Gteorge, 
having  found  more  vitrifaction  at  the  ]>oint,  1,  makes  the  extraordinary  sugges- 
tion, that  if  the  turf  were  removtHl,  a  vitrified  wall  would  be  found  all  the  way 
round  from  I  to  X.  At  the  same  time  he  confesses  that  he  caimot  account  for 
a  vitrified  wall  being  found  in  so  extraordinary  a  situation  as  the  bottom  of  a 

No  entrance  through  the  ramj)art  is  marked  on  the  O.M.,  although  Dr  Play- 
fair  sj)eak8  of  one,  apjwinmtly  at  the  E.  end,  secured  by  a  bulwark  of  stona  I 
could  see  neither  the  one  nor  the  other. 

(/)  Forts  on  High  Ridges  between  Forfar  and  Brechin. 

A  few  miles  N.E.  of  Forfar  two  narrow  j)arallel  ridges,  their  crests  from  a 
mile  to  a  mile  and  a  half  apart,  run  north-eastward,  between  the  broad  fertile 
valley  of  the  South  Esk  on  the  one  side,  and  llescobie  Loch  and  the  paFS  through 
which  road  and  rail  escape  fi-om  Strathmore  en  route  for  the  Meams  on  the 
other.  These  ridges  rise  l>oldly  to  a  height  of  750  ft.  al)Ove  the  sea,  and  500 
above  the  low  ground  to  N.  and  S.,  but  the  hollow  l)etween  them  is  only 
300  ft.  deep,  and  is  continuous  with  the  table-land  which  carries  one  of  the 
roads  from  Forfar  to  Brechin.  Where  the  hollow  debouches  on  the  table-land 
is  Alxirlemno,  celebrat^jd  for  its  large  assemblage  of  early  Christian  monu- 
ments. The  furthest  north  of  these  ridges  is  5  m.  long,  beginning  at  Carse 
Gray  on  the  W.  and  ending  at  Finavon  Hill.  Tlie  other,  beginning  near 
Luilanhead  and  Pitscandlie,  is  3  m.  long,  and  imds  at  Turin  Hill.  A  large 
fort  occupies  each  of  these  ridges  at  or  near  their  highest  points,  and  there  is 
also  a  small  work  of  a  doubtful  character  towards  the  W.  end  of  the  Turin 
Hill  ridge. 

43.  Turhi  J  fill  Fori^  the  iAunp  or  Kemp  CaMlc  of  the  Statistical  Accounts 
and  of  Mr  A.  J.  Wardens  Aiujus^  is  a  very  remarkable  work  of  almost 
uni(|ue  character  and  extent,  and  has  hitherto  escajx»d  description,  beyond  the 
brief  notices  in  the  authorities  mentioned  above.  It  is  1|  ni.  S.S.W.  of  Aber- 
lemno  Church  and  8(K)  ft.  above  the  s<.*a.  Tlie  summit  of  Turin  Hill  is  a 
pculiarly  narrow  level  ridge  which  runs  E.  and  W.  and  is  HKX)  ft.  in  length 
by  only  about  100  in  breadth.  The  foi  t  with  its  apjiurtenanccs  occupies  all  this 
space,  and  runs  besides  some  distance  down  the  gentle  descent  to  the  N.,  so  that 
the  total  occui)ied  area  is  about  IfJoo  )>y  400  ft.  The  descents  from  the  narrow 
K.  and  W.  points  of  the  .summit  are  stiej),  and  to  the  S.  the  fort  looks  down 
from  the  edge  of  a  low  but  nmral  clitr  on  a  steei)  descent  to  Rescobie  Loch  500 
ft.  below.     As  it  is  on  the  dominatiug  point  of  the  two  ridges,  which,  as  I  have 

FORT8,   *  camps/  ETC.,  OF   PERTH,  FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE,      97 

exi»laiutsd,  are  interpoeed  here  between  the  Qrampions  and  the  low  coast  range, 
it  commands  a  most  extensive  and  Ijeautifiil  view,  and  has  a  position  of  strat- 
egical importance.  Its  proximity  to  the  very  ancient  Aherlemno  may  also  Ije 

The  works  will  Ixi  best  de8cril)ed  from  the  west,  whence  the  visitor  is  led  by  a 
farm  roar]  gradually  skirting  up  the  hill  side  from  Clocksbriggs  Station  nearly 
to  tlie  summit^  when  it  turns  northwards  through  a  little  pass  to  the  Al^erlemno 
road.      A  short  but  steep  ascent  from  this  jioss  leads  to  the  sharp-jiointid  W. 

r  D 


H  % 




^J^%     \  %,^^^^^' 


Scale  for  the  Plan  (Sections  double) 

I. ...I.. 

100    50     0  100  zoo         300         600         500  F^ 

Fig.  48.  Fort  on  Turin  Hill. 

end  of  the  summit.     Here  (A,  fig.  48)  is  a  double  row  of  cup  or  saucer  shapetl 
hollows,  possibly  foundations  for  hut  circles. 

Fifty  vards  further  on  is  an  oval  work,  B,  130  by  108  ft.  over  all,  covering 
the  whole  width  of  the  ton,  and  environed  by  a  mound  24  ft.  wide  and  2  or  3 
l^ig^'  grassy  but  With  small  stones  visibl(\  it  \\i\A  eiitranceH  from  the  K.  and 
W.,  and  the  whole  interior  is  irregularly  cupixxl  and  mounded. 

Nearly  100  yds.  further,  after  crossing  a  wide  mound,  C,  which  we  disi-egard  in 
tlie  meantime,  we  come  to  another  mound,  D,  encircling  the  long  oval  space  £, 

VOL.  XXXIV.  0 


rtl)ont  500  by  180  ft.  over  all,  the  sides  Uring  not  far  from  straight,  the  ends 
rounded.  The  enclosing  mound  is  grass-grown,  but  shows  small  stones,  and  is  no 
less  than  35  ft.  broad  and  G  high  on  tlu*  outer  side  at  the  W.  entrance.  On  the 
X.  side  it  is  nearly  gone,  but  is  distinct,  though  much  ruined,  on  the  precipice 
edge  on  tlie  S.  side,  and  is  again  well  ])n*Herved  at  the  E.  end,  where  the 
entrance  has  tho  |)eculiar  form  shown  in  the  plan,  and  lias  behind  the  ramjiart 
on  the  S.  side  a  smce.  of  about  70  by  35  ft.,  enclo8e<l  by  a  low  straight  mound, 
and  divided  into  lour  or  live  compartments. 

Within  the  o\'al,  much  nearer  the  W.  tlian  the  E.  end,  and  touching  the 
N.  side,  is  the  nearly  circular  *  citadel,'  F.  A  mass  of  rubble  all  round, 
with  many  fine  facing  stones  at  the  l)ase,  proves  it  to  have  l)een  alwut  90  ft. 
diameter,  inside  a  wall  from  12  to  14  ft.  thick,  and  the  fine  quality  of  the  drv 
masonry  is  testified  by  a  j^art  of  the  outer  face,  8  ft.  long  and  Sh  high,  stifl 
standing  (fig.  49).    Many  of  the  facing  stones  are  2^  to  3  ft.  long. 

Fig.  49.  Masonry  of  Turin  Hill  Fort. 

Fifty  yards  further  E.  is  another  nearly  circular  work,  G,  140  by  130  ft. 
over  ail,  the  low  grassy  and  stony  encircling  mound  being  alwut  15  ft.  wide, 
with  an  entrance  to  the  S.W.  Within  it  is  a  second  encircling  mound  10  ft. 
wide,  the  inner  area  of  all  being  about  50  ft.  in  diameter. 

Al>out  100  yds.  further  we  come  to  a  massive  mound,  H,  alx)ut  30  to  40  ft. 
wide,  at  the  edge  of  the  eastern  descent.  On  the  S.  side  of  the  entrance  it 
mnidly  diminishes  in  bulk,  and  soon  reaches  the  precipitous  edge,  but  on  the 
other  side  it  continues  for  a  considerable  distance  curving  round  the  N.  side 
down  the  hill,  and  can  l)e  traced,  more  often  as  a  ternice,  all  the  way  till  it  j<»ins 
the  mound,  (.',  near  the  W.  end  of  the  site,  where  it  runs  out  on  the  prticipice 
cKlge  ;  a  very  large  semi-oval  sjjace  (if  alnnit  11  (Kj  l>y  370  ft.,  enclosing  the 
inner  oval  and  citiidel,  is  thus  shut  i]i.  On  the  S.  side  of  the  entrance  a 
second  mound,  1,  7(>  ft.  outside  the  tirst  and  lower  down  the  hill,  circles  round 
with  it.  At  first  it  is  30  ft.  wifle,  but  soon  becomes  a  terrace,  and  I  ci^dtl  not 
trace  it  more  tlian  half  way  rouncl. 

44.  Finaron. — The  ridge  of  Fimtron,  Fiiunm,  or  Fttulhacen,  ruiming 
I^arallel  with  the   last,  after  attaining  its  full  height  of  751  ft.  above  the  sea, 


gradually  falls  north-eastward  to  the  500  contour  line,  where  a  winding  road 
passes  over  it  from  N.  to  S.  The  ridge  then  rises  acain  steeply  100  ft  almost 
uuinediately  to  a  little  level  summit^  on  which  stanos  the  fort,  a  mile  due  W. 
of  Aberlemno  Church  in  the  plain  below.  This  summit  is  approached  by  a 
long  moderate  ascent  from  the  N.,  and  by  a  short  but  narrow  one  from  the  E., 
but  it  has  a  very  steep  fall  to  the  S.,  beginning  at  a  well-defined  precipitous 



■   'I  ':  >h? 



Fig.  50.  Finavon,  near  Aberlemno. 

edge.    The  fort^  curiously  enough,  is  not  at  this  edge,  butjis  withdrawn  from  50 
to  100  ft.  from  it,  and  it  is  also  slightly  withdrawn  from  the  steep  ascent  at  the 

'rhe  plan  (fig.  50)  is  very  simple.  Two  long  straight  sides  face  N.  and  S.,  and 
tlie  two  ends  are  well  rounder.  According  to  the  O.M.  the  dimensions  from 
crest  to  crest  are  500  ft.  by  125  near  the  W.  end,  contractinc  to  110  at  the 
E.  end.    It  is  therefore  a  peculiarly  narrow  fort.    The  mound  rampart,  even 

100  IMKX'KKDINtlS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,   DECEMBEU  11,  1899. 

on  tho  Hide  towards  tlie  steep  descent,  is  in  some  places  as  much  as  7  ft.  high 
and  30  bnxul,  and  on  the  N.,  where  its  outer  Ibnit  is  not  so  easily  made  out, 
it  is  at  least  40  ft.  wide  where  my  section  was  taken.  At  the  W.  end,  on  the 
other  hand,  which  is  not  naturally  strontr,  it  is  singidarly  weak^  being  narrow 
and  only  3  ft.  above  a  little  plateau  which  comes  right  up  to  it  At  the  K  end 
it  is  coniuvUKl  by  an  earthen  mnip,  F,  with  a  ])erluips  natural  mound  nmning 
jvirallel  with  that  end,  but  exUmding  in  an  irrogidar  manner  to  within  40  ft. 
of  the  steep  (k»8cent  on  the  S.  and  Honie  100  ft  down  the  slope  to  the  N. 
Ascending  from  the  N.  the  visitor  i»  deceived  into  the  belief  tnat  the  space 
Wtween  tiiis  mound  and  the  minpart  must  lead  to  the  entrance,  but  finds  him- 
A'lf  in  a  i'lil  ih-  mc.  At  i>re8ent  a  cart  road,  A,  winds  up  the  hill  from  the  N., 
]vismi«s  close  lH*ni*ath  the  rain])art  from  K.  to  W.,  crosses  the  fort  obliquely,  and 
goes  down  the  vXA'^i^y  dem^'nt  to  the  S.  'I1ius  the  only  two  existing  entrances 
an'  formeil.  it  is  nomewhat  i*emarkable  that  the  flat  space  on  the  S.,  which 
is  aUnit  (K»  ft.  wide  at  tbe  W.  end  and  100  at  the  K  end,  and  is  on  the  same 
lowl  as  the  inti^rior,  is  neither  fortified  at  the  edgi»  nor  on  its  flanks. 

The  interior,  k\»  nhown  in  my  section,  ha$,  near  the  K.  end,  a  shallow^  pit, 
If,  45  ft.  wide,  and  at  the  extreme  W.  end  a  very  deep  one,  H,  shaped  like  an 
invorteil  iiuie,  with  grassy  sidi*s,  desivnding  directly  from  the  slight  rampart 
iherv  to  a  depth  of  30  ft  ' 

Accimliug  t<>  Williams,  Or  J.  Jamie^ku,  the  Statistical  Account^andthe  O.M. 
this  fv>rt  is  vitritletl.    .lamiestni^  liad  the  opportimity  of  investigating  it  when 
the  tenant  was  eU«aring  away  jvirt  of  the  wall,  but  unfortunately  his  descrip- 
tion ut  alnuv^t  inoompreheiuiible.     He  says  tluit  after  piercing  throosh  8  or  10 
tt  of  rubbish  the  vilritiiil  wall  was  found  regularly  built  ami  stanaing  from 
10  to  I  (  tt  in  height  and  :!0  to  3i)  brvxul  at  tlK'  base.    But  the  wall  was  not 
.ill  vlt^itu^l«  a.«  he  sap  that  )virt«  fnnn  top  to  U^tom  afforded  no  vefltiges  of 
tire,  although  v^thew  wen*  innupleloly  bumevl.    Apparently,  also,  it  was  not  the 
built  wall  lirnt  wjis  vitritunl,  lor  he  siU->?  "ihe  irregidar  ciMicrete  mass  formed  a 
bultr\>ss  \»u  «xuh  sUle  <"  fAr     i-c'.'iir  c-  r- .  -''ui.*'-  "m//.'     He  al$o  says  that  the 
'iUMiv^  weiv  bi\mght  li\MU  various  oiurtors  :  in  one  small  heap  he  found  seven  or 
eighl  vbtteivut  kuuls  ot  sti^ie  :  ana  iIva:  a  great  viuontity  of  ashes  of  burnt  wood 
\\:is  uu\v\l  with  the  suuies,     The  ramp&rc  is  now  mucfi  overgrown,  but  a  oon- 
^^l^'r:4Me  |vui  ot  it>  nIojhxji  axv  Iviiw  At.vl  wberv\-er  that  was  tbe  case  I  found  the  ^ 
>iouv>  unu  h  Unvuvl  uyvsUer  with  a  vlul^  Ctv,^.  J^h-like  suUstance,so  that  the  fort -3 
xvMu  lo  bavv  AS  o^^f  *  title  to  ;hv  tuv.iw  '  v'.:ritleLi*  as  meet  «.<her9.    The  onlyv 
•,iv:e  *;l.iv<\  ousy  \  pK  m\1  y,v  was  '>:v^  vr.  :h.e  surface  inside  the  fort,  ajod  ha2^ 
";vUkl»l\  Ivor,  vl.;^  uv  tx'.^  *\  >«.*r.;<  rcvvr::  explorer. 

^    ^    S-v^W    t\*';^.N    .'\    ■    :.     ;:.      :     vN  "     vN        ' ..   '■^-.AW-    F*.  SL-ESt    oK    AXOC^ 

'  ^     ^'    '       \  '"^  '•T'sv"  'h:    c.-rns   ct    :hie    Grampia^i::^ 

'.  \*-.:.'     .•:•.    i     .  \.    •       i  x        \     ^•■.'  !      ^TLiC'"  '>"<:r«e  ^.T  •>  m. 

>"        A   -     •  ->     '  -  V  ■   .•    L-  -.>e  ^^^iphrie  Bmi 

"  \^    '    ^^  ^-  -i    ■    ••  :->-.. .w<erly  coci 

V        t     *      «    .  *v.>  i    .  '■;*'< -iVscwuid  I 


FOUTS,  *  camps/   etc.,   OF   PEKTIf,   FOPFAH,   ANI»    KIXOAKinNE.     101 


t  .!  : X 
















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..x>''':1'm-^'''''\\  .x>:JI^^'  ^..rVr" 

V^g-  *'^*  ,    r^ramP^fl^^^  .      Q^8  and  ^^ 

104  PR0CKE1)IN(JS  OK  THE  SOCIETY.   DECEMBER  11,   18W. 


/     ; 

N  - 



FORTS,  *  camps/  etc.,  OF  PEKTII,   FOKFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.      105 

work,"  and  proV>ably  he  is  not  responsible  for  tlie  extraordinary  development 
and  fomi  given  to  it  in  the  engraving  (section  C). 

On  conii>aring  section  D  with  E,  taken  respectively  on  the  N.K.  and 
S.W.  faces  of  the  work,  differences  come  out,  ]>robably  due  to  the  compara- 
tive gentleness*  of  the  sloi)e  on  the  N.E.  face,  llere  it  is  neither  so  long  nor 
so  high  as  in  D  ;'it  is  interrupted  al^out  the  middle  by  a  level  space,  g,  7  ft. 
wide,  and  the  whole  surface  is  thickly  covered  with  debris,  instead  of  having 
the  grassy  interval  of  the  S.£.  section.  The  trench  is  again  quite  distinct, 
but  it  has  no  outer  mound. 

It  is  impossible  from  these  surface  characteristics  to  understand  the  original 
structure,  but  I  V)elieve  that  excavation  would  reveal  remains  of  masonry  re- 
presenting a  wall  poesiblv  30  to  40  ft.  thick.  Whether  the  pitting  on  the  ton 
IS  due  to  mere  searching  for  stones,  or  had  a  structural  origin,  is  a  question  whicn 
also  could  only  l)e  solved  by  excavation.  Poe8il)ly  there  were  really  two  con- 
centric walls,  the  intersj^ace  ijeing  filled  up  with  cellular  Imilding  of  some  kind 
or  another ;  and  there  may  have  been  another  and  slighter  wall  situated  at  the 
foot  of  the  slope  on  the  edge  of  the  trench.  The  division  of  the  debris  on  the 
alope  into  an  ui)|jer  and  lower  strip,  as  shown  in  section  D,  favours  this  supposi- 

It  remains  to  s])eak  of  the  outer  line  of  defence.  Roy  calls  it  '*a  double  in- 
trenchment,"  ana  his  section  C,  fig.  100,  represents  two  mounds,  /i,  »,  with  a 
trench  between.  Where  my  section  (D)  was  taken,  however,  I  found  nothing 
but  a  trench,  k,  with  a  15-ft.-wide  level  terrace,  I,  in  its  rear,  and  this  con- 
tinued to  l)e  the  case  along  a  great  part  of  the  N.E.  face,  although  towards 
the  two  ends  there  was  a  slight  mounding  liotli  inside  and  outside  the  trench. 
The  total  dimensions  of  the  White  Caterthun  are  1300  V)y  840  ft.  and  the  area 
of  the  citadel  is  470  by  210  ft. 

It  seems  as  if  there  had  been  but  one  entrance,  situated  at  the  E.  end,  where 
now  a  mere  footj>ath  passes  over  a  hollow  in  the  stony  debris.  At  the  opposite 
end  are  two  similar  paths,  and  it  is  possible  that  one  of  them  indicates  the 
position  of  a  second  entrance,  but  neither  of  them  |>aBses  through  a  well-marked 
nollow  like  the  path  at  the  E.  end. 

46.  The  Brown  Caterthun  (fig.  52),  j  m.  N.E.  of  the  last,  is  descril)ed  l)y 
Roy  as  lieing  "  fortified  by  several  sliglit  earthen  intrenchments."  Their  present 
slight  character  may  be  partly  due  to  the  lx>ggy  nature  of  a  gn»at  portion  of  the 
ground.  The  inner  ring  (fig.  52,  and  m,  section  B,  fig.  53),  now  scarcely  trace- 
able in  some  jarta,  is  so  trifling  where  preserved  tluit  it  is  questionable  if  it  was 
intended  for  defence.  It  encloses  the  level  Hummit,  a  sjmce  of  al)Out  280  by 
190  ft ;  but  a  little  way  down  is  a  second  much  stronger  ring,  n,  a  mound  8 
or  9  ft  high  outside,  which  proltfibly,  as  Miss  Maclagan  thinks,  conceals  a  stone 
wall,  and  appears  to  have  been  the  main  defence.  It  encloses  a  sj^ace  of  610  by 
480  ft.  The  next  ring  is  a  trench,  represented  i\8  i)erfect  by  Roy  and  the 
O.M. ;  but  I  found  no  remains  of  it  in  some  stretches,  although  to  the  N.E.  it 
was  not  only  well  seen,  but  liad  slight  mounds  in  front  and  rear.  About  120 
ft  farther  down  is  the  fourth  riiig,  p,  a  mound  measuring  about  30  ft  across 
and  5  or  6  in  height  to  the  outside,  Al)OUt  30  ft.  lower  is  the  fifth  or  outer 
ring,  q,  consisting  of  a  slighter  mound  towarrls  20  ft  wide  and  rising  only  4  or 
5  above  a  narrow  trench,  which  is  bounded  outside  by  a  very  trifling  mound  6 
or  8  ft  in  width.    The  total  dimensions  are  1120  by  1010  ft 


The  eiitmnces  throiigli  all  these  rings  are  numerous.  Perhap  some  of  them 
arc  modern  breaches,  but  as  they  are  simply  ojienings  and  nothing  more,  the 
\ioiut  cannot  be  determined  without  excavation.  Roy  seems  to  liave  thought 
most  of  them  genuine,  as  he  says  "  the  second  or  strongest  [ring]  has  no  less 
than  seven  gates." 


1.  Craig  OJmey,  2J  m.  S.  by  W.  of  Dunkeld,  1323  ft  above  the  sea,  is  marked 
l)y  a  dotted  circle,  120  ft.  diameter,  as  the  site  of  a  fort.  I  have  no  informa- 
tion about  it. 

2.  Jackshairs^  li  m.  E.S.E.  of  Forteviof,  339  ft.  above  the  sea,  on  the 
highest  point  of  a  little  wooded  ridge  on  the  skirts  of  the  Ochils.  The  O.M. 
represents  two,  i)erhaps  three,  concentric  rings  round  an  area  of  180  by  150 
ft.  with  an  inner  ring  of  80  by  60  ft.,  the  whole  measuring  350  by  250  ft. 
I  could  only  tind  three  faintly  marked  trenches  on  one  side. 

3.  Auchterhoicse  Hill. — This  well  wooded  and  finely  shaped  summit  of  the 

J^ ico' 

Fig.  54    Piotiles  of  site  of  Fort,  Auchterhouse  II ill. 

Sidlaws,  G  m.  X.X.W.  of  Dundee,  1400  ft.  above  the  sea,  U  m.  N.E.  of  the 
Parish  Church  of  Auchterhouse,  has  'site  of  fort '  marked  on  the  O.M.  on 
its  very  top.  A  century  ago,  Dr  Playfair  saw  only  faint  traces  of  a  fort.  All 
that  I  found  were  a  few  stones  suitable  for  building  at  the  edce  of  a  steep 
sloix*  of  30  ft.,  on  which  were  two  concentric,  low,  artificial  looKing  mounds 
which  could  not  be  traced  far.  This  was  the  natural  boundary  to  the  S.E. 
On  the  N.W.  the  hill  slope  from  the  blunt  conical  site  is  continuous,  and  offers 
no  natural  limit.  To  the  S.W.  the  descent  is  very  abrupt,  and  to  the  N.E.  it 
falls  on  a  considerable  plateiiu.  The  general  nature  of  the  site  will  be  under- 
stood from  the  rough  sections  (fig.  54).  The  interior  of  the  fort  was  probal)ly 
circular,  and  may  have  mea.sured  about  200  ft.  diameter. 

4.  DumlHirrov\  at  Kirkton  Fanii,  2 J  m.  E.  by  S.  of  Dunnichen  Church. 
A  single  oval  ring  of  120  by  100  ft.  is"marked  on  the  O.M.  on  the  top  of  a 
knoll  544  ft.  above  the  sea,  rising  but  little  above  the  high  and  pretty  level  land 
to  the  S.,  but  with  a  descent  of  300  ft.  to  the  low  country  on  the  N.  The  sit^ 
is  nuich  overgrown  with  brushwood,  and  I  could  see  nothing  but  a  few  large 
stones  lying  about. 


FOJJTS,  *  camps/  etc.,  OF  PERTH,   FOllFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.     107 


^  i-    /^outh  Tulchan. — A  fort  is  marked  here  on  the  O.M.,  2  m.    N.N.E.  of 

^OMrlis  Wester,  1  m.  S.  of  the  Almond,  60()  ft.  above  the  sea,  in  a  field  sloping 

^oi-tli'^^a^  to  a  small  burn.     The  green  elevation,  5  to  9  ft.  high  ana  80 

^fx>e»,  shows  natuFGd  rock  cropping  out  on  the  top.    Breaks  reveal  quantities 

.V  ^^r^e  and  small  stones,  and  tnere  is  something  like  a  circle  of  stones  under 

d  V?   ^^^  ^  about  a  foot  high,  round  the  foot  of  the  mound.     This  puzzling  place 

^^    ^i^ot  seem  to  me  to  fiear  any  resemblance  to  a  fort. 
j\^^      ^Juncan^s  Campj  on  Bimam  Hill,  600  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  2  m.  S.S.E.  of 
,  ***^fc:^ld  Church,  is  drawn  on  the  O.M.  as  a  low,  flat-topped  elevation,  triangu- 
^»        '^^ith  rounded   angles,  measuring    al>out    180  by   1(K)  ft.      I   have  not 
^?^     i  t  and  have  no  information  about  it. 

g^^^  ^ZJaledonian  Camp, — This  pretentious  name  is  given  on  the  O.M.  to  an 
j^£^^^*==^-^ive  enclosure,  3  m.  W.N.W.  of  Blairgowrie,  on  Lornty  Bum,  Qomiack 
jj-^^?K^«  An  irregular  rectangular  space  of  about  4000  by  2000  ft.  is  enclosed 
I  fe^?^^^  *  Buzzart  Dykes,'  described  to  Dr  Joseph  Anderson  by  some  natives  as 
nj^^^^  ^ikes.'  It  is  on  irregular  ground,  600  to  850  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  a  great 
^T^^^^  cairns  are  marked  on  the  O.M.  lx)th  inside  and  on  the  muir  beyond. 
nj^^;^^--3ider8on  saw  some  of  them,  and  thought  they  were  not  sepulchral,  but 

,^?*^^^  be  remains  of  shielings. 

th^  "^    ^-fiofe'g  Reed, — This  is  the  peculiar  title  of  a  work  also  marked  *  fort '  on 

of     ^fc-^^^-^.M.,  but  which  seems  to  me  to  be  a  dubious  fort.     It  is  1 J  m.  W.  by  N. 

ri^3i^^r^^«5ot)ie  Church  on  an  irregular  plateau  not  quite  on  the  summit  of  the 

vr^-^^^^  here  about  550  ft.  above  the  sea,  that  runs  on  to  Turin  Hill  fort.     The 

vrVi^^'^  has  no  natural  strength,  and  has  an  inner  circular  area  65  ft.  diameter, 

lO^^^^^li  falls  from  3  to  5  ft.  below  the  level  of  the  exterior,  except  to  the  W. 

ai^  ^^^    enclosed  by  a  low  mound,  18  ft.  wide  and  only  Ij  high,  of  small  stones, 

i^^^^^P^^T  as  can  be  seen,  with  a  few  large  flat  ones  not  of  the  kind  commonly  used 

es.«^«rt  wall-faces. 

Vx^~^^     Druid! 8  Camvy  dte  ofy  is  marked  on  the  O.M.  3 J  m.  S.S.W.  of  Stone- 

^-^^^•^n  on  high  table-land  480  ft.  above  the  sea.     There  seem  to  be  no  remains, 

^  ^^    I  could  get  no  information  alx)ut  the  place  or  the  origin  of  the  name,  but 

^  V^d  not  go  to  the  spot 

^,  Campj  MontgoUirum. — Near  the  farm-house  of  that  name,  on  the  top  of  the 

T^^  gentle  yet  prominent  *  Camp  Hill '  of  the  O.M.,  450  ft.  above  the  sea,  2  m. 

^.«^.  of  Arbuthnott  Church,  is  an  irregularly  circular  mass  of  stones  about  60  ft. 

^^meter,  the  outer  edge  of  which  is  marked  iri-egularly  by  some  large  rough 

^^nes  not  suitable  for  building.     One  huge  block,  apparently  pulled  from  ite 

'place  and  blown  up,  must  have  been  6  ft.  square  when  entire.     But  the  mass 

insists  of  smallish  water-worn  stones,  such  as  are  abundantly  ploughed  up  in 

the  adjoining  field.     Mr  F.  R.  Coles,  after  making  a  careful  examination  and 

taking  a  plan,  l)elieves  that  this  is  a  ruined  (aim.    A  number  of  large  stones  lie 

scattered  to  the  N.E.,  which  he  thinks  are  the  remains  of  a  second  cairD. 

7.  BlacUll  Camp.—Th&  site  indicated  on  the  O.M.,  J  in.  N.N.W.  of  Dun- 
nottar  Ca«<tle,  \  m.  S.  of  Stonehaven  harlK)ur,  I  found  to  Ije  a  space  enclosed 
on  the  S.E.  by  a  precipice  rising  from  the  head  of  Strathlethan  Bay,  on  the 

108  PKOCEEDINGS   OF   THE   SOCIETY,   DECEMBER   11,   1899. 

N.W.  by  a  atraight  mound  only  2  ft.  high  and  6  wide,  on  tlie  S.W.  l)y  a 
branch  at  right  angles  to  the  last ;  and  it  is  not  enclosed  on  the  N.£.  Tlie  first- 
named  mound  is  on  the  summit.,  250  ft  above  the  sea,  of  the  enclosed  area,  which 
slopes  so  steeply  to  the  precipice  tliat  the  work  cannot  have  lieen  a  fortress  of 
any  kind,  more  particularly  an  the  moimd  is  so  trifling. 


1.  Dunnichen, — On  the  top  of  this  detached  height  764  ft.  above  the  sea,  ^  m. 
N.  of  Dunnichen  Church,  overlooking  the  supxKwed  scene  of  Ecgfrid,  King  of 
Northumbrians  defeat  in  685,  the  remains  of  a  fort  were  visible  according  to 
Knox,  op,  nt.y  p.  118.  I  have  not  Ijeen  there,  but  nothing  is  marked  on  the 

2.  Green  CairUy  Ij  m.  W.S.W.  of  Fettercairn,  2CH)  yds.  S.  of  Caimton 
cottage  on  the  high  it>ad,  is  the  name  of  a  little  eminence,  measuring  about  200 
by  140  ft.  on  the  O.M.  My  notes  of  it  have  been  lost,  but  my  recollection  is 
that  it  was  raised  about  20  ft.  alx)ve  a  level  field,  tliat  it  liad  an  irregularly  fiat 
top,  rough  with  many  closely  aggregated  indefinite  little  mounds  and  frag- 
mentary hut  circles  (?),  but  with  no  clear  signs  of  fortification. 

3.  Intrenchment  is  the  name  on  the  O.M.  of  a  straight  mound  about  450  ft. 
long  in  Dnmisleed  Wood,  I  m.  S.E.  of  Fordoun,  300  ft.  above  the  sea,  running 
parallel  with  and  a  little  withdrawn  from  the  edge  of  a  steep  descent,  on  an 
elevated  flat.  The  mrisli  minister,  the  Rev.  J.  Menzies,  pointed  out  to  me  that 
st^veral  other  mounds  run  oflf  at  right  angles  from  the  main  one,  but  they  are 
little  more  tlian  broad  undulations  of  the  ground,  whereas  the  *Intrenchment' 
is  substantial  in  height  and  width.  The  remains  arc  puzzling  but  not  sugi^- 
tive  to  me  of  fortifications  Knox  says  that  the  country  people  call  the  place 
*  The  Scotch  Camp.' 

4.  The  LaWy  Tumulus,  are  the  titles  given  on  the  O.M.  to  a  mound  1^  m. 
W.N.W.  of  Kinneff  Church,  and  300  yds.  N.  of  Largie  Castle  site.  An  ex- 
tensive cutting  on  the  W.  side  shows  sandv  soil  and  a  few  rounded  stones.  The 
flat  top  measures  75  by  33  ft.  Tt  may  fiave  served  as  a  simple  mote  or  for- 
tress, but  it  is,  I  should  think,  of  natural  formation,  tis  is  a  similar  mound,  with 
its  long  axis  in  the  opjK)site  direction,  however,  about  100  yds.  to  the  N. 

5.  Cdstle  Hilly  1000  yds.  S.  by  W.  of  Kinneflf  Church,  on  the  edge  of  a  sea 
cliff,  is  represented  as  a  strongly  marked  artificial  mound  on  the  O.M.  I  found 
it,  however,  to  l)e  quite  inconspicuous  an<l  entirely  without  remains  of  building 
or  fortification. 

0.  Malcohn's  Moinity  2  m.  W.N.W.  of  Stonehaven,  ^  m.  N.E.  of  Fetter- 
e&so  Church,  150  ft.  alx)ve  the  sea.  (Growing  crops  prevented  me  from  getting  up 
to  it,  but  it  looked  on  a  near  view  as  if  a  natural  mound  rose  to  an  artificial 
one.  Taking  the  enclosed  and  nlantiid  top  as  the  artificial  part,  it  is  a  regular 
circle  KX)  ft.  diameter  as  marked  on  the  O.M. 

7.  lieinains  of  Ram  part  is  the  title  on  the  O.M.  of  a  mound,  only  a  foot  or  two 
high  and  G  wide,  that  cuts  oft*  the  i>romontory  called  Th^  lUwdunHy  ^  m.  S.E. 
of  Stonehaven  liarlx)ur,  on  the  N.  side  of  the  Castle  Bay  of  Dunnottar.  This 
precipice-girt  point  consists  on  the  landwanl  side  of  a  squarish  flat  of  500  ft. 


FORTS,  *  camps/   etc.,  OF   PERTH,   FORFAK,   AND   KINCARDINE.     109 

*00  fx^  above  the  sea,  and  of  another  flat  beyond  it  at  the  extreme  point  about 

^  ftw     lower,  of  about  half  the  extent    At  the  neck  a  narrow  gto  cuts  in  from 

J^    ^•^  and  at  its  head,  nearly  on  a  level  with  the  Hat,  a  ravine  begins  which 

p'^^^'t^^ly  descends  to  the  sea  on  the  N.E.    The  artificial  mound  also  starts 

o/^*?^  tihe  head  of  the  gto  and^runs  down  ih^  hottam  of  the  ravine  to  the  rocks 

^^^wduns  at  the  sea.  Thus,  although  it  cuts  across  the  neck,  from  its 
^^*^\•^i^5n  and  trilling  dimensions  it  can  hardly  be  considered  defensive.  A 
^S^^^^r  mound  in  its  rear  courses  along  the  top  of  the  ravine,  but  this,  like  the 

'^^  *^^  seemed  to  me  to  be  &fefice  rather  than  a  defence. 
jj^  ^  Oircular  Stone  Structures  in  Upper  Gleiilyon. — In  this  remote  locality,  16 
^y^V^  "^^twve  the  sufficiently  remote  Fortincall  with  its  sauare  fort  in  the  flat 
jg^^'^  ^HlDim  Qcal  overlooking  it  from  the  hill,  it  is  remarkable  to  find,  within  the 
^^.^J^  t^  of  a  mile,  the  poor  remains  of  four  circular  stnietures,  too  large  for 
-  ^^-•-'^^^ary  hut  circles,  but  apparently  not  sufficiently  strong  or  well  built  to  have 
»-    fortified  towers,  l^esiaes  being  on  indefensible  sites  in  the  level  l)Ottoni  of 

Chart  of  Rums 'n  Upper  Ctrnlyon 

C«rsrr«)  4 

Fig.  66.  Chart  of  ruined  ••Towers,"  Upiier  Glenlyon. 

^^^f2  valley.  Towers,  however,  they  are  called  on  the  O.M.,  and  the  (Jaels  call 
y«icm  "Caisteal,"  as  shown  in  the  chart  (fig.  55)  reduced  from  the  f»-inch 
^.M.  These  names  are  also  recognised  by  Mr  Duncan  Campbell  in  his  Uook  of 
^^nrth  and  Fortinyall.  Miss  Maclagan,  Tlie  Hill  Fortx,  <Cr.,  of  Ancient  Scotlandy 
P»  85,  calls  them  circular  buildings,  and  describes  and  figures  three  of  them, 
One  of  which  seems  to  have  a  single  row  of  stones,  set  on  end,  and  therefore 
Hot  very  suitable  for  the  foundations  of  the  outer  and  inner  facing  of  a  broad 
t^ibble  wall. 

Mr  Cimpl)ell  alw  finds  no  less  than  seven  MotrJu'Us  in  (Jlenlyon,  l>ut  they  do 
not  seem  to  U'  known  as  such  by  the  people,  and  the  O.M.  does  not  notice  them 
either  by  name  or  drawing,  excej)t  the  Sithmn  (\imslai,  17  m.  above  Fortin- 
gall,  which  is  drawn  on  the  O.M.  as  a  triangular,  flat  topped,  low  mound 
with  a  tower  on  it,  but  is  not  marked  MoUhill.  The  t<^>wer  apiHiars  to  be  a  mis- 
take, as  Dr  Joseph  Anderson  informs  me  it  is  a  small  green  mound.  One 
might  wish, however,  to  know  more  of  the  Tom  na  Ciuiirteig^  "directly  above  the 


Kemiclacli  round  fort,  which,  Mr  Campbell  says,  *put«  the  Tinwald  of  Man  to 
ojwn  shame/  " 

Circular  Stone  Structures  in  Strathardle,— A  large  number  of  *hut  circles' 
and  other  circular  structures  of  larger  size  in  a  veir  ruinous  state  have  been  de- 
scribed by  Dr  John  Stuart  at  J>alnal)othj  and  by  Miss  Maclagan,  who  also  gives 
plans  of  them,  as  well  as  of  others  at  GUnderhy^  Strathardle,  and  I  have  seen 
similar  remains  near  the  'Roman  Camp'  of  Raedykes,  near  Stonehaven. 
Doubtless  they  occur  elsewhere  in  our  district.  They  are  always  of  an  obscare, 
little  understood  character,  and  fall  very  doubtfully  if  at  all  under  the  head 
of  fortifications. 


I.  Class  op  Kauth works. 

(a)  Possible  Motes. 

Nuuilkcr, — About  hiilf  of  the  twenty-live  earthworks  (including  two 
in  the  1  Postscript)  have  some  claim,  on  structural  grounds,  although 
generally  a  feeble  one,  to  the  title  of  Mote,  With  one  exception,  the 
most  that  can  be  said  is  that  they  are,  on  the  whole,  more  like  motes 
than  forts. 

Heitjht  above  the  Sea. — Like  the  other  earthworks,  they  contrast 
stn)ngly  with  the  stone  forU  in  this  resi>ect,  as  their  elevation  is  quite 
motlerate.  The  only  two  that  climb  abive  the  500  contour  line  arc 
Anu'c/uJ,  700  ft.,  and  Dundee  Lair,  572  ft.,  and  only  four  others 
reach  the  600  contour. 

Sifrs.     As  a  rule  thev  are  not  on  positions  of  natural  strength — the 
exceptions   being  No.  8,  the  Torr ,   No.  9,  Dundee  Laic — the   last  ofZl 
which  lias  perhaps  tin*  feebh'st  claim  of  all  to  1h?  called  a  mote. 

r/(Vfs.     N<».  1,  Cairn  IhlJi,  the  best  claimant,  appears  to  have  l)cen  « 

tyjueal  mote  with  a  Inise  court.     No.  11,  Arniefuty,\m\  No.  12,   Caniei 

laud^  are  simple  moated  moumls  on  paper,  but  the  resemblance  is  not  f^^ 
salisfactorv  in  tht^  liehl.  No.  8,  The  Torr,  is  by  no  means  unlike 
lerraeed  mote.  .\s  {i^  }\i).  'J,  In''hbrah'i>\  if  not  a  mote,  it  is  certaiiw.  "^ 
(lillicnli  tt»  call  it  anythini;  e]s«'.  It  ha^j  the  iiitiund,  the  surroundL  -:^^ 
lieinb.  ;»im1  .111  niiiiM"  rMiiipait,  bill  its  imu>ua]  si/e  and  tlie  feebleness  of  t  ^j 
lampMit  ;irf  loni  ra  iiulii  Mti«»ns.  No.  10,  Ca^Uftuu,  ixwA  No.  W,  Dur^cM^ 
l.nii\  .lie  po-,,iMr  examples  .«i"  tlie  s.pKiie  type  (»f  mote,  ramparted    ^tu/ 

FORTS,  *  camps/   etc.,  OF   PEKTH,  FOUFAK,  AND   KINCAKDIXE.      Ill 

trenched.     The  four  remaining  wore  possibly  motes  of  the  simpk»st  type, 

mere  artificial  mounds  witliout  rampart  or  trend i,  always  of  necessity  an 

uncertain  class. 

T}i£  Nam^  Mote  in  thn  OUtrv-t. — It  is  very  tloubtful  if  the  name  has 

iKjeu  applied  locally  to  any  of  these  works,  even  to  Xos.  3,  4,  and  5,  and 
I  failed  to  get  any  evi<lence  of  it  in  the  neighlxmrhood.  In  tlu*  Regitf- 
trum  Magim  t>i(jlllx  1  have  only  noticed  one  reference  to  a  mote  in 
the  three  counties — a.d.  1546,  "lie  Moit  de  Errole."  1  do  not  know  if 
there  are  any  remains  of  it,  hut  none  are  marked  on  the  ().!M.  Three 
'  niotehills '  in  Perth  and  two  in  ^Learns  are  also  mentioned,  hut  the 
signilication  is  probably  different  from  that  of  *  mote/ 

(b)  KaHlien  Forts. 

NumJper, — The  toUd  number  of  ai>j)arently  earthen /c/r/^f  in  the  district 
is  thirteen,  including  two  described  in  the  po8tscri|)t. 

Elecaiion  above  the  Sea, — As  with  the  motes,  the  elevation  is  very 
moderate,  with  the  exception  of  No.  17,  JCvdirJc,  which  attiiins  890  ft., 
a  very  unusual  height  for  an  earthwork.  It  is,  however,  not  a  deeply 
trenched  but  rather  a  terraced  fort.  The  next  highest  barely  passes  the 
500  contour  line,  and  oidy  two  others  reach  the  400  contour. 

Sitett, — It  is  one  distinguishing  fcMiture  between  this  sulnlivision  and 
the  motes  that,  whereas  all  i\m  most  j»robal)lc  mot(»s  are  on  weak  sites, 
the  forts  without  exception  are  j>lac(Ml  where  they  derive  considerable 
strength  from  the  nature  of  the  ground. 

Plans. — Where  the  constructors  had  a  free  hand,  the  form  ai>i)roaches 
that  of  the  oval,  but  only  in  a  single  instance  is  the  oval  enceinte  of 
fc»rtitication  comidete.  The  position  being  genc^rally  at  the  straight  edg(; 
of  a  steep  bank,  which  was  Irft  unfortified,  compelled  the  form  to 
assum<»  a  somewhat  semi-oval  figure.  In  the  case  <»f  f(»rtified  promont(>ries, 
inland  or  on  the  coast,  where  the  fortilieati<ni  is  confined  to  the  ntu-k,  the 
fonu  of  the  fort  depends  entirely  (Ui  that  of  the  cut-oil'  point. 

The  only  comjdete  fortified  enceinte  is  at  (r/'cen  (-axflr^  No.  23.  It  is 
single,  consistijig  of  a  rampart  and  trench,  of  uniform  strength  all  round, 



anil  this  assimilates  it  to  the  stone  forts.  But  T  could  see  no  sign  of 
stone  about  it,  and  the  fine  broad  rampart  was  amply  accounted  for  by 
the  deep  and  wide  trench  from  which  it  was  no  dou])t  taken.  In  three 
instances,  all  of  cut-off  pt)ints,  the  fortified  line  was  only  single,  but  in 
the  other  examples  of  that  type,  and  in  all  the  ordinary  forts  with  incom- 
[>lete  semi-oval  fortifications,  the  lines  were  dou])le  or  treble.  Terraced 
fortification  seems  only  to  have  l)een  employed  at  Evelick,  Xo.  17. 

Water  Supply. — Most  of  the  earthen  forts,  a,s  well  as  the  motes,  had 
a  pretty  direct  access  to  streams  runnijig  close  under  their  sites,  but 
whether  they  had  springs  or  cisterns  inside  is  uncertain,  as  not  a  single 
native  earthen  fortress  in  the  tlistrict  has  l)een  excavated. 

Relics. — For  the  reason  just  given,  we  are  equally  ignorant  of  the 
relics  they  may  contain. 

Import  of  Uie  Distinctions  between  tJie  Eartlien  and  the  Stone  Forts, — 
Although  the  earthen  differ  from  the  stone  fortresses  in  the  lowness  of 
their  situation,  their  structure,  and  their  generally  incomplete  enceintes 
of .  fortification,  it  would  l>e  rash  to  conclude  that  these  distinctions 
depend  on  a  difterence  of  date  or  of  race  in  the  builders.  They  can  all 
be  explained  Ijy  the  differences  natural  to  sites  on  the  hills  or  in  the 
valleys,  and  l)y  the  Ciise  with  which  stoneworks  can  be  thrown  up  on  the 
former,  and  Ciirthworks  in  the  latter. 

11.  Stone  Forts. 

Numher. — The  number  of  stone  forts  reckoning  as  such  all  that  have 
the  (ritatlel  of  stone,  whatever  the  nature  of  the  outer  defences  may  be, 
is  twenty-three — lnit  few  for  so  large  a  district. 

Elevation  abore  tlui  Sea. — The  great  coni|)arative  elevation  of  stone 
forts  is  shown  by  the  facts  that  only  one  of  the  twenty-two  comes  down  to 
the  500  eontour,  whereas  in\\y  four  of  the  twenty-fiv(»  (earthworks  come 
up  to  it  ;  and  lluit  n^au*  of  tht?  latter  come  within  100  ft.  of  the  1000 
contour,  while  six  of  the  stone  forts  are  above  it,  and  live  more  within 
100  ft.  of  reaching  it.  The  highest  of  all,  Dun  More,  Glenalmondy  is 
no  less  than  1520  ft.  al»ove  the  sea. 


Sites. — With  the  exception  of  No.  27,  Dun  GecUy  wliich,  although  on 
a  height,  is  approachable  by  easy  slopes  all  round,  all  the  stone  forts  arc 
strongly  protected  on  one  or  more  sides  l)y  precipices,  ravines,  or  steep 

Platis, — The  great  majority  are  oval  in  form,  although  in  some  the 
oval  is  so  broad  as  to  approach  the  circle.  Only  in  a  few,  which  are 
chiefly  tower-like  structures,  is  the  form  circular  or  very  nearly  so. 

In  seventeen  of  tlie  twenty-three  stone  forts  the  artificial  zone  of 
fortification  is  a  complete  one  of  uninterrupted  stone  wall,  often  with 
little  or  no  diminution  of  its  thickness  wliere  tlie  natural  defence  is 
strong,  greatly  contrasting  in  these  respects  witli  the  earthen  forts.  In 
one,  Xo.  25,  Dundurn,  the  enceinte  is  also  complete,  but  this  is  effected 
by  drawing  a  series  of  stone  walls  irregularly  from  one  inaccessible 
precipice  to  another.  In  No.  31,  Ogle  Hill,  and  No.  33,  Rossie  Law,  the 
fortified  zone  is  also  complete,  l)ut  a  great  part  seems  to  have  consisted 
not  of  stone  walling,  but  of  terracing.  In  No.  32,  Ben  Effery,  tlie 
same  double  system  appears  to  have  been  used,  but  one  side,  a  straight 
precipice  edge,  was  unfortified,  and  this  with  No.  24,  Dunvwre,  which 
has  a  semi-oval  front  of  fortification  from  edge  to  edge  of  an  in- 
accessible bank,  are  the  only  instances  of  an  incomi»lete  artificial  enceinte 
in  the  twenty-three,  with  tlie  jiossi])le  exception  of  No.  36,  which  is 
so  dilapidated  that  no  opinion  can  be  formed  al^nit  it. 

Development  of  the  Fortification, — In  four,  Nos.  27,  29,  33,  and  41,  the 
enceinte  is  single  and  simple.  No.  44,  Finavon,  has  in  addition  a  mound 
at  one  end,  doubtfully  artificial,  but  connected  by  an  earthen  ramp  with 
the  main  work.  In  three,  Nos.  26,  30,  and  35,  there  is  an  annex  at  one 
end.  In  No.  37,  Camac,  the  annex  goes  so  far  round  as  almost  to  form 
a  second  enceint<%  and  in  28,  Dun  MacTual,  a  second  enceinte  is  also 
nearly  completed  by  an  annex  at  one  end,  and  advanced  stone  walls  at 
tlie  other.  In  Dron,  No.  38,  two  large  annexes  give  a  false  appenirance 
of  a  double  enceinte,  but  they  are  merely  slightly  fenced.  In  the 
remaining  eleven,  excluding  the  too  dilaindated  No.  36,  the  enceinte  is 
either  double  or  treble,  sometinuis  i)artially  (piadruple. 



Structure  of  Hie  Walls, — This  hiis  been  determiniMl  with  or  without 
excavation  in  ten  of  the  twenty-two,  and  in  all  these  it  is  of  the  same  tyin*, 
the  faces  l)eing  of  well-built  dry  masonry,  and  tlie  core  of  rudely  built 
rubble  work.  Two — No.  34,  Castle  Lawy  and  No.  35,  Abemethy — Imve 
had  wooden  ]>eams  in  addition.  As  in  all  the  Scottish  stone  forts  that 
have  been  investig-ated,  there  appears  to  Ikj  no  prejiared  foundation,  and 
when  the  wall,  sis  genenilly  happens,  stands  on  the  edge  of  a  descent, 
the  outer  fjice  is  lower — sometimes  much  lower — than  the  inner,  one. 
There  seems  little  reason  to  doubt  that  the  walls  of  the  other  stone  forts 
of  the  district  are  simply  burie<l  under  the  ruins  of  their  upper  part  or 
under  the  accumulated  overgrowth  of  soil  and  vegetation  of  centuries. 
Finavon,  No.  44,  as  a  much  vitrified  work,  is  a  j)08sible  exception, 
although  Dr  G.  A.  Jamieson,  who  saw  sections  made  through  the 
enceinte,  declares  in  his  rather  incomprehensible  do^ription  that  it  was 
a  built  wall  buttre^ed  with  vitrifaction. 

Water  Supply, — From  their  gcjiieral  sites  on  i^iinted  heights  at  con- 
siderable elevations  th(i  stone  forts  have  not  the  rwuly  access  to  streams 
which  the  earthen  forts  often  possess.  Nt^ither  are  springs  generally 
found  near  them  at  present  on  th(»  hillsides.  Abermthyy  No.  35,  has 
an  exceptionally  good,  ready  sui)ply  in  the  dammed-up  loch  close  below 
it,  and  also  had  a  large  rock-cut  cistern  inside.  Hollows  in  the  interior 
of  several,  as  at  Denoon,  No.  41,  Barra,  No.  42,  Finavou,  No.  44,  and 
the  White  Caterthuji^  No  45,  may  indicate  the  existence  of  old  wells 
or  cisterns,  but  in  most  of  the  aretus  there  is  nothing  of  the  kind. 

Relics,  — The  numl)er  of  relics  found  has  l)een  remarkably  small,  but 
only  two  of  the  forts  have  l)eeu  scientifically  excavatiHl.  The  result, 
as  far  lus  it  goes,  is  that  the  finals  are  com])atible  with  the  existence  of 
the  forts  al)Out  the  Roman  peri(Ml,  but  n(»t  iHM*pssarily  earlier,  and 
the  range  is  c(»nsid<Tal>ly  into  UHMlianal  tim<'s. 

BrocJis, — S('v<'ral  circular  foundations  of  liroch  size  remain,  but  it  is 
very  doubtful  if  any  really  were  l^rochs.  One  that  1  have  seen,  Robs 
Reedy  has  been  included  in  my  class  of  dubious  works,  and  it  is 
not   constructed   of   the  regular  masonry   required    for   a   Broch ;    the 

JST-C^RTS,  'camps/   etc.,  OF  PERTH,  FORFAK,  AND   KINCARDINE.     115 

'*vim^*  may  be  said,  I  think,  of  the  'Towers'  in  Glenlyon,  as  figured 
/>V  ^IViit4S  Maclagan,  and  described  to  me  by  I)r  Joseph  Anderson. 
T/ic3  ^_5ircular  work  at  Tyndun^  No.  29,  is  too  large  for  a  Broch,  and 
if  t>J^i£^  is  a  less  difficulty  with  Dun  Geal,  No.  27,  the  width  of 
its  -%^!^i.xJJ  is  scarcely  sufficient.  In  all  respects  the  most  likely  Broch 
foimxAc^lxi't^ion  is  the  excavated  circular  wall  18  ft.  broad,  with  an  areii  of 
36  ±"-f>-  enclosed,  at  The  LqwSj  No.  39,  but  in  the  absence  of  evidence 
of  ii.  <:s€->iitainQd  stair  or  chambers  it  cannot  bo  proved  to  be  the  wall 
of  aj^     ^-3i"<Dcli. 

T^^^^-^'^fied  Forts.— It  cannot  be  said  that  the  authorities  for  vitrified 

f ort:-€*     i  x]i.    the  district  have  done  anything  to  clear  up  the  obscurities  that 

havxix-t^     tills  class  of  objects.     Rather  have  they  done  much  to  illustrate 

tlici    €3  :>CL  tix^dordinary  discrepancies  as  to  mere  facts  that  meet  the  inquirer 

luU^    t>lic3ir  history  at  every  turn.     Take  The  Laws,  No.  39,  and  we  find 

^   *^  ^">1aii   Jamieson  describing  the  two  walls  and  all  the  immense  mass 

^      -•^-^^^^liiig  within  as  thoroughly  vitrified,  whereas  Mr  Neish  asserts  there 

''^^^     vitrification  in  the  wall  faces,  the  absence  of  which  I  verified, 

^^•^  vitrified  masses  were  only  found  in  the  backing  or  rubble  of  the 

*     ."  C^iT  take  Dunsinnan,  No.  40,  where  Playfair  makes  no  mention  of 

^       ^^^ion,  while  Stewart  asserts  that  the  whole  interior  buildings  were 

^  ^  ^>    and  that  it  was  also  used  on  the  wall  face. 

^^^irt  best  entitled  to  be  called  vitrified  is  Finavon.  No.  44,  but  only 

.  ,         ^^^ond  degree.    It  cannot  be  compared  with  Carradaley  in  Argyle, 

,.  ,       ^^    #0  ft.  of  continuous  vitrif action  standing  up  as  a  wall,  still  less 

-V  ^^    *'*i-^  Arisaig  fort  on  EUean  nan  GobJiar,  recently  verified  by  Dr 

.  ^lunro  to  be,  to  a  height  in  one  place  of  9  ft.,  a  continuous 

^^     wall  wherever  it  is  visible,  and  comparatively  little  of  it  is 

^tro^vn.     Finavan  rather  ranks  with  Tap  o*  JVoth,  Aberdeen,  where 

^^  much  vitrifaction,  l)ut  an  the  late  Mr  Macdonald,  Huntly  Farm, 

^»  ^>earing  but  a  small  proportion  to  the  unvitrified  stone,  and  where 

I  ^^^     ^^   ^>f  his  two  complete  sections  no  vitrifaction  was  found  from  top 

\  ^  ^^ttom.    This  was  also  proved  to  be  the  case  by  sections  at  Ftnavon. 

\^  \  ^^  two  forts  differ,  however,  in  the  position  of  the  vitrifaction,  which 


was  certainly  at  and  near  the  top  at  Tap  &  Nothj  whereas,  if  we  may 
believe  Dr  Jamieson,  it  buttressed  a  built  wall. 

Lastly,  it  may  be  suggested  under  this  head  that  the  quantities  of  loose 
blocks  of  vitrifaction  apparently  found  at  The  Laws  and  Dunsinnan  may 
have  been  got  from  vitrified  walls  which  preceded,  on  the  same  site,  the 
unvitrified  walls  now  existing. 

Distinction  bbtwebn  the  Forts  of  this  and  other  Districts 
IN  Scotland. 

It  would  take  too  long  to  make  a  comparison  with  all  the  other  groups 
in  Scotland,  but  confining  the  comparison  to  Argyle,  the  differences  are 
very  marked — perhaps  more  so  than  in  any  other  case.  One  manifest  dis- 
tinction is  that  one-half  of  the  forts  in  our  district  are  of  earth,  while  it 
is  doubtful  if  a  single  earthen  fort  exists  in  Argyle.  Tliis  may  be 
partially  due  to  the  abundance  of  stone  everywhere,  in  high  or  low 
ground,  in  Argyle,  together  with  the  rarity  of  deep  soil  suitable  for  mak- 
ing entrenched  works.  But  more  marked  distinctions  are  the  large 
number  and  small  size  of  the  forts  in  Argyle,  and  the  small  num})er  and 
large  size  of  the  forts  in  our  district.  When  it  is  considered  that  vast 
tracts  in  Argyle  are  destitute  of  forts,  171  seems  a  large  numl>er  for  the 
occu[)ied  tracts,  as  compared  with  the  45  scattered  pretty  generally  over 
Pertli,  Angus,  and  Mearns.  But  the  difference  in  size  is  even  more 
striking.  Adopting  the  stjxndards  used  in  my  work  on  Early  Fortifica- 
tions in  Scotland,  it  conies  out  that  of  164  measurable  forts  in  Argyle,  81 
are  very  small,  72  small,  10  considerable,  and  only  1  large,  whereas  in 
our  tliree  counties,  of  44  measurable,  5  are  very  small,  13  small,  19  con- 
siderable and  7  large ;  or,  dividing  them  into  two  classes  as  large  and 
small,  76  per  cent,  in  the  throe  counties  and  only  8  per  cent,  in  Argyle 
are  large,  and  92  per  cent,  in  Argyh^  and  only  24  per  cent,  in  the  three 
counties  are  small. 

These  contrasts  derive  some  interest  from  the  fact  that  tlu^  one  set  an* 
in  the  land  first  occupied  in  Scotland  by  the  Scots,  and  the  other  in  the 
scixt  of  the  chief  power  of  the  Picts.      If  we  cannot  positively  affirm  that 







V.*"""'"  .  „, ..  '^t:i:.:''^t.T:'-^' 


*\  ^^^^^ 




FORTS,   *  CAMPS,'   ETC.,   OF  PERTH,   FORFAR,   AND   KINCARDINE.     119 

the  interior  has  a  coinmainl  iiDrthwanl  of  c)uly  a  few  feet,  but  eastward 
the  exterior  gnmnd  falls  away,  ami  the  slope  from  the  interior  is  steej), 
-md  here  only  the  upper  scarj)  (1)  and  its  trencdi  (2),  much  reduced  in 
size,  are  met  with.  At  the  eastern  sharply -pointed  end  of  the  fort,  where 
the  narrow  front  could  only  hold  a  few  defenders,  the  first  mound  (3), 
^nd  its  trench  (4),  again  appear,  in  front  of  (1)  and  (2),  to  strengthen 
this  weaker  point. 

<  )n  continuing  the  transverse  section  through  the  inner  area,  two  small 

*ix?nehe^,  a  and  b,  about  18  in.   deep,  were  discovered,  curving  round 

l>a.Tallel  with  the  earthworks,  one  al)out  10  ft.  in  rear  of  the  top  of  the 

**<^«rp,  the  other  from  about  12  to  18  ft,  in  rear  of  the  first.     They  con- 

"•^ii-ined  flat  stones  or  flags,  generally  disarranged,  but  in  some  places  still 

**t.«ncling  on  end,  so  as  to  line  the  sides  of  the  trenches,  e  in  the  enlarged 

*^^5<iti(>n,  leaving  a  space  about  8  in.  wide,  which  was  filled  with  earth, 

^-ontaining  decayed  or  charred  wood  in  small  fragments  but   in  large 

^Xviantity.     It  seems  a  fair  conjecture  that  these  trenches  held  palisades, 

*^ind  that  the  stone  linings  were  intended  to  assist  in  supporting  and 

'^i:>dng  them.     In  some  places,  the  same  woody  earth  was  found  beneath 

^V^e  stones,  as  if  the  ends  of  the  palisades  had  been  fixed  into  a  founda- 


No.  48,  KempUy  Gask. — This  fort,  much  levelled  by  the  plough,  so 

^^Xosely  resembles  the  last  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  give  a  plan  of  it. 

I^he  position  is  li  m.  W.  by  N.  of  Findogask  Church,  200  ft.  above  sea, 

'^xi  Kempy  Knoll,  from  which  there  is  a  steep  descent  eastward  to  a  rill, 

^^butary  of  Cowgask  Burn.     This  naturally  stnjng  side  is  unfortified, 

^>ut  a  semi-oval  double  entrenchuKait,  with  a  single  small  *  i)alisade  trench,' 

♦Exactly  like  those  on  No.  47,  protects  the  N.W.  front,  which  is  accessible 

^»y  a  gentle  ascent.     The  S.W,  end  is  ai>proached  by  a  narrow  ridge, 

nearly  on  a  level  with   the  interior,  and  here  the  abrupt  end  of  the 

trenches,  before  reaching  the  edge   of   the   descent  to  the  rill,  shows 

where  the  entrance  had  l>een.     The  dimensions  over  all  are  385  by  215 

ft.,  and  of  the  interior  250  by  165  ft.     The  inner  trench  is  alx)ut  15  ft. 

wi«lo  and  7  deep,  and  the  outer  one  8  ft.  wide  an<l  3  to  4  deep ;  but 


these  (limi'iisions  wonM  !>«  greater  \v\um  the  ])loughed-duwn  ram|)art,  now 
17  ft.  wide  on  the  top,  retained  its  full  height.  The  front  of  fortification 
is  48  ft,  broad,  including  tlie  *  palisade  trench,'  but  narrows  to  34  ft.  at 
the  entrance.  The  *  palisade  trench '  is  there  carried  further  than  the 
defensive  trenches,  and  it  contains  stones  set  on  edge,  charred  wood,  and 
bliick  mould,  like  the  similar  trenches  of  No.  47. 

As  palisade  trenches  have  not  been  previously  noticed  in  Scotland,  1 
am  fortunate  in  being  able  to  conclude  my  account  of  the  forts  of  South 
Pictland  with  a  reconl  of  so  interesting  and  novel  an  ol)8ervation ;  in 
forts,  moreover,  which  have  been  rediscovered,  after  escaping  notice  for 
more  than  a  century.  No  pottery  or  other  relics  of  any  kind  were 
found  in  either  of  them. 




Anrieiif  Interment  at  The  Lettkies,  —A  high  tide?  which  lately  washed 
away  the  lower  part  of  a  grassy  slope*  adjoining  the  Ixuich  in  a  small  Kay 
a  short  distance  to  tlu;  E.  of  North  Berwick  exposed  a  l)ank  of  water- 
worn  stones,  from  wliich,  at  a  distiUico  of  4  ft.  or  thereby  from  the  sur- 
face, some  liuman  bones  were  observed  j)rotruding.  On  removmg  the 
sand  and  stones  forming  the  bank  a  skeleton  was  found,  placed  at 
full  length  on  its  back,  lying  somewhat  N.E.  by  S.W.,  with  the 
head  to  tlu^  N.  The  arms  were  folded  across  the  chest  with  the 
hands  resting  on  the  shoulders.  The  body  had  be(*n  laid  simj)ly  among 
the  stones,  and  was  not  encased  in  anything  restanbling  a  cist.  No 
articles  of  any  kind  were  found  l>uried  along  with  it.  The  bones  were 
in  a  very  brittle  condition,  and,  as  far  as  could  ])e  judged,  from  the  shape 
of  the  lower  jaw  and  the  condition  t»f  the  teetli,  were  those  of  an  adult 
of  middle  age.     The  teeth  were  eomjilete  in  number,  with  the  excei)tion 


of  a  caniue  tooth  which  liad  l)eeulost  during  life,  and  Inith  the  canine 
and  incisors  were  mucli  woni  down,  presenting  a  Hat  surface  and  exj^os- 
ing  the  dentine.  From  the  jMilvis  Iwing  hroken  up  it  was  impossible  to 
determine  the  sex.  There  was  noticeahle  a  marked  flattening  of  the  upper 
i>art  of  the  shaft  of  the  femur  and  a  small  indented  facet  on  the  anterior 
edge  of  the  articular  surface  at  the  lower  end  of  the  tibia, — a  condition  of 
these  bono«  found  among  existing  races,  or  members  of  them,  who  jirac- 
tise  a  squatting  posture.  There  were  no  evidences  of  other  interments  at 
this  8iK>t,  whereiis,  a^  ^  distance  of  4  m.  further  K,  in  a  liank  of  sand 
similarly  situateil,  cisted  burials  arc  pretty  numerous,  also  lying  N.  and 
S.,  but  in  this  case  the  IxKlies  have  not  Iwen  laid  at  fidl  length. 

Kitrh£n  Mulden  at  the  IViodet*  Link^. — In  one  of  the  bunkers  recently 
forme<l  in  the  Rhodes  Links,  when  laid  out  a  few  ye^irs  ago  as  a  golf 
course,  several  pieces  of  old  pott(»ry  were  recently  i)icked  up  which  had 
been  exposed  by  the  drifting  of  the  sand.  On  digging  in  this  bunker 
there  was  found,  at  a  distance  of  .3  ft.  beneiith  the  surface  of  the  Links, 
an  area  of  fine  black  earth  al^out  5  yds.  wide  by  3  in  breadth.  This 
mould  rested  on  sand,  and  wivs  2  ft.  thick  in  the  centn*,  thinning  off 
gradually  to  the  edges.  A  well-marked  stratum  of  shells  nui  through  it, 
and  pieces  of  ])roken  pottery,  fmgments  of  Ixjnes,  wcmhI  ashes,  etc.,  were 
found  scattered  throughout  its  suKstance.  The  whole  area  was  dug  over, 
and  each  siKwleful  of  earth  can»fully  examined.  This  re^sulted  in  secur- 
ing a  considerable  quantity  of  pieces  of  earthenware,  varying  in  quality 
and  colour,  including  a  fine  Iniff-coloured  ware  :  a  red  kind  covered  with 
a  greenish  glaze ;  and  a  very  coarse  grey  variety.  Some  of  the  ware  was 
glazeil  on  l)oth  sides,  some  on  one  side  or  the  other,  and  many  of  the 
pieces  were  coated  with  soot  on  the  outer  surface.  It  wjis  found  possible 
|)artially  to  reconstruct  an  oval-shaped  vessel  (fig.  1)7  ins.  in  height  by 
11  ins.  in  its  longe^st  diameter.  This  vessel  was  ghized  internally  over 
the  bottom  and  hml  a  well-ilefined  rim.  Its  outer  surface  was  thickly 
coated  with  a  layer  of  soot,  and  Inire  no  evidence  of  having  had  handles 
attached  to  it.  !Much  of  the  iK)ttery  was  undoubtedly  sui)erior  t<^  any  of 
the  mediaeval  ware  hitherto »  found  in  the  district     There  were,  at  least. 



twenty  diirereiit  i)atterns  of  rims.  Tlu*  l)ed  of  shells  was  wiuiK)se<l 
mainly  of  those  of  the  limpet  and  ^wriwinkle,  together  with  a  few  oyster 
shells  and  claws  of  the  cnlihle  cni]».  Tlie  l)ones  were  those  of  the  ox, 
sheep,  and  pig,  with  some  tish  and  ))inl  ]x>nes.  There  was  also  the 
greater  part  of  a  human  (»ccipital  lK)ne,  hut  no  vestige  of  any  other  por- 
tion of  the  skeleton.  Two  pieces  of  flint,  appearing  to  have  l)een  flakeil, 
and  several  goo<l-sized  lumps  of  slag  completed  the  fin<l. 

Fig.  1.  Oval  vessel  of  glazed  jwttery,  found  in  the  kitchen  midden  on 
the  Rhmles  Links. 

Cp*t  near  the  Wo4  Linhti. — Whilr  digging  a  drain  in  a  field  which 
slopes  down  to  tin*  golf  links  at  North  Berwick,  the  workmen  came  \\\\Ci\\ 
a  cist  measuring  .3  ft.  l>y  2  ft.  at  a  distance  of  U  ft.  below  the  sur- 
face. This  cist  contained  a  skeleton  in  a  bent  postin-e,  with  the  skull 
lying  beside  the  legs.      It  was  evid(?ntly  that  t>f  a  young  jieison,  as  the 

NOTES  OX  AN  AscnoiT  iximumtT,  wc 


«>|ii|ihji«e@  \4  die  lon^  hcmm  w«r^  tiiit  in^ifi^Hli  mwX  l\w  tts^ii  Im^lli  vmifi 
very  ^liglilly  MiinU'^U  Tli*^  K*»t»i4  w»*r^  in  n  (airly  Mriii  '^liihs  A I  M^^^uH' 
of  Um  skplvUm  whv  thi'  frihgineut^  nf  at)  iiru  (li^^.  d)^  uiifiiihiiuMiU^ih  In^vkiHi 
when  the  cist  was*  oiM?iml  The  tikb  mi  wlurli  IIh*  \m\  \%m  IjluiJ  lui^l 
l>een  lUasolvetl  away,  (nwiuhly  hy  iln  tmutt^utK,  whh^ti  i*i^i^ihihI,  h^m\  i{ 
doposit,  to  have  }>eeii  uf  a  fatly  imttin^  Kutt^nuilly  i*u4  hih^iuilly  ihw 
clay  of  which  the  urn  \vm  mmh  hml  Iwmmi  HiimtitKiHl  l*y  M***  Itaml  nv  l\v 
soTnn  sjkituliite  Lnstriimeut,,  aiul  Uk^ih^  won'  lui  nuirki  +if  \Uo  |Mttli^r*x  whof^li 


124  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,   DECE\rBER  11,  1899. 



One  regretft  that  the  author  of  the  interesting  paper  on  this  famil}'  ^ 
did  not,  besides  those  he  refers  to,  consult  these  other  authorities  below,- 
for  he  would  have  made  it  much  more  complete.  As  I  have  had  tc» 
examine  their  liistory  in  editing  these  calendars,  I  can  say  this  with 
some  confidence. 

There  is  no  evidence  that  tlie  family  came  from  Nonnandy  with  Duke 
William  ;  the  roll  of  T^ittle  Ab]>ey  is  of  very  little  authority,  and  it  has 
l>een  thought  by  some — the  late  ^Tr  John  (Jough  Nichols  for  one* — that 
they  came  from  (Jascony,  their  arms  (mascles)  representing  a  kind  of  flint 
found  there.  Tlie  first  of  them  who  appears  in  the  English  Pipe  Rolls  is 
Saber  de  Quency,  in  1157,  in  Northamptonshire,  receiving  a  remission 
of  25s.  on  his  land.  Tlis  son  Robert,  as  stated,  acquired  Leuchars  and 
other  lands  in  Scotland,  by  marriage  witli  tlie  daugliter  of  Nes,  son  of 
William  ;  but  her  name  was  ( )r{d)ilis  or  Orabla,  not  P>a,  and  she  herself 
(not  a  sister)  was  the  widow  of  an  Earl  of  Mar."*  This  Robert  was  at 
Jerusalem  in  1192-93,  and  died  before  1197-98,  when  his  son  Saher  is 
found  in  possession  of  lUik])y,  liis  grand fatlu^r's  land  in  Northampton 
(Pipe  Rolls).  The  Ro])ert  whose  widow  Eva  granted  the  ^Telrose  charter 
is  proba])ly  the  younger  lirother  of  Earl  Saher,  and  man-ied  Hawyse  or 
Havoise,  eixsily  read  "  Eva,"^  one  of  the  four  co-lieiresses  of  Chester,  who 
survived  liim.     As  for  the  date  of  Saber's  earldom,  he  is  styled  by  King 

*  Procei'dimjs,  vol.  xxxii.  pp.  275-94,  by  W.  W.  Ireland,  M.D. 

-  Burke's  Extimt  Vreraqc  ;  the  CompkU'  JWragc  of  **G.  E.  C";  the  CliartuJanj 
of  St  Andrews  ;  Skene's  Cdtic  Scot  land  ;  Hid.  MSS,  Commission^  4  th  Report, 
p.  460,  on  the  De  Quency  Charters  in  Magdalene  College,  and  the  four  vols,  of 
Cnhndars  of  SmttUih  IkH-iivxnits  edited  by  myself. 

=*  Winchester  volume  of  the  Archavlogival  Insiifutr^  1845. 

*  Celtic  Scotland,  iii.  68  ;  Magd.  Coll,  Charters  ;  Chart.  St  Andrews  ;  and  Mr 
Burnett,  Lyon  Herald,  on  the  Earls  of  Mar,  Ocncalorrisf,  Oct.  1887,  p.  179. 

*  Scottish  Calendar,  No.  555. 


John  an  "Earl"  on  28th  April  1209,  when  giving  him  leave  to  bring  a 
sliip  from  Leuchars  to  Lynn.*  On  20th  Decemljer  1218,  he  was  fitting 
out  a  ship  in  Galloway  to  touch  at  Bristol  for  arms,  etc.,  for  his  intended 
voyage  to  Jerusalem,^  so  evidently  had  not  yet  started.  He  died  on  the 
Cru«i<lo  some  time  heforo  21st  July  1220.^ 

In  treating  of  his  son  Roger,  second  Earl,  I)r  Ireland  has  fallen  into 
some  difficulties.     He  identifies  Earl  Roger's  eldest  daughter,  Margaret, 
second  wife  of  Sir  William  de  Ferrars,  afterwards  fifth  Earl  of  Derby, 
with  the  lady  who  was  alxiucted  ])y  Sir  William  Douglas  at  Tranent  about 
January  1288-89 — in  other  wonls,  with  her  own  daughter-in-law  !    Sir 
William  de  Ferrars,  second  son  of  this  fifth  Earl  of  Derby  and  liis  wife 
Countess   Margaret,    received   (4roby   from   his    mother,*   and  died   in 
January  1287-88  (Hilary  Temi),'''  leaving  by  his  first  wife  an  only  son 
William,  then  aged  18,  and  his  second  wife  a  young  widow,  iUianora 
Lovaine,  doubtless  well  dowered.^     It  was  this  lady,  not  her  mother-in- 
law  Comitess  Margaret  (then  a  woman  of  mature  age),  who  was  ciirried 
off  by  Douglas.    Dr  Ireland  errs  in  good  comi)any,  for  even  Jolin  Riddell 
confused  her  with  another  lady."      Douglas  ha<l  a  son  by  her,  named 
Hugh,  nearly  two  years  old  in  1 296,^  and  instead  of  dying  in  York  Castle 
in  1302,  died  in  the  Tower  of  London  alxDut  20th  January  1298-9,  where 
he  had  been  imprisoned  certtiinly  during  1297.^     Sir  William  de  Ferrars 
(II.),  the  stepson  of  the  aUlucte^l  lady,  as  the  eldcjst  De  Quency  co-heir, 
lx)re  their  chief  anus  at  Falkirk  in  1298,^^  and  was  sunmioned  to  Parlia- 
ment as  Lord  Ferrars.     He  also  held  Leuchars,  besides  extensive  lands 
in  Galloway  and  Ayrshire,  and  flourished  till  1325,  a  conspicuous  man, 
signing  the  English  barons'  letter  to  the  Pope  in  1 320.     A  transaction 
is  recorded  on  19th  January  1316-17,^^  by  which  he  and  his  wife  Elena 
settle  their  manor  of  Groby,  failing  heirs  of  their  own  bodies,  on  Sir 

'  ScfMish  Calerufar,  No.  442.  '  Sroftish  P^ingc.  Law  (18.33),  p.  176. 

*  Ihiil,  No.  703.  '^  Sc/)U/sh  Qtltmdar,  ii.  p.  173. 

'  Ihui,  No.  771.  •'  Ibid.,  Nos.  9r)7,  960,  1054-5. 

*  IhiiL,  il  No.  175.  »»  Falkirk  Jioll,  by  H.  Gough,  F.S.A. 

*  Ibid,,  No.  329.  *'  Scotf.ish  Calaulnr,  iii.  No.  534. 
**  Burke's  Extinct  Peerage. 


Murdiic  of  Mentoth,  a  Scotsman,  formerly  estjuire  to  de  Ferrars.  As 
they  hatl  a  son  and  heir  Henry,  then  ageil  14,  this  is  singular.  This  son 
Henry  succeeiUHl  his  father  as  Lonl  Ferrars  «>f  (iroby  and  died  in  1343, 
succeeded  by  his  s<»n,  a  thinl  Sir  Williiim  Lord  Ferrars  of  Groby,  also  a 
man  of  s<^me  n«>te.  Though  RolH?rt  Bruce  (as  Dr  Ireland  says)  had 
swept  the  land  of  the  De  Quency  heirs  and  other  liostile  families,  his  son 
l>a>'id  II.  was  mindeil,  Imd  he  been  able,  to  rest<»re  them.  In  an  indent- 
ure alx>ut  XovemWr  1363,^  in  a  list  of  English  nobles  who  were  to 
regjiin  their  lands  in  Scotland,  appears  the  "  Sire  de  Ferrers,"  this  third 
Sir  Wilham.  Fn>m  his  grandson,  a  fourth  Sir  William  Lord  Ferrars  of 
Gn»by,  descend  the  present  chief  line^d  representatives  of  the  De 
Quencys,  viz.,  the  Earls  Ferrars,  Townsends,  Greys  of  Gn>by,  besides 
others  less  known. 

l>r  Ireland  is  ma  quite  corrvHrt  in  his  iu>tices  of  the  Comyns,  Earls  of 
l>uchan,  another  branch  of  the  De  (Quency  co-heirs.  Speaking  of  John, 
the  last  i>f  them,  he  n»peats  the  story  that  his  wife  Issibella  was  imprisoned 
four  years  in  a  c^ige  on  a  turret  of  Berwick  Ciistle.  Had  he  said  in  a  turret 
he  would  have  lieen  nearer  the  trutli.  There  is  nothing  to  countenance 
the  notion  that  such  pris^^ners  were  hung  outside  of  walls  like  birdsi  and 
the  king's  warrant  diH»s  nc»t  siiy  !k».  From  a  contemporary  warrant  for 
the  impris<>umeiit  of  a  Welshman  i»f  note  in  Bristol  Castle,-  it  is  clear 
that  a  c;»g^»  was  a  wiHxlen  structun*  inside  of  a  castle,  and  the  prisoner 
Wiis  •>idy  shut  in  at  night  for  security  agiiiust  escajH?,  To  sup|>ose  tliat  a 
human  KMiig  i^^mM  survive  four  years'  exjK^ure  in  a  Ciige  hung  on  a 
wall  in  our  climate,  is  to  ciwlit  the  imiK^ssible ;  and  cruel  as  the  punish- 
ment w;ts,  it  foil  sluTt  of  this  KirlKirity.  Her  huslvuul,  Eiirl  Ji»hn,  did 
not  survive  till  131J:  \w  tlicil  Ivforx-  3r\l  lK.H.vml»er  1308;*  and  was 
succeiNlcil  by  his  nitvos,  daii^^htors  of  his  br^'thor  Alexander,  who  had  pre- 
•hvoas^^l  liim — Alire,  ilio  «l,Ur,  oarrvinu  :lio  i  irMMin  to  her  huslximl 
Ib'ury  «!•'  rHMVim«»nt,  n^•^v  ^^n-  K»:tl\ )  :i '.>ii -.  i.t.-l  l»y  tlio  Stapletf»ns, 
rv»n»ii>  iKMuni'iit,  in  wh'^.'  l,i\v<ur  ;Ko  aVtwiMi--  w  i>  lonniiulol  in  1840.^ 

'  ^- .«:;>'.  '.'  ,V  ..'" '  .  iv.  No.  i«-,  kherc  priiit^i  w:  :hc  ::r^:  time.      -  I'.i.i,.  iiL  Xo.  16. 
/'.  ..  ill.  Nv.  ."J?.  *  •/     ..  .\"    /        /  •  ^'*'  *■  Femrs.** 


AVith  these  otldenda,  Dr  Iroluiurs  jMqKjr  will  atfonl  a  good  idea  of  the 
career  of  the  great  but  short-lived  houijM*  of  De  Qiiency  in  Scotland. 
They  are  imule  in  no  pretence  of  sujHjrior  knowledge,  Imt  simply  as  facts 
witli  which  I  have  necessarily  l)econie  familiar  during  my  ten  or  more 
years*  study  of  the  recowk  of  England  l)earing  on  Scotland.  And  I  hope 
l)r  Ireland,  who  has  bestowed  gn»at  jMiins  on  bin  {)jii)er,  will  accept  them 
a.s  the  contribution  of  a  brother  anticjuary  to  a  very  interesting  and  little 
known  subject. 

As  already  ol»8erved,  the  I)e  Quency  charters  in  the  Magdalen  College 
I^ibrary,  which  numl)er  several  hundreds,  contain  some  new  |>articulars 
<»f    the  family.      Mr  Macray's  rejjort  on  them  shows  that  Earl  Saber, 
besides  a  daughter  Loni,  wife  of  William  de  Valoines,  had  two  nephews, 
Sir  Boger  and  Salier  de  St  Andreti,  men  of  stjme  note,  whom  I  had 
jilre^idy  ol)6erve<l  in  the  records  of  the  early  jmrt  of  the  13th  century.^ 
One  of  them  is  now  representeil  l)y  the  Foljandx?  family,  as  I^ord  Hawkes- 
hury  (then  Mr  Foljamlie)  informed  me  some  ywu's  ago.     Since  then,  had 
time    and  opjiortunity  served,   I  have  often  wished  to  examine   these 
Afa^ilalen  charters,  believing  they  would  reveal  much  of  the  De  (Juency 
connection  with  Scotland.     The  annexed  jHidigree  will  make  the  fore- 
going clearer. 

*  Scottiifh  CaUtuiar^  i.,  Nos.  556,  745,  etc. 



Table  of  Disoknt. 

Roger  de  QaeD^, 


(1)  w    I 

Silnlla  M«nihds:Sir  William  de  FeRmra= Margaret  de  Queiioy,  ItdroH  of  Grdfaj 


5th  Earl  of  Derby 
+  1S5S. 


+  1894. 

I  (1)                I     (8)                           (9 

Robert  de  Ferrara,  Joao      —  Sir  William  =  AUeBOfm  LotraiaesSir  William 

6th  Earl  of  Derby,  Dwpenser.  j  de  FerrarsCI.)      liriag  1308.           Douglas 

forfeited  1S««.  I      +1S88.                                       +129^-9. 


The  liOitU  Ferran  of 
Chartlej,  elo.        

Sir  WiUiam  de  Fenan  (II.)=1 
+  13tf.  I 

Sir  Uciiiy  de  Fenmn 
+  13U. 

Sir  WiUiaai  de  Femn(IIIO 

Sir  llettnr  de  Femurs 

•  ite:-*. 

Sir  WiUiam  de  F«cnn  vIV.) 





By  F.  HAVERFIELD,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

On  13th  INFay  1895,  Dr  James  Macdonakl  rciul  to  tliis  8oci(;ty  a  paper 
on  tlie  allegetl  Roman  road  in  Roxburghshire,  commonly  called  the 
WTieel  Causeway.  He  atlmitted  that  the  Causeway  wa^s  a  real  road  of 
some  sort,  hut,  for  reasons  which  seem  to  me  Siitisfactory,  he  denied  that 
it  possessed  any  claim  to  be  considered  a  Roman  road.  He  did  not, 
however,  go  on  to  discuss  its  history,  and  liis  silence  produced  a  doubtless 
unintentional  impression  that  it  might  ])e  a  very  modern  aftair,  first 
dignified  ])y  some  over-enthusiastic  antiquary  with  the  title  Causeway. 
I  was  rash  enough,  myself,  to  suggest  as  nuich  in  an  article  which  I 
wrote  two  or  three  years  ago  on  the  Maiden  Way  {Transactions  of  the 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Arch,  Society^  xiv.  432).  A  *Wheelrig 
Head'  and  a  *  Wheel  Kirk'  are  close  by,  and  Wheel  Causeway  might  (1 
thought)  liave  been  named  after  them.  This  suggestion  I  find  to  be 
wrong :  lx)th  road  and  name  can  lay  claim  to  a  respectal)le  antic^uity, 
and  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  put  together  a  few  details  about  them. 
Though  the  road  is  not  Roman,  it  was  used  in  the  Middle  Ages  as  a  pjiss 
from  the  headwaters  of  the  North  Tyiie  in  Northumlx'rland  to  the  head- 
wjiters  of  the  Jed  and  other  tributaries  of  the  Teviot. 

The  facts  which  concern  us  may  be  arranged  in  order  of  date,  as 
follows : — 

A.D.  1296.  In  May  1296  Edward  I.  of  England  went  from  Roxburgh  by 
way  of  Gardeford  and  Wyel  (Wiel,  Wiell,  Wyell)  to  Castleton  and 
Imck  again,  as  is  testified  in  his  "  Itinerary."  This  "  Itinerary,"  which 
exists  in  two  practically  identical  versions,  the  one  French,  tlie  other 
English,  has  been  printed  three  times.  It  was  communicated  to  the 
London  Society  of  Antiquaries  on  Feb.  9th,  1826,  and  printed  in 
Ardueologia,  xxi.  495,  and  it  was  i.ssued  l)y  the  Bannatyne  Club  in  the 
first  volume  of  its  Miscellany  (i.  275)  in  1827  and  in  the  Instrumcnta 
PMica  or  Ragman  Rolls  (p.  178),  published  by  the  Sfimeclub  in  1834. 
The  nanu»s  throughout  the  "  Ttineniry  "  are  ill-siH'lt,  Imt  it  is  i)rol>able 
that  Gardeford  is  .Jedlmrgh,  and  Wyel  is  Wheel.  No  canst^way  is 
mentioned,  l>ut  the  route  taken  is  significant.  Edward  travelled  from 
the  Jed  water  along  the  hne  usually  assigned  to  the  causeway  till  he 

VOL.    XXXIV.  I 


detjceiided  into  the  valley  at  the  top  of  the  North  Tyiie,  and  thence  he 
went  to  New  CaAtlcton  by  the  route  which  is  followed  to-day  by  ihe 
North  Tyne  branch  of  the  North  British  Railway. 

A.D.  1348.  A  reference  to  the  Cajwlla  of  AMiele  occurs  at  this  year  in  the 
Rotuli  Scotiw  (i.  724).  I  owe  the  refei*ence  to  Mr  R.  B.  Arnistrong's 
History  of  Lidihsdale  (1883),  p.  86. 

A.D.  1533.  In  1533  an  English  raid  was  carried  into  Scotland  by  the 
Wheel  Causeway,  and  a  description  of  it  by  the  then  Earl  of  Northum- 
berland, who  was  not  himselt  present,  exists  among  the  MSS.  of  the 
British  Museum.  Tlie  (lescri]>tion  is  quoted  by  Sir  Walter  Scott  in 
his  notes  to  the  first  canto  of  the  "  Ljiy  of  the  Last  Minstrel,"  and  I  need 
not  repeat  it  in  full.  Tlie  material  pissages  state  tliat  the  English 
met  "  at  Wawhope  ujwn  North  T>nie  water  above  Tyndaill,  .  .  .  and 
so  invadet  Scotland  at  the  hour  of  viij  of  the  clok  at  nvght,  at  a  phure 
called  AVhele  Causay."  They  proceeded  to  burn  BranxWm  and  other 
neigh1x)uring  houses,  and  retired  down  Liddesdale.  The  account  adds 
tliat  "  Gedworth  {^i,e.  Jedburgh)  is  from  the  Wheles  Cansay  vi  myles.** 
The  tojK)graphj'  is  not  quite  accurately  given,  for  Wawhope  is  not  in 
England,  as  is  unplied,  but  eight  or  ten  miles  north  of  the  Border,  and 
Jedi^ur^h  is  more  than  six  miles  from  tlie  Causeway,  but  these  are 
simple  inaccuracies  committed  by  a  narrator  who  was  not  present  and 
did  not  know  the  ground.     They  need  not  disturb  us. 

A.D,  1590.  A  map,  dated  Dec  1590,  now  preserved  in  the  British 
Museum  and  published  in  the  London  Archaologia  (xxii.  161)  shows 
the  *  Wlieele  Causey '  on  the  watershed  Iwtween  the  North  Tyne  and 
Liddesdale,  close  to  what  is  now  called  Deadwater  ;  thence  it  passes 
northwards  out  of  the  map  in  the  direction  generally  given  it.  It  is 
plainly  a  route  from  the  top  of  the  North  Tyne  northwards  into 

A.D.  1600.  The  *Quheill  in  Liddisdale'  is  mentioned  as  l^elonging  to 
Jedburgh  Abbey  (Armstrong's  Liddesdale,  p.  86^. 

A.D.  1608.  Timothy  Pont  in  his  map  of  Liddesdale  marks  the  Wheele 
Fell  but  no  Caus<;way. 

It  appeiirs  from  these  facts  that  the  route  of  the  Wheel  Causeway  was 

in  use  as  early  as  1296,  and  the  name  familiar  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

I)r  Macilonald  has  told  us  that  the  roadway  shows  signs  of  intentional 

mending  at  various  points,  and  we  may  therefore  conclude  that  we  have 

in  it  a  luediaBval  moorland  track.     It  would  Ik;  idle  to  speculate  on  the 

derivation  of  the  name.      Obviously  it  may  hav(j  been  called  *  WHieel  * 

because  it  was  comi)aratively  aibipted  to  wheeled  traflu!  :  on  the  other 

hand,  *  Wheel '  occurs  by  its(»lf  lon<^  before  the  term  *  Wheel  Causeway,' 

and  it  may  be  a  jjlace  name  <>f  (|uite  diirerent  significjincc. 

CIST  CONTAIXL\(J   'UlIiEE   UHlHH  OF   FOOtJ   VKSaEL  TYPE.        131 

By    JOSEPH   ANDERSON,   Assistant   Sk^jkiitahv   and   Kkkpkk  or  xiiE 

J  tirst  heart!  nf  this  interesting  dijscovBiy  from  ^Ir  A.  Agnew  RalstoUj 
/ai*-lu>r  t<i  the  Right  Hon,  the  Kirl  of  llopetciiuii  on  \vhmv.  prup^rty  ihc 
fiLTTxi.  €yi  DuBcra  Hill  is  aitu-ited.  Mr  Rjjlittrm  kintUy  fnUcil  hertz  with  one 
of  t^li^e  urns,  aiii^esting  at  thf*  ajime  time  timt  I  shoulil  write  to  Mr  James 
^-lij^oti^  thts  farmer,  R^t^uesting  him  to  bring  in  the  other  two  that  thuy 

Fig,  1,  Vtu  (No,  1)  ronnd  in  a  tUt  *t  Dmiera  Hill    (|.) 

^**ight  iifi  all  exhibited  to  the  Society  t<>gotlier  mu\  the  dcseription  of  the 
^^liscuvery  placed  on   record  in  the   Society's   Procmlmgs,      ^h  Elliot 
^^  kind  enou^ii  tc*  comply  at  once  with  my  reqnest,  imd  s*>  far  as  he 
'^Urw  eKjjlaitied  the  cininniatjinc^is  of  the  (liBcovery, 

lite  plnre  wh<'r**  the  ci^t  wa^  found  k  a  sandy  knoll  hi  one  of  the 
^i«id«^  iiud  the  eist  vva.^  discnvered  wlieii  ploughing,  tlio  eover  Ijeing  njily 
11  ins.  under  the  (surface.  Unfortnnately  I^fr  Elliot  was  not  present 
wIjru  the  distMiivery  was  made,  but  i\ui  urns  were  recovered  eistin*  and 
cfirofully  preserved,     Tlie  cist  wjis  of  tlie  uaual  tyix:*,  the  cover  and  side*? 


\*fUP:ZZM3r,^  tj¥  THE  ftOCierr,  DECEMBEB   ll,   1899. 

ni  tijit  nwlr^vt^^l  otz/fiff**,  iihd  th<f  Ult^>nl  uniKive^L     There  were  few  indi- 

•  aUoim  of  th«r  f»iiri;il  l«?ft,  th*-  uiily  iKJilioii  of  the  lx)nes  recognisable 
iMiiig  tliif  4hiiftH  nf  two  fi'iiioni.  IVniMen  the  three  urns,  no  other  objects 
of  .III  ;irtili«:ijil  «:h;ir;u't«rr  wow,  found  in  the  cist.  Tlie  cist,  though  en- 
clohin^;  tliin  iiniiHiial  nunilMT  of  iihik,  wiis  not  of  unusual  size.  It 
rinii»uriil  3  ft.  6  Imh.  in  length,  th<*  widtli  at  one  end  being  2  ft.  11  ins., 
;ind  .it  thf  oth«T  «*nd  2  ft.  5  ins.,  tlie  depth  })eing  a}x)ut  2  ft.  Unfortu- 
iiiiLfly  the  relativf  jMrnitioiiM  of  the  iniiH  were  not  noted  at  the  time. 

Thf  hiP^i'Ht  of  the  thnuH  urns  (fig.  1)  is  5 J  ins.  in  height  by  6A  ins. 

•  liiuiieter  acniss  thi*  mouth.  It  has  a  slight  shoulder  at  2  ins.  below  the 
rim.     Alnne  the  shoulder  there  is  a  very  sliglit  contraction  towards  the 


^    ^  *■  ^t  m  m  X  ^ 

Ki^.  -.   liu    \..\  :    v.y^ni  i    (:<  a:  L^uncm  Hi 


V  i- 

Thr   rim   is   fiillv   ;  '  •.. 
oriuiuioiitcvl  >^ 'ti*  ''^;"    ' -v' I   . 
r:\v<»  ply  twiNU*-    ->■•'•'-     :     •  .■ 

♦'Xtcn'or    -i    •!'•.'■ ■  »       •  • 

^[..11-    '(    «       '•  •■  -■ 

:    'vi.i: 

■.  >-  Ui:;\  t  'viiicli  '*i^t 
•  '  z  ■;!»-  •  I>s.  The 
.     ;.     ■:.■..:>     r    -.'11  pre:; — 

CIST   r:0?fTALVlNG   TFIHRE   URN8    OV  FOOD    VESSEL   TYPE.         133 

ncsitly  cut  ofr»*riil  roiirMleil  ii.s  llie  tlui  end  uf  ji  nuuciJ.  Thine  uir  six  of 
Lhfiio  iMinda  imA  hIx  rows*  of  the  eiRuilar  impressions,  rind  the  part  next 
tlie  hstie  hius  Uie  width  nf  the  haml  of  tluinii:  iiri]mmiion.s  jmn^a^^etl  to 
live.     The  Iwittom  in  phiin  and  sHghtly  connive  exletiuiHy. 

Tljc  second  urn  (fig.  2)  is  similar  in  character  and  meji«ure.«  4}  ins. 
high  hy  €J  ins,  in  iliameter  nernsj*  tli*'  mouth.  It  Ir  mueh  the  sunie 
iihai>e  ai?  No,  1,  but  deeiM?r  in  [vroixirtion  to  its  widtli,  and  HlightJy  more 
curvetl  lietween  the  hp  anil  the  rthonhh^*.  Th<i  hp,  which  is  bevelled  in* 
wjtrrlfl,  is  about  Imlf  mi  ineJi  in  thickness,  and  h  ornamented  witJi  a  single 


Fig,  3.  Urn  (Ko,  3)  li t  at  DuuL-ia  HHl.    (|.) 

tow  of  rather  hhnit  impre«F;ion,'=*  of  an  irrejjfulariy  oval  shajtc,  which  are 
n!p*ated  round  the  outer  margin  of  the  riiiu  The  ext<»rior  of  tiie  k>wl 
la  also  orimmented  from  lip  to  liiu^e  witli  horizontal  lmnd«  of  two  lines 
each^  nlUTuating  with  two  rows  of  imprt^Hsionn  of  ii^tmriMh  inided  punch, 
apjiiirpnlly  iA  w  i«>ftis^li  material,  such  m  \Xw  end  of  the  rttem  of  a  plant. 
Tb©  lines  lie  t ween  iippear  to  Imve  lieeii  scortnl  in  the  awift  day  and  not 
jmpres^l  They  are  done  in  length^?,  imperfectly  joined,  and  oceasion- 
nllv  with  a  very  f^hort  length  iusorteil  Ivetwoen  the  ends  of  two  longer 
h'tigihs  that  have  not  joinwl  fairly,  T)l^^  lx*ttoiu  is  phiin,  3^  in^.  in 
diannacri  and  ftllghUy  eoTicjne  extoriorly. 


Tlie  tliini  imi  (fig.  3)  i»  5^  iiis.  in  height  by  5^  iiia  in  diameter  acrooB 
tho  mtnith,  widening  to  a}x)ut  7  ins.  at  the  shoulder,  which  is  about  the 
mitldlo  of  its  height,  so  that  its  sliape  is  that  of  a  truncated  cone  both  up- 
waitls  and  downwards  from  the  shoulder,  with  a  slight  coUar  above  the 
Ytottoni,  wliioh  is  2^  ins.  in  diameter  and  quite  flat^  not  concave  estemally, 
as  in  tlie  eases  of  the  two  previously  described.  The  omainentatiou  also 
is  tliflferent,  hut,  as  in  the  other  etuu^s,  it  covers  the  whole  exterior  sarfMO. 
The  lip,  whieh  is  sliglitly  l)ovelleil  inwards  and  is  g  of  an  inch  in  thicknen^ 
is  oniamentod  by  a  single  row  of  impressions  as  if  made  by  a  pointed 
implement  thrust  olilitpiely  into  the  soft  clay.  A  similar  row  of  impres- 
sions enein'les  the  exterior  of  the  brim.  Underneath  them  is  a  horizon- 
tal line  of  impressions  as  of  the  teeth  of  a  comb,  and  bdow  that  a  wide 
band  of  herring-lMine  ornament,  also  made  by  the  teeth  of  a  comb.  Im- 
me<liately  alnn-e,  and  immediately  under  the  ridge  of  the  shoulder,  ia  a 
nnv  <tf  oblique  impressions  stivngly  markeil,  umlemeath  them  a  wide 
liaml  of  herring-Ktne  itmament,  ami  round  the  collar  of  Uie  base  another 
i^f  the  stn>ngly-markeil  ri>W8  of  olJique  impressions. 

Kach  of  these  urns  is  specially  interesting  on  account  of  its  ornamenta- 
tion, and  the  disc«>ven'  of  three  tif  them  of  this  particular  form  in  one 
cist  is,  s<)  far  as  1  know,  a  m<^t  unusual,  if  not  imique,  experience  in 

It  is  pleasiuit  to  add  that  simv  this  ]m])er  was  written  the  three  urns 
iMUstitxiting  this  unique  find  have  Ihh'U  pivsent4?«l  to  the  National  Collec- 
tion by  the  Ejirl  of  HoiH^t^nni. 


^loxDAY,  Sfh  January  1900. 
The  Hon.  JOHN  ABERCROMBY,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

A  liallot  having  l>oon  taken,  tho  following  Gentlomon  wero  duly 
elected  Fellows : — 

The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  ok  Kixtork,  (4.C.M.O.,  LL.D.,  Keith  Hall, 

John  Crax,  1 1  Bnuwwick  Street,  Edinburgh. 
Captain  George  S.  C.  Swintox,  36  Pont  Street,  London. 

The  following  Donations  to  the  Muscmuu  and  Library  wen*  laid  on  the 
taLle,  and  thanks  voti*d  to  the  Donors:    - 

(1)  By  the  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Hopetoux. 

Three  Unisof  food-vessel  type,  from  a  cist  at  Duncra  Hill,  Pencaitland. 
[See  the  ])revious  Coniniunication  ]>y  Dr  .Iosei>h  Anderson.] 

(2)  Wy  Rev.  John  Dicksox,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  Author. 
Emeralds  Chased  in  (J(jld  ;  or.  The  Islands  of  the  Forth :  Their  St(^r>', 

Ancient  and  Mulern.     8vo.    1899. 

(3)  By  Sir  Archibald  Dunbar,  Bart.,  F.S.A.  Seot.,  the  Author. 
Scottish   Kings  -A  Revised  ChronoLigy  of    Scottish  History.      8vo. 


(4)  By  Dr  Andrew  Aitkex. 

Large  Indian  PijK*  or  Calumet,  made  of  liuifalo  horn. 

(5)  By  the  Hon.  John  Abercromhy,  Vire-Presidmt. 

Irish  Gun-Money  (»f  James  II. — Crown,  1690 ;  Half-Crown  and 
Shilling,  1689. 

^ledal,  in  copp(»r,  of  the  Duk«»  of  Cumln'rland — meliobibvs  vtbre 
PATis,  1746. 



(<))  By  Pn»f('s.s()r   r»ALi)WiN    Spkncbk,   M.A.,    ITiiiversity   of   Mel- 
bourne, tlinmgh  Andrew  Lang,  F.S.A.  Scot. 
Churinga  of  slaU*,  i)ainte(l  witli  red  oclire  (fig.  1),  oval  iii  shape,  6  by 
3 J  inches,  covered  on  one  facewitli  spirals  incised,  and  on  the  other  witli 
arch-like  figures  of  parallel  lines,  from  the  Arunta  tribe,  Central  Australia. 
Ihill-roarer  of  wood,   11  })y  If  inches,  painted  with  red  ochre,  and 
similarly  ornamented,  from  the  Arunta  tribe,  Central  Australia. 

Fig.  1.  Chiu'inga  of  Slato,  from  tho  Arunta  tribo,  Central  Australia.     (A.) 

(7)  r>y  Kk.skink  Bkveiudge,  F.S.A.  Scot. 
Xiiic  riiotographs  (»f  Uroclis,  viz.,  Castle  Telve,  Glenelg,  from  the 
north  (lig.  2)  ;  Castle  Telve,  Clenelg,  from  tli(»  south  ;  Castle  Troddan, 
(ilenelg,  frnin  tin;  n«»rtli  ;  Castle  Trocldan,  Clenelg,  from  the  scmth  ;  Castle 
(■liniiil,  Glen<'lg,  fr(»m  the  east;  Dun  Dornadilla,  in  Strathmore,  parish 
of  Durness,  Sullieiland,  from  the  south  ;  Dun  Dornadilla  from  the  south- 
west ;  Xyl)st(M'  r>ro«'h,  Keiss,  Caithness,  general  view;  Nybster  Ihoch, 
interior  view,  from  the  south. 






(8)  Hv  Sir  John  Stirling  Maxweli,,  Bart.,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Soiilptiin^<l  Stoin's  in  thi'  Chiiri'hyaix!  of  Govan.     4to.    1899. 

(9)  IW  Pr  KoBERT  Mi'NRo,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  Author. 
Prt'liisioiic  Sn »tlan«l,  ami  its  rian*  in  EuMjiean  Civilisation  :  Being  a 

(itMU^nil  IntnHliutinn  to  tin'  Cniinty  Histories  nf  Scotlaml.     8vo.    1899. 

(10)  \\\  Kov.  James  Campbell,  1 ).!).,  F.S.A.  Scot,  the  Author. 
Rilmorino  and  its  AMk^v.     NVw  Eililion.     1899. 

(11)  r»y  Thomas  Smellie,  F.S.A.  Sii»t..  ih«»  Author. 
Sketches  .>f  i  »M  KilniarntH-k.     4to.    181*9. 

(12)  r>y  (;E«»RtiE  Hay,  F.S.A.  Siot..  ili»-  Author. 

History  of  Arl»nmlli  lo  ihr  |»n's«»nl  linu*.    St»i'ou«l  Eilition.    iU\     1899. 

TIi»»n*  won*  als»»  F\hi)»it»Hl : — 
(1)  \\\  A.  (;.  Keik  F.S.A.  Si-,»i. 

Oriiiinal  Lviior  of  luslrnctious  Sir  William  Fleming,  h\  King 
iluirlt's  II.,  .lattMl  ar  linMli,  H^iuX  May  1650.  [Set*  the  sulisequent 
t^alm^!lii..vt^'!l  ^'\  Mi  A.  T..  K»  i-l/ 

r-M  r»v.iAMb>  BiuvK,  w.s..  Ks.A.  s,-,.t. 

Tr.i \  t :  1  i : u  I '  i -o  of  Vxhh •  K^n  f .::  ^  luonts.  f ^  ni  K iuiiainl,  ct^iisist  ing  of 
lU;.:^;\'r  i'lrxr.  r.i'Ir  Kr.ifr  a:".l  Frk.»^rt  ami  Fruit  Knives  in 
<Mr.i:H^l  ItMihr:   ^livj.'.lu  w!i:  ::.  ^"^<>i:r■!v.  in.iv  havr  U»longetl  to  James 

v"*;   r»\  M'-  Wi  iiAV   Maolvnvii\  M  r  .y:.  wi.,  luvorness. 

A\.  :  v;xvr.-:  n^,  :  v.'  r.'*.  *  :^;i\  -^  :  I  :•  liivt-  Un^n  foun«l  on 
v.^-:  •-    S-  U.      /^  -/-'.;••  0  -'./:::■;::  !:   by   Mr   Thomas 



Assistant  Keeprr  of  thr  Mfheum. 

Having  been  api)ointed  by  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland,  under  tlie  Gunning  Fellowship,  to  visit  and  report  on  the  Stone 
Circles  of  a  portion  of  north-o^astern  Scotland,  I  beg  to  submit  the 
following  report,  which  is  illustrate<l  by  several  measured  plans  ^  and 
drawings.  Almost  tlirougliout  this  survey,  I  enjoyed  the  willing,  and 
indeed  indisjTensable,  assistance  of  my  two  eldest  children,  seveml  of  the 
sites  (examined,  in  Kincardineshire  especially,  IwMug  now  so  densely 
crowded  with  larches  and  Scotch  firs  in  addition  to  luxuriant  under- 
growth, that  single-handed  commensuration  would  Ikj  absolutely  impmc- 
ticiible.  I  may  }>e  permitted  to  state,  briefly,  the  methods  adopted  in  the 
course  of  the  work.  After  a  general  look  around  the  area  to  be  surveyed, 
we  began  by  laying  off  an  oblong  which  included  the  Recumbent  Stone 
and  its  two  pillars  in  those  circles  where  this  chamcteristic  feature 
still  exists.  Then,  having  chosen  the  western  angle  of  the  west  pillar  as  a 
stiirting  point,  measurements  were  made  by  triangulating  from  this  to 
two  other  i)oints  marked  liy  pins,  and  so  on,  round  the  entire  space, 
taking,  of  course,  cross  check  lines  where  the  area  was  clear  enough  to 
mlmit  of  this.  In  a  few  rare  instjinces  we  ran  out  diagonals  from  each 
stone  throughout  the  whole  group,  by  using  a  stout  conl  and  measuring 
with  short  lengths  of  tape,  my  fii-st  endejivour.  always  being  to  treat  the 
circles  purely  from  the  surveyor's  point  of  view,  that  is,  merely  as 
niathematicjd  jwints,  and  jKiyingno  attention  to  anything  but  the  numlwr 
of  feet  })et ween  the  fixed  i>oints  at  the  basc^  of  the  stones.  Afterwards 
we  t<x)k  the  correct  mejisurements,  first  of  the  Imiscs,  and  next  of  the 
heights,  of  each  Standing  Stone,  further  noting  whether  it  was  vertical  or 
out  of  plumb,  and  the  direction  of  its  leaning,  also  any  peculiarity  of 
*  The  plans  are  all  reduced  to  a  uniform  scale  of  20  feet  to  1  inch. 







d    S     S     :^ 



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•^  a>        ©       »        a> 

^       A       A       ^^ 

a  s. 

g    s    s 

+0  • 









i-H         C^         CO 


shape  at  its  summit,  and  of  its  miueralogical  composition.  When  all 
measurements  were  finished,  the  orientiition  was  ascertained  as  carefully 
as  possible.  I  then  mivde  drawings  of  such  important  features  as  lent 
themselves  to  such  treatment ;  and  I  trust  I  worked  throughout  in  the 
spirit  of  one  who,  when  planning  the  great  series  of  SUma  Circles  at 
Carrowmore,  said  : — "  I  examined  these  remains  day  after  day  with  an 
untiring  patience,  maj^ping  their  situations  and  noting  their  features,  till 
1  left  nothing  to  Ix?  discovered,  and  secured  an  accurate  record  of  their 
present  state,  liefore  barlxirian  ignorance  has  finished  its  work  of  destruc- 
tion." J 

The  iiceompaiiying  map  (fig.  1 )  of  the  district  surveyed  '^  during  the 
past  September  shows  twenty-two  sites ;  and,  in  explanation  of  their 
various  conditions,  four  different  signs  (for  wliich  see  the  map)  have 
been  used,  denoting  respectively — (1)  Circles  of  plain  free-standing  stones 
more  or  less  complete  ;  (2)  circles  with  a  Recumbent  Stone ;  (3)  sites  of 
.circles;  and  (4)  single  stones  reported  to  be  remnants  of  circles.  Be- 
ginning with  tbo»  most  south-easterly  exam])le  in  this  district,  worked 
from  Banchory  as  headquarters,  we  have,  of  the  four  circles  on  King- 
causie  estate : — 

No.  1,  Old  BouHree  Bu8?t,  now  in  a  sadly  ruined  state. — The 
ground  plan  (fig.  2)  shows  four  SUvnding  Stones  only,  Imt  three  of  these 
are  of  such  a  height  and  bulk  as  to  Ije  very  conspicuous  landmarks,  set  as 
they  are  on  ^  slightly  rising  ground  within  two  miles  of  the  sea-shore, 
and  in  an  o|)en  country.  The  view  (fig.  3)  taken  from  the  N.W.  will 
give  a  good  idea  of  the  height  of  these  ponderous  blocks  of  porphyry, 
and  at  the  same  time  reveal  what  losses  this  circle  has  undergone. 

The  other  view  (fig.  4)  shows  a  large  jind  ])ulky  stone  lying  i)artly  on 
its  edge  (R  on  the  grouinl  i)lan)  and  tlie  four  still  (^rect  stones  from  the 

*  Tfie  Life  of  George  Vctric,  LL.D,,  |».  2G0  (Stokes). 

'^  This  district  extcmls  inland  from  the  sea  nt  Portletbeu  twenty-four  miles,  and  in 
breadth  it  comprises  Garrol  Wood  circle,  in  Durris,  up  to  the  circle  formerly  known  as 
tlie  Auld  Kirk  of  Tough  on  the  confines  of  Cluny.  Northwards  of  Aberdeen  its 
farthest  point  is  at  the  Standing  Stones  of  Dyce. 



'III  ■ 




:6  O' 




■  ••         •         •         w         »        M       u        M       Mrr 

t 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 






• ,.0\t^  ^ " 

tV»  -«  ^^'^''^  lK>urtt\v  l>u>:..     Orv^und  Tl*!*. 


X.E.  All  the  stones  stiind  on  a  mound  260  feet  above  the  seti-level, 
whicli,  near  the  centre,  is  rather  over  3  feet  high.  The  edges  on  the 
X.  and  X.E.  have  been  very  much  straightened  by  the  plougli,  and  its 
interior  is  now  in  such  an  utter  state  of  chaos  that  I  deemed  it  l^etter  to 
attempt  no  record  of  its  ridges,  crests  and  hollows,  or  even  to  map  out  the 
sites  of  any  loose  stones  and  }x>ulders,  not  one  of  which  seemed  in  its 
original  position.  The  long  stone  on  the  S.E.  i)oint  is  doubtless  the 
Recumbent  Stone,  so  striking  a  feature  in  many  of  these  circles.  As  it 
lies,  it  measures  1 1  feet  6  inches  in  length  ;   but  there  are  large  fragments 

Fig.  3.  Old  Bourtree  Bosh  from  the  N.W. 

Fig.  4.  Old  Bourtree  Bosh  from  the  N.E. 

close  to  its  north  end  which  ai)i)ear  to  have  been  broken  oil'  it.^    Reckoning 

from  this  stone  we  tind,  18  feet  to  the  left,  a  tidl  pt)inted  stone,  and  after 

an  interval  of  nearly  the  same  distance,  a  great  prostrate  block.     These 

are  respectively  Stones  I.  and  IT.  of  the  circle.     The  third,  which  is  of 

enormous  breadth,  over  6  feet  in  the  middle,  stands  alnnit  20  feet  furtlior 

on,  and  from  it  to  tlie  fourth  is  a  space  of  30  fc^et.     Thcsi»,  and  tlie  small 

Standing  St<me  on  the  riglit  of  the  liccuiiibciit  Stone,  are  all  alnnit  which 

we  can  sjieak  with  conlidence. 

*  If  it  originally  touched  the  Pillar  Stone  on  the  right— the  usual  arrangement— 
this  Recumbent  Stone  must  have  been  fully  17  feet  in  length. 

.    >*'  f.-  IV.,  jijirtly  running  in  !■*■  tlio  ]«ink,  is  a 
•i-  -.     •:   :ii«'    <*Xiut   X.    point,  is  another.      On    tlio 
.  -.     :•    <:11  in  sift/,  this  "  cinli* ''  must  liave  lieen  in 
.,.    .  ,  :    ..,.._;  l,y  75  f<M*t  l>r«>a<l. 

.-.    :■  iili  •»!  tin-  I\«MUinl>cnt  Stono,  Ijarfly  4  fi*»n  0  inches. 
.  •»  III  S'o.iH'  3  {v*'{  0  inches,  h'aning  cnitwanls. 
>  '"•  :".-.-:  0  in»-h<'>,  jM»intcd. 
7     ,.     0       ,.      very  luoad  and  jagged  at  top. 
\       .    ^    ,,     »>        .,      inside,  l>ut  10  feet  0  inches  out-sidc. 
..  .    '\-ivveen  the  stones:   centre  to  (;entn^  :  — 
.,    ..   ..  :i  Si. .Hi-  I.  and  II.  (fallen)  19  feet  6  inches 

.,      11.  „    III.         .  20     „    6      ,, 

„   III.  „     IV.  35     „   0      „ 

i;..vv«v:i  IV.  and  the  X.AV.  .stone     .  .  53      „    0 

(he  N.K,  ston(»  and  the  angle  (»f])ank       23     „    6 
iMgle  and  the  north  ston<'     .  28     ,,    0       „ 

.     N.  ^loneantl  N.K.  angle  of  l>ank  .  28     „   0 

,     N.K.  angle  and  the  n(»rth  pillar    .  15     „    0       „ 

!h<'  iu»rlh  j>illar  and  south  end  of 

Keeunihent  SL(»ne       .  .  .  20      ,,    0 

.t'Ulh    edge   of   liecunihent    St(»ne 
md  centre  of  Stone  1.         .  .  IS      ,,    0 

Total  cireuinferenee,        290  feet  G  inches 

I  •)     .    •■..     rnh^i^l,  for  the  nio>t.  j^irt,  of  the  jM.rphyritic  granite,  very 

1  nmd,   iiid  willi  wiih'  \ein.s  of  ([uart/.      AVishing  to  render   tliis 

K,    ....    I    >.'mpleli*  as  p.»,  1    had   tlie   weight  of  the   respective    Ke- 

,,.(.  .,■    .^h'lii-  earefuUv  eoiiipiit«-d    I'V  niv  tViriid    Mr   K.  (I.  d.  Watson, 

1     .1    I       'is.\..r.       The    r..iii|.iii;ii  ions    wcrr    m.Kh',    ..f     course,     from 

,    ..,.1-1     ..(   "Illy   >"   iiiui  li   "t"  i'.mIi    -Imii,'  .1^  <t.iii(U  ;i1h»\«'  ground. 

I..     V.    -.'.1   .  ilifici'.'ic,  .iif  all  wiiliiii  ;li.'  iiMik.      Til.'  Ki'L-tiiulicnt   Stnno 

,,.    .  !.      [0  l.'li-  »>  r\\\. 



■l.'iiiJnh///  /    »£^ 

3-   -,v 




n:^  fallh^ 

A>  " 







<€■  tt^^-t — ^ — ? — ¥ — ? — ¥ — ¥ — ir"o^^ 

Fig.  5.  Auchquhorthies.    Ground  Plan. 



Tlie  excavation  conducted  liere,  circa  1863,  by  Messrs  Dyce  Nicol  of 
Ballogie,  C.  E.  Dalrymple  of  Westhall,  and  others,  an<l  recorded  ^  by  Mr 
iVlexander  Thomson,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  resulted  in  notliing  but  the  acquisition 
of  the  evidence  of  ft)rmer  excavation. 

No,  2,  AuchquJu/rthieSy'  Bancliory-Devenick,  disUuit  from  the  last 
one  furlong,  sliglitly  N.W.,  and  on  a  rather  higher  level. — Thirteen 
stones  remain  standing  on  a  mound  fully  3  feet  high  ;  the  two  main 
diameters  being  N.E.  and  8.\V.,  from  the  fifth  ^  stone  to  the  thirteenth, 
97  feet,  and  X.W.  to  S.E.,  from  the  second  stone  to  the  tenth,  74 J  feet. 
The  interior  is  very  rough,  densely  overgrown  with  })room  and  bracken, 
and  the  iimer  stone-setting  has  l>een  greatly  damaged.  Two  features 
arrest  the  eye  at  once  :  the  position  of  the  Recumbent  Stone,  a  consider- 

^^%niin'rm'i'i"i"i'i'tt'tin«»'Pi" ' '"""i'i'i'iiiiiiii|i|mri|ii|iirMfinii'i"T>n,„,„||i„,„„|j||TH^^^^^^^^ 

^^.8  •  •  lO  U  M  tS  io  y»  Mi 

»CALr]-»-M-H 1 1 1 H 1 1 1 i^&T.  +P 


Fig.  6.  Auchquhorthies.  Sections, 
able  distance  within  the  Standing  Stones,  and  the  prolongation  of  the 
mound  carrying  them  45  feet  outwards  from  the  Recumbent  Stone  (see 
fig.  5).  All  the  stones  on  the  northern  arc  are  small  in  comjmrison  with 
the  others,  and  their  insignificance  is  intensified  by  the  dip  of  the  mound 
on  that  side,  which  is  so  great  that  even  wlien  standing  on  the  top  of 
the  nearest  suitable  dike  to  dniw  tlie  circle  en  masse,  all  these  northern 
stones  were  lost  to  view  (see  sections,  fig.  6,  and  view,  fig.  7).  The 
Recumbent  Stone  and  its  solitary  pillar  (on  the  AV.)  are  l)oth  of  coarse 
grained  bluish-grey  granite  broadly  seamed  with  white  quartz  (fig.  8). 
^Fost   of  the  other  stones  are  of  the    reddish    porphyritic  granite,  the 

^  Proc.  iS'oc.  Antiq,  ScoL^  vol.  v.  p.  134. 

-  Meaning  suggested  by  Logan  in  Arch.,  xxii.  p.  203,  Aarh.  Ortfia^  field  of  prayer. 

'  Throughout  the  survey,  I  count  the  first  Standing  Stone  to  the  left  of  the  W. 
pillar  No.  1,  and  the  diameters  are  from  centre  to  centre  of  the  stones.  Stones 
now  standing  are  shown  black  ;  low,  set  stones  are  shaded,  and  all  others  are  left  in 
outline.     The  Recuml)ent  Stone  is  marked  R  within  a  shadedjground. 



8peciej<  so  commonly  o<*curriii«^  all  over  tlio  district.  The  interior  stone- 
setting  '  starts,  as  we  sliall  presently  see  in  other  inst^mccs,  from  near 
the  htLse  of  tlie  pillars  with  a  hnig  narroAv  stone  set  on  edge,  which,  like 
the  rest  of  this  [)ortion  of  the  striuiture,  rises  fi-om  20  inches  to  rather 
over  2  feet.  The  central  area  is  faintly  marked  as  a  circular  hollow, 
with  two  set  stones  on  the  V,.  over  a  foot  high,  and  three  narrow  straight 
slabs  set  closely  end  to  end  on  th<»  north  arc.  These  three  slabs  are  2 
feet  6  inches  above  ground.  The  breadth  of  the  flat  space  between  the 
Standing  Stones  and  th(»  st(»ne-setting  varies  from  7  feet  to  nearly  16  : 
but  some  of  its  irregularity  d(»ubtl ess  is  due  t<»  comparatively  re<!ent  inter- 
ference. Close  to  the  first  stone  lies  a  massive  bl<K;k,  marked  on  the 
plan  "fallen."  Its  iM»sition  may  not  })e  of  any  moment ;  but  it  is  worth 
noting  that  in  an  excellent  iilan  made  in  1822  })y  Mr  James  Logan, 
there  is  shown  this  stone,  and,  in  a  corresjionding  i>osition,  at  the  tenth 
stone,  directly  opposite  stone  numl>er  one,  a  stone  is  drawn. 

The  distances  between  the  stones,  measured  from  centre  to  centre,  are 
as  follows  : — 


m  Stone 




,  26  feet  3 





,,    6 





„    9 


(prostrat(j)  and 



„    6 





„    8 





„    « 



VI 11., 

,    7 


VI 11. 




„    0 





„    9 





„    0 




,  25 

.,    0 





,,    0 





„    0 

Circumference  of  circle  =  270  feet  3  inches 

'  At  present,  I  offer  no  opinion  as  to  wJiether  this  stone-setting  is  an  integral 
]>ortion  of  the  original  structure  or  not. 


The  heights  of  the  sKmes  are,  taken  on  the  summit  of  tlie  mound  : — 


6  feet    6  iuclies 

Stone  VIII. 

3  feet  9  inches 


4    „      8      „ 



2    „    9      „ 


3    „     10      „ 



4    „    8      „ 





4    „    6      „ 


2  feet    1  inch 



8    „    0      „ 


3    „      0  inches 




VII     2  10 

The  Recuml)ent  Stone  is  9  feet  9  inclies  long,  5  feet  high,  anil  about 
1  foot  wido  across  the  top ;  it  weiglis  10  tons  9  cwt.  It  is  vertical ; 
and  close  up  to  its  inner  base  a  rudely  laid  and  much  <listurbed  layer  of 
small  lx)ulders  may  Ix)  traced  extending  unevenly  towards  the  interior  of 
the  circle.  The  third  stone  is  due  X.  of  the  twelfth,  and  the  Recumbent 
Stone  is  set  almost  exactly  on  the  S.W.  ix)int.^  The  tw(»  stones  shown 
in  outline  touching  it  do  not  seem  earth-fast,  nor  is  the  stone  which  rests 
upon  the  very  verge  of  the  extreme  south  end  of  the  mound.  The  note 
of  the  first  excavation  on  this  site  is  the  following  : — "  There  has  been 
dug  up  Ixitween  the  two  outer  circles,  a  cist-vaen,  alx)ut  3  feet  long  and  1 J 
feet  wide,  containing  some  ashes."-  But  in  1863,  "  the  whole  of  the  area 
of  tlie  innermost  cirahi "  was  turned  up,  and  there  were  found  "  charcoal, 
lialf  calcined  })ones,  black  unctuous  earth,  and  small  fragments  of  a 

No,  3,  Cah^nwelL — When  formerly  de8cril)ed  ^  this  site  was  in  a  piece 
"f  ^^ggy  li"i^  invisible  from  the  neighbouring  circles,  and  the  want  of 
height  in  its  few  standing  stones  was  attributed  to  the  nature  of  the 
ground.  It  is  <listant  from  Auchquhorthies  J  of  a  mile  N.X.E.  The 
field  l)etween  Cairnwell  and  Iklciuharn  is  now  under  cultivation,  but  the 
stones  of  the  circle  and  the  littor  of  lifted  stones  around  it  are  still  so 

'  That  is  t(»  say,  were  the  S.W.  radius  carried  out  from  the  centre,  it  would 
bisect  tlie  inner  face  of  the  Recumbent  Stone  at  right  angles.  As  w^ill  presently  be 
shown,  this  is  not  the  invariable  position  of  this  stone. 

'  Sculpiureff.  Stones^  vol.  i.,  App.  to  Preface,  p.  xix. 
^  Hy  Mr  Alexander  Thomson ,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  in  rro<yetiiiujn,  vol.  v.  i>.  131. 

150  PK0CEED1NG8  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  JANUABY  8,  1900. 

iuooiu$picuoii8  that  most  |)er8onB  would  walk  past  them  unheeding. 
Even  in  tlie  district  it  is  not  known,  and  many  antiquaries^  with  the 
exception  of  ^liss  Maclagan,  have  esteemed  it  scarcely  worth  the  briefest 

And  yet  this  circle  |>0S8esHe»«  |>oints  of  rather  ))eculiar  interest.  In 
the  first  place,  it  is  very  small,  not  much  over  30  feet  in  diameter  on  its 
outermost  ring.  Next,  the  s^mce  1>etween  this  ring  of  Standing  Stones, 
only  three  of  which  remain,  and  the  intermediate  setting  of  thinner 
stones,  is  peculiarly  narrow,  and  the  same  feature  holds  good  with  re- 
gard to  the  relation  l>etwccu  the  intermediate  and  the  inner  ring.     The 


^...4 1 T      T      IhcT 

Fig.  9.  Cainiwell.    Ground  Plan. 

whole  is,  in  fact,  a  circle  in  miniature ;  and,  us  may  be  seen  from  the 
^^'round  plan  (tig.  9),  the  stones  have  been  laid  with  a  regularity  and 
neatness  not  always  olwervable  in  the  larger  structures,^ 

The  inner  stone-setting  is  alsi»  remarkable  from  all  its  stones  being  set 
up,  not  vertically,  but  inclining  towards  the  centre.  Tliey  average  18  to 
20  iiiclies  in  height.  In  the  intiirniediate  ring  the  stones  are  vortical, 
an«l  rise  U*  nearly  2  fert  nbovt'  groinid. 

The  diameter  nf  tin*  inner  ring  is  1.^)  fei't.  Its  interior  is  pretty 
smooth  and  grassy,  nor  is   thi'  spaee   l»etwei'n   the  two  smaller  rings  so 

'  Owing  to  an  ovcrsi^'lit  in  tlrawinj^  the  scale,  the  tigure  20  appears  instead  of  Ift, 
and  25  for  20. 


crowded  with  small  stones  as  wo  shall  find  to  1x3  the  ctise  elsewhere. 
Nearly  all  nmnd  the  circumference,  quantities  of  stones,  of  all  shapes 
and  sizes,  cumber  the  ground. 

Tlic  three  Standing  Stones  are  Inirely  2  feet  4  inches  in  height  above 
the  surface  of  the  litter  of  small  stones  heaped  up  from  the  field.  In 
the  account  given  by  ^Ir  Th(»mson,  this  circle  figures  as  much  more 
complete  and  much  larger.  It  is  to  be  feared  that  its  present  condition 
is  due  largely  to  the  removal  of  its  more  prominent  stones   for  dike 

Fig.  10.  Craighead.  Ground  Plan, 
building.  At  any  rate,  Mr  Thomson's  mejisurements  of  1863  and  my 
o%vn  do  not  tally ;  but  tlie  circle  lie  descrilKJs,  {is  the  westmost  on  King- 
Ciiusie,  can  W  none  other  than  this.  It  is  liighly  interesting,  therefore, 
to  not<i  his  n>oor«l  of  the  excavation  carried  on  h(»ro.  "  The  free  c(».ntr}d 
si>ace,"  he  says,  "is  al)out  9  feet  in  diameter,  and  we  dug  up  the  whole 
4»f  it.  We  found  it  full  of  black  moidd,  i.e.,  churchyard  earth,  with 
fragments  of  l>»nes  and  wooil  charcoal  ;  and,  wliat  was  specially  interest- 
ing, we  found  at  live  spots,  arranged  in  a  (luiucunx,  fragments  of  coarse 


earthenware  urns ;  thus  proving  unquestionabl}'  that  it  had  been  used 
as  a  place  of  burial." 

No.  4,  CraigJiead. — This  site  is  on  the  crest  of  a  swelling  hill  within 
a  few  score  yartls  to  the  N.  of  the  farmhouse,  250  feet  alwve  sea-level, 
and  from  the  last  site  660  yards  distant  in  a  K.E.  direction.  Whatever 
it«<  former  condition  may  have  })een  (of  which  there  are  conflicting 
accounts),^  it  now  consists  of  but  four  stones,  and  their  relative  positions 
are  so  precisely  towards  the  cardinal  points  (see  ground  plan,  fig.  10)  that 
it  is  almost  certiiin  they  have  (juite  recently  been  moved.  This  is  the 
more  likely,  because  into  the  side  of  each  stone  wire  T0\^e8  have  been 
fixed  in  order  tc»  guy  up  a  tall  flagstaft'  planted  in  the  centre.     Tlie  stones 

Fi^'.  11.  Craighead.     View  from  the  South. 

stiuid  upon  a  moiuid  whicli  is  now  alxjvc  2  feet  6  inches  above  the  sur- 
face of  the  field.  The  urea  of  the  top  of  the  moiuid  is  level  and  grassy, 
l)resenting  no  vestige  of  stone-setting,  and,  but  for  the  three  thin  loose 
slabs  lying  a  little  to  the  east  of  the  centre,  having  no  uneveime«s  on  it. 
On  the  moiuid  edge  a  wall  has  l»een  built,  but  as  it  interfered  with  the 
"Circle,"  it  was  omitted  in  the  view  1  made  from  the  S.  (see  fig.  11). 

The  stones  are  all  of  the  same  red*lisli  granite,  antl  their  heights  are  : 
the  south  stone  7  feet  5  inches,  the  west  stone  5  feet  3  inches,  the  N. 
stone  5  f<M»t  2  inches,  and  that  on  the  east  4  foet.  l^irt  of  this  circle 
was  excavated  in  18G3  l)y  Mr  Alexander  Thompson,  and  he  re]X)rts  : — 
'*  We  foun<l  that  it  hail  been  excavated  at  least  once  before  ;  Imt,  not- 

^  111  .Miss  Maclagairs  Hill  Forts  six  stoues  are  shown  in  PI.  xxvii. 


Avithstiinding,    we   discovered   unmistiikahle    traces   of   sepulture — half- 
calcined  bones  and  morsels  of  wood  charcoal." 

No.  5,  Rofis  of  Clu7ie,^ — Sit(;,  a  most  densely  jilanted  firwo<xl  on  the 
.summit  of  a  hill  8  miles  W.  of  the  List  circle  and  from  Park  station 
alMiut  2  miles  neurly  S.,  at  an  elevation  of  564  feet  above  sea-level.  The 
ilitiiculties  attending  the  mensuration  of  a  group  of  stones  not  one  of 
which  can  be  completely  seen  from  any  of  the  others,  may  In?  admitted  to 
l>e  consiilerable,""''  and,  as  the  ruincjus  and  litti^red  condition  of  its  interior 
added  to  the  diflicultic^s  encountered  by  rc^ason  of  the  trees,  I  dare  not 
cLiim  ipiite  such  accunicy  for  this  gi'ound  plan  (fig.  12)  as  for  others. 
We  were  forced  to  tiike  the  measurements  by  comi)ass,  necessarily  a  less 
accurate  method  than  triangulating.  Like  many  others,  this  circle  has 
8uffere<l  heavily  from  l)eing  used  as  a  cpiarry.  Two  of  its  Stjinding  Stones 
are  now  prt>stmte,  and  evidence  of  tentative  diggings  and  scoopings  is 
plentiful ;  to  such  an  extent,  indeed,  that,  with  regard,  for  inst^ince,  to 
the  long  row  of  stones  trending  from  near  th(j  pillar  north-westwards, 
it  is  imi)os8ible  to  affirm  that  they  arc^  all  a  |»ortion  of  the  stone-setting; 
the  majority  d<»  not  seem  in  keeping  with  similar  featunjs  at  other  sites. 

The  longer  diameter  of  58  feet  lies  N.W.  and  S.E.,  i,e,,  from  the 
second  stone  to  the  fifth  ;  th(^  (unitrary  axis,  from  the  west  pillar  to  a  point 
midway  Ixitween  Stones  III.  and  IV.,  measuring  51*6  inche.s. 

The  distances  l>etween  the  stcnies  ar(»  :    - 

From  N.  angle  of  Stone  I.  (fallen)  t<»  centre  of  Stone  11.,  10  feet ;  from 
II.  to  III.  (centre  to  centre),  16  feet  4  inches.     The  sjiace  between  111. 

'  ThiH  being  an  extremely  ilitlicult  site  to  discover,  we  freijuently  asked  at  uuttuges 
for  the  Bars  of  Cfune  wood,  varying  tlift  in-onunciation  so  as  to  meet  the  requirements 
of  the  vernacular,  Meea  </  KUen  ;  neither  of  these  names  was  known  by  any  one  of 
the  iiersons  interro^ted  ;  the  farm  ln«l  who  ultimately  directed  us  correctly  to 
the  circle,  speaking  of  it  a.s  in  the  Stnrunll  Wooit.  Less  tlian  thirty  years  ago  the 
name  in  its  vernacular,  lieea  o  i^Uen  form,  was  i|uito  well  known,  an<l  its  extincti(m 
in  so  brief  a  period  seems  to  me  significant. 

-  Herein  lay  the  advantage,  for  the  success  r»f  my  survey,  in  my  having  two  active 
and  youthful  assistants  to  whom  the  tangles,  the  Hpidcrs*  wehs,  and  the  (■immeriun 
darkness  of  these  Kiucanlineshire  woo<ls  were  Fairyland  ! 



and  IV.,  if  nu'iisiired  on  the  curve,  is  42  feet;  between  IV.  and 
V.  is  20  feet  6  inclies.  From  V.  to  the  ciwt  angle  of  the  east  pillar  is  25 
feet  4  inches ;  the  group  of  three  nieiisures,  over  all,  16  feet  9  inches,  and 
the  space  Initween  the  we^st  pillar  and  the  nearest  angle  of  the  first  stone 
is  28  feet  4  inches,  thus  giving  a  totid  circumference  of  159  feet  3 
inches :  prohably  an  under-estimati»,  since  the  former  |K)sitiou  of  at  least 
two  stones  is  unjisc(?rtainable. 




-4? Tb 

Fig.  12.  Raes  of  Clune.  Ground  Plan  and  Section, 
The  Uccunihenl  Stone  is  of  grey  granite,  unlike  the  Standing  Stones, 
wliich,  so  far  as  could  he  asttcrtaiuiMl  for  the  thirk  pfrowth  nf  lichena  fm- 
tin'ly  ('Idtliing  thoni,  arc  of  iIkj  red  and  coaisrr  xi-iiiiyd  wjjrt.  This  sloni', 
just  muler  15  feet  in  length,  is  of  a  nearly  r^|i[id  firi^aulth  of  2fl  jtiehe^ 
throughout,  and  has  a  eonsiderahle  lean  inwarils^  ]'Jirtly  riveting  im  ri  few 
hlocks  there  (sec  tin*  view,  tig.  1.'^).  It  wei^^hx  9  toFi-^  T*  cnl  Tl***  in-*t 
pillar  is  very  s«|uare  an<l  massive,  and  much  higher  Lliiin  iLux^j^  Ji^  r^^ct. 
The  position  of  the  group  relatively  to  the  drcl " 

SfONE  ClltCLJEH   WITH    MIlAJiUREl)    I'LAKrf    ANt)    DltAWINGK       155 

The  aectitiiial  vknv  given  below  the  ^muiiii  plan  i^  on  u  line  lietween 
the  two  fallen  atones,  ji«  nti  tJthor  m  well  slii>ws  i]w  extnmiu  irrx-gnknty 
of  the  iii|iTi(»i% 

Fig.  13.  Rae«  of  CI  tine.     H^jcumbetii  Stone  md  PiJlftrt, 

Thu  heigfvU  of  the  aton^.s  iire  an  fullow^  :— 

Stone        r.  (falkn)     is  2  feet   3  inehm  in  thickneaSp 
„  Up  „  4    „      9     „      higL 

^>  rV.  (frtUen)      >,  1  IlhH   2 

V.  „4f.^etU 

The  east  pillar  „  4    ,,      ti 

,,    RccnmhciitStone  I,  4    ,,      4 

,,     west  pillar,  t^  S    ti      '* 

in  thiekiii!^. 

insi<k',  lint  S  ft-i^t  7  inuln^fi  f  mtside. 

BfifoTf  thl^  ait*^  waf*  ]ilantr^1,  wliirh  was  ahnnt  thirty  yojim  agn,  ibH 
summit  must  have  commandal  n  very  oxttmsive  prtvf^iwjct. 

N*K  6»  Caii'njmU. — Iji  a  coniJh^ld  ekiEit!  til  the  farm  alH>tit  300  yavda 
.S.  of  the  Cr*w*i?-i"i.>iui  Hniithy,  lunl  mmrly  400  feet  above  wea  level,  ^tinul 
the  five  Btanes  uoniiH>aing  this  ciixde^  in  what  we  must  cunsider  its  very 



have  prolmbly  }>oeii  }>iiilt  int<)  the  dike  on  the  W.,  which  is  in  close 

The  (lianieLei-Js  are  :  N.  and  S.  49  feet,  and  E.  and  W.  53  feet  8  inches. 
Tlie  interior  lias  sullered  in  the  usual  way ;  and,  witli  the  exception  of 
one  small  oblong  earth-fast  stone  in  the  centre,  and  a  heavy  slab  that 
runs  int<j  the  ground  at  a  very  low  inclination  between  it  and  the 
Keeunil)ent  Stone,  not  a  foot  of  measurable  stone-setting  remains.     All 

-'•t'^"^'    SsA'WwL. 

Fi^.  16.  (fanol  Wooil.     Ground  Plan  and  Section. 

Lin*  >loiu',s  an*  massive  and  sciuarisli  in  section  and  of  the  common  red 
ji-.inih'.     'Vhr  Uecumbent  Stone  (Hg.   17)  is,  I  think,  diorit^^^^^ji^  jg 

«I;ul  with  l)nth  lichen  an«l  moss,  and  is  dilHci 

c^^to  ex 



vast  lieap  of  stones,  itself  ami  its  contents  pri>bably  containing  the 
missing  ]K)rtion  of  the  (;ircle. 

As  the  view  (iig.  15)  shows,  tlie  stones  are  nnusually  straight, 
i^iuarish  with  pointed  t<jps  auul  set  very  nearly  vertically,  with  the 
exception  of  that  nearest  the  S.  point.  Their  respective  heights  are : 
the  south  stone  6  feet,  the  south-west  stone  5  feet,  the  west  stone 
4  feet  7  inches,  the  north  stf>ne  4  feet,  the  east  stone  5  feet. 

The  Uniant  on  the  farm  told  nie  that  a  goo4l  many  years  ago,  at,  I 
tliink,  alxmt  the  dat(?  of  the  Imilding  of  the  dike,  some  trenching  was 
luade  near  the  centre,  and  human  lK)nes  were  found,  Init  no  record  was 
kei)t  of  aught  that  may  have  accomi)anied  them  or  of  their  precise 

Fig,  15.  Cainifauld.     View  from  the  West. 

^0.  7,  Garrol  Wood,  locally  known  as  the  Nine  Staiies. — Both  the 
site,  800  feet  above  sea-level,  and  the  present  condition  of  this  circle 
(fig.  16)  so  much  resemble  those  of  Raes  o'  Clune,  that  it  is  a  little 
ilifficult  to  keep  a  distinct  image  of  lioth  in  one's  mind.  In  this  instance 
also  we  measured  by  comjKiss.  But  there  is  (»ne  marked  point  of 
ilifTerence  Ixitween  the  two  circh'.s :  in  this  at  (lari-ol  Wood,  the  Recum- 
l)ent  Stone  is,  i>ractically,  due  8.,  its  east  pillar  and  the  third  Stiuiding 
Stone  being  precisely  on  the  X.  and  S.  diameter.  The  num}>er  of  stones 
at  present  upright  is  eight,  including  the  two  pillars.  The*  sixth  is 
.several  feet  to  the  E.  of  the  circumferencij  upon  which  the  others  are  set, 
and  >>etween  the  second  and  third  is  space  enough  for  two  more.     They 



liavo  probably  been  Iniilt  into  tbe  dike  on  tlie  W.,  wliich  in  in  close 

The  diameters  are  :  X.  and  S.  49  feet,  and  E.  and  W.  53  feet  8  inches. 
The  interior  has  suffered  in  the  usual  way ;  and,  with  the  exception  of 
one  small  oblong  earth-fast  stone  in  the  centre,  and  a  heavy  slab  that 
runs  into  the  ground  at  a  very  low  inclination  between  it  and  the 
Recumlxjnt  Stone,  not  a  foot  of  measura])le  stone-setting  remains.     All 






"  ^'^^^TTrnnTTTTTTTmnTTTrmrmTTrrr'Ttnn'"''" 

JO  9  »  13  *>  t5  SfL, 

I  '  '  ■  '  I  I 1 1 1 1 \rnr 

Fig.  16.  Oarrol  Wood.     Ground  Plan  and  Section. 

the  stones  are  massive  and  squarish  in  section  and  of  the  common  red 
granite.  The  Recumbent  Stone  (fig.  17)  is,  I  think,  diorite  :  but  it  is 
clad  with  both  lichen  and  moss,  and  is  dithcult  to  examine. 

160  PROCEKDINOS  OF  TUB  80CIBTY,  JANUARY  8,  1900. 

Distances  Iwtween  the  stones : — 
Between  Stone     I.       and  Stone       II.,  14  feet  6  inches 

II.         „        „         III.,  56    „    0      „     (on  the  curve). 

»?  „  III.  „  „  n  .y    14       „        8  „ 

»     IV.         „        „  v.,  15  „  0  „ 

»»  »        *  •         >»        »  '  *•>  20  „  9  ,) 

„  „     VI.  and  edge  of  E.  pillar,  25  „  4  „ 

Width  of  the  south  group  of  three  15  „  4  „ 

Between  edge  of  west  pillar  and  i 

>  22    „    0      „ 

centre  of  Stone  I. 

Total  circumference,         183  feet  7  inches 

Heights  of  stones : — 
Stone     I.  is  3  feet  8  inches  (flalrtopped,  and  leans  towards  the 

group  on  the  S.). 

Stone    11. . 

is  4  feet  9  inches 

»    in. 

„  3    „    3 



„      IV. 

„  3    „    4 



„        V. 

„  4    „    0 


„      VI. 

„  4    »  10 


East  pillar 

,.  5    „    0 


(vertical,  hut  leans  outwards). 

Recumlwnt  Stone 

..  3    ,.     9 


(much  more  uneven  at  top  than 

We-tt  irillar 

.,  6    „    8 


(flat-topi>ed  and  of  great  hulk). 

Tlie  inner  surface  of  the  Reciiml>cnt  Stinic  slopes  downwards,  and  is  so 
mossgrown,  ami  overlaid  Avith  soil  full  of  roots  of  hracken  and  hlae- 
l)erry,  that  we  could  not  Jiscertain  its  true  width.  Its  hreadth  in  this 
direction  would  jirohaljly  equal,  if  not  exceed,  its  length  from  R  to  W., 
and  it  is  therefore  jjcrhaps  the  most  [K)nderou8  of  these  stones  yet 
examin«Ml.  Its  top  ]>roscnts  no  level  or  smooth  space*  anywhere.  Its 
weiglit  is  over  16  tons. 

In  view  of  the  very  great  stonin(\ss  cliaracteristic  of  these  circles  in 
Durris,  the  following  extract  from  the  Statistical  Account  of  1842  is 



.^^^  ' 








-.....^F ^^ 





'^-TTrnT!fTr'>iM'ni|i!MjTT-iiirr'niiii  TTiLiM'iiiri|i|'ffW"iH'riiir 

I 1 1 1 1 1  I J jmr, 


Fig.  18,  Esslie  (the  Greater).     Ground  Plan. 


worth  (luotinj;.  In  sjioakin*;  of  Ks-slie  and  (lari-ol  tlio  writer  says: — "In 
(iacli,  th(^  HMnains  of  an  inn(T  cirrle  are  visible,  within  which  is  a  small 
cairn."  That  certainly  is  th(^  impression  conveyed  by  tlie  stony  masses 
in  the  centre  of  several  of  these  circles.  But  that  tlie  whole  area 
within  the  Standing?  Stones  was  "nothing  but  a  cairn,"  as  some 
observers  have  stated,  is  an  inference  due  to  imagination.  Besides, 
it  must  be  Iw^rne  in  mind  that  the  cairn-like  heap  of  stones  may  lie 
(and  has  sometimes  l>een  ascertained  to  be)  ^  formed  by  the  farmers  who 
liave  utilised  the  unarable  space  within  the  Standing  Stones  as  a  con- 
venient place  of  deposit  for  stones  gathered  off  the  fields. 

No.  8,  Ei^slifi:  tlte  Greater  Circle. — In  open  ground  about  550  feet 
alwn^e  sea-level.  If  w(»  include  the  two  pillars  which,  with  the  Recum- 
bent Stone,  are  "  in  line  "  with  the  other  Standing  Stones,  tliis  circle  now 
consists  of  nine  stones ;  but  very  serious  disturbances  must  long  ago  have 
taken  place,  as  a  study  of  the  ground  plan  declares  (fig.  18).  At  least 
live  massive  stones,  tin;  two  within  a  few  feet  of  the  Recum])ent,  a  thirtl 
between  Stones  I.  and  II.,  and  two  on  the  nortli  verge,  have  been  moved 
out  of  their  original  positions  (which  it  is  now  impossible  to  fix  U|>on)  ; 
and,  in  addition,  «»ne  now  standing,  St<nie  Xo.  IV.,  is  not  on  the 
same  ciniinuference  as  the  n^st.  The  extreme  irregidarity,  also,  of  the 
contour  of  the  base  of  tlie  mound  which  carries  the  Standing  Stones  adds 
to  the  difliculty  of  interjireting  as  well  as  <^f  measuring  its  features. 
Immediately  south  of  the  Kecumbent  Stone,  for  instance,  is  a  well- 
marked  hollow,  20  feet  by  nearly  5,  bounded  externally  by  an  equally 
well-detiiied  bank  of  earth  and  stones,  and  this  ridge  continues  eastwanls, 
tluju  nortliwards,  and  more  or  less  compactly  to  th(»  extreme  X.AV.  angle. 
It  is  surely  remarkable,  however,  that  nowhere  in  its  whole  cc»urse  is 
any  one  of  the  stones  actually  set  ujion  it,  the  two  big  stones  on  the 
western  arc  lyin^'  «)n  an  eaitlien  slope  uncharacterised  by  any  ridge. 
Doubt  is  thus  cast  upon  tliis  stony  ridge,  which  maybe  a  thing  of  ycst^^r- 

'  S(M-  r,<>^-rrin,ig>,  vol.  xxxi.  |».  90. 


<iayj  At  tho  ea><t  pillar-liaso  lies  a  long  and  <leeply-s«t  stone,  similar  in 
r<»lative  position  and  size  to  one  already  noticed  at  Ancli(pihorthies, 
while  two  lieaps  of  smaller  stones  opposite  its  end,  and  alxjnt  20  feet  t<> 
the  E.  as  well,  seem  to  }>e  the  remnants  of  the  inner  stone-setting  here, 
of  which  we  find  su})stantial  alignments  cm  the  western  side,  wliere, 
esp(?cially  in  front  of  Stone  I.  (A  on  the  section),  a  space  of  barely 
6  feet  separates  the  Standing  Stone  from  the  interior  work.  The  central 
stone  setting,  tracea])le  at  a  nearly  miifonn  distance  of  16  feet  from  the 
other,  consists  of  fifteen  qnite  distinct  and  vertically-placed  stones  from  8 
or  10  inches  to  18  and  20  inches  in  height  on  the  outside,  their  inward 
sides,  here  and  there,  disappearing  amtmg  a  "  rul)})le  o'  stones  "  to  over 
2  feet  in  depth.  In  the  view  (fig.  19),  taken  from  near  the  centre  of 
the  circle,  and  looking  towards  the  RecumlKint  Stone,  the  variation  in  the 
heights  of  these  centre  stones  is  shown.  This  drawing  further  illustrates 
a  feature  apparently  unusual  in  the  type  of  circles  with  Recuml^ent  Stone, 
and  that  is,  the  remarkable  lowness  of  the  two  pillars,  the  east  pillar  being 
just  level  with  the  top  of  the  Recumbent  Stone,  and  the  west  only  a  few 
inches  taller.-  The  entire  space  on  this  mound  at  Esslie  is  as  stony  as  possi- 
ble, though  overgrown  with  a  luxuriant  and  treacherous  growth  of  grass. 
The  heights  of  the  stcmes  are  as  follows : — 

Stone     I.  (A  on  section)  4  feet  8  inches,  tapering. 


3     . 

,     8      , 

lounded  top. 


i     , 

.     6       , 

1             jj         V 


4     , 

,     4      , 

,       flat-topped. 


2     , 

.     3       . 

*             )• 

VI.  (fallen) 


4     , 

.     7      „ 

tapering  to  ai 

*  Putting  out  of  reckoiilDg  the  two  boulders  near,  but  well  outaide  of  the  Rocum- 
bent  Stone,  we  may  state  that  the  circle  had  originally,  at  anyrate,  twelve  Standing 
Stones,  inclusive  of  the  pillars.    Probably  the  long  gap  on  the  east  contained  another. 

^  I  am  aware  that  the  block  of  stone  at  the  base  of  this  pillar  looks  in  the  drawing 
&H  if  it  might  have  fallen  otf  the  latter  ;  but  a  glance  at  the  ground  plan  will  show 
how  small  this  fragment  is,  in  comparison  with  the  pillar,  and  therefore  how  very 
little  it  could  have  added  to  its  height. 



East  pillar  is  4  feet  0  inches,  broad-topped. 

Recumbent  Stone  is  4    „    0      „      inside,  but  5  feet  outside.  pillar  is  4    ,,    2      ,,      broad-t<ipped. 

A  «(eneral  view  of  the  circle  is  giv(;n  in  fi<:.  20. . 
Distances  ])etween  the  stones  : — 

From  Stone  I.  to  Stone       If.  is  29  feet  0  inches 

,.         .,  II.  ,.      .,         III.  „  21     „   5       „ 

III.  ,,       „  IV.  (displiiced?)  „     7     „   8       „ 

..         „         111    „      ,.  V.  (fallen)  „  18     ,.  0       „ 

















„  24 

6       , 

,,  21 

0       , 

..  41 

0       , 

.,  27 

6       , 

,,  24 

0      , 

„  15 

9      , 

„  26 

6       „ 

From  centre  of  Stone  IX.  to  east  pillar  (edge) 
The  group  of  Recumbent  Stone  and  pillars 
From  west  pillar  outer  edge  to  centre  of  I. 

Total  circumference,  256  feet  4  inches 

Main  <liameter  from  St<me  VI.  to  R.  nearly  N.  and  S.  89  feet  0  inches. 
„        Jl.  toF.       „     W.andE.  73      „    6      „ 

The  Recuml)ent  Stone  weighs  8  tons  4  cwt. 

Excavation  was  made  in  or  about  the  centre  of  this  circle  in  1873,  by 

J)r  R.  Angus  Smith.     His  account^  is  this:  — 

*'  On  goinp  down  about  2  feet  a  hard  *  pan '  was  fomid  4  or  5  inches  thick. 
This  'pan*  is  very  general  in  the  district.  A  space  of  7  or  8  feet  in  diameter 
was  laid  bare  with  more  or  leas  care,  and  on  the  outer  part  there  were  found  cer- 
tain black  marks  on  the  hard  ground,  and  along  with  them  small  pieces  of  l>onc. 
The  dark  marks,  in  some  places  quite  black,  extended  so  as  to  be  the  length  of  a 
not  tall  human  l^eing  in  three  cases  ;  a  fourth  was  uncertain.  Tliere  seem  to 
have  been  three  or  four  lx)dies  laid  so  as  to  form  a  circle,  within  which  were  no 
black  marks  or  bones.  One  of  the  men  who  were  digging  tried  the  centre  with 
his  pickaxe,  and  said  that  it  had  been  oj^eued  ;  tlu^rt^  was  no  hard  *  pan,'  and  he 
iiiarke<l  out  a  place,  feeling  his  way  with  the  pickaxe,  and  found  a  softened  part 
aUmt  (>  ft-et  long.  This  s|)ace  was  o|H?ned  without  difficulty  with  the  spade 
alone:  the  f^lw^ervation  hadljeen  correct.     After  digging  down  2h  feet  a  stone 

'  Givcii  in  Proteedinyy,  voL  xiv.  \k  302. 



kist  was  found,  if  we  may  call  it  one^  built  of  common  boulder-stones  little  more 
tlian  half  a  foot,  i.e.,  from  8  to  10  inches  in  diameter.  ...  In  the  grave  were 
found  black  marks  and  pieces  of  l)one,  but  no  more.'' 

No.  9,  Esslie :  tJie  Smaller  Circle^  commonly  called  West  Mulloch, 
from  its  close  proximity  to  the  steadings  of  that  fann. — Distant  from  the 
last  a  Inire  half  mile,  and  about  70  feet  higlier,  close  to  the  road  that 
winds  round  past  West  and  East  Mulloch  down  to  the  Cross-road  smithy 
and  Cainifauld  already  noticed. 

TTTTTT'TT^'/rillMMi,  I     I  i|.|.|l!i:|i,;;i|lT  llll.|iM|||MIMlii||||lll|rj^^j^ 

V'v^.  21,  P'sslie  (tlir  Smaller).     (Iround  Plan  and  Section. 

<  )u  tills  sit<',  a^'ain,  <nu'  linds  evidence  of  much  disturbance  ;  and  those 
intellective,  half-hearted  di,i^',i^qii.i,'s,  ])ruductive  «»f  nothing  but  hallucination 
and  hearsay,  appeared  to  have  occurred  liere  also  plentifully.  There  are, 
liowever,  yet  live  great  Standing  Stones  set  on  the  level  crest  of  a  mound 
3  feet  high,  some  remnant  of  the  inner  stone-.setting,  and,  fallen  over 


(lo^vn  the  slope  of  the  ridge,  close  to  the  tallest  stone,  a  huge  block 
(shown  on  the  ground  plan  shaded  within  a  tliick  line,  fig.  21)  which  I 
take  to  be  the  Recumbent  Stone  moved  from  its  position,  close  to  the 
west  pillar  and  minus  that  which  was  its  east  pillar.  That  this  is  the 
correct  "reading"  of  the  present  state  of  things  is  suggested  by  the  relative 
positions  of  this  remaining  pillar  (P)  and  of  the  portions  of  the  inner 
stone-setting  now  in  situ,  A  part  of  this  consists  of  two  unusually  large 
stones  7  feet  within  the  circle  from  P.  Small  heaps  of  stones  in  all 
manner  of  positions  (see  fig.  22)  cause  confusion,  and  there  is  one  pro- 
minent boulder  on  the  northern  verge  apt  to  l)e  mistaken  for  a  Standing 
Stone.     It  is  not  earth-fast. 

Fig.  22.  Esslie  (the  Smaller).     View  from  the  West. 

The  heights  of  the  Standing  Stones  are  : — 

Stone  I.  is  4  feet  7  inches,  edged  at  top. 
„     II.  „    3    „    9      „      iK)inted. 

Ill         4  *> 

»>  I '  •  i>    3    „  10      ,,         „ 
„     V,  „   4    „    5      „      broad  and  flat. 
The  Beciunbent  Stone  weighs  over  4  tons. 

I>r  U,  AugtiH  Hinitli  leL'tanls  ^  that  the  centre  circle  of  small  stones  "  was 
o|te«fd  t4>  lh&  ilc^ptli  of  from  3  to  4  feet  and  several  large  and  flattish 
sUmcii  wtTt?  fuuud  very  irro^niiariy  placed ;  and  apparently  the  remains  of 
m^&  stiiu'tui*  hi(/kt>n  and  Um^il  into  the  hole  which  hatl  been  formed 
_ia  u^Jt^nini^  it.     li  \m\  1m>p.ii  piT  Liahly  a  large  stone  cist." 

'  dT.  p.  308. 



No,  10,  fnchmarlo, — Close  to  the  main  road  going  west  out  of 
lUnchory,  100  foet  or  so  within  the  poHcies  of  Inchmarlo  Cottage,  stands 
the  monolith  shown  in  lig.  23.  It  is  vouched  for  as  the  sole  remnant 
of  a  circle  seen  hy  thn  late  Sherill'  Doughu^,  wlio  was  a  native  of  Inch- 
marlo ;  and  it  is  still  calleil  the  Druids'  Stone.  It  is  a  nearly  square- 
Imsed  block  of  pori)hyritic  granite,  and  (^lose  l>eside  it  lies  a  much 
smaller,  hut  still  weighty  block,  of  diorite.  The  oblong  cavity  on  its 
eastern  face  has  l)eon  chiselled  to  hold,  I   think,  one  of  the  iron  letter- 

Fif(.  *2:1.  lucliniarlo  Standing  Stone. 

l)OXcs  which  aiv  common  in  llic  district.     There  is  now  nu  trace  of  the 
site  of  any  otlicr  of  the  stones  of  tlie  circle.     Weight  over  12  tons. 

Xo.  11,  Glaxiif'l. — Tliis  ^Toup  of  j>illar  stones  is  situatcMl  on  the  vei*ge 
of  a  long  and  rather  stiM'ji  natural  bank  in  tin*  north  part  of  a  beech- 
wood  known  as  Ordie  (iordie  «>r  Ordie  (lordon,  scarcely  half  a  mile  in  a 
N.W.  direction  from  (Ila.ssel  station  on  the*  Deeside  railway,  and  at  an 
elevation  of  3G0  feet  above  the  sea. 

l>oth  its  diminutive  })roportions  and  its  form  render  it  remarkable  (sec 


iii;.  24).  The  longer  iliameWr  of  its  interior  space  is  but  15  feet  9  inches, 
the  shorter  7  feet  9  inches.  The  stones  now  standing,  five  in  numl)er,  are 
singularly  symmetrically  set,  very  sqnare-hased,  and  like  one  another  in 
contour,  breadth,  and  height ;  they  are  also  all  of  the  siinie  rcMldish  granite. 
In  the  centre  of  the  north  arc  is  a  i)roHtrate  block  of  indurated  sand- 
stone (see  the  drawmgs,  lig.  25).  Between  this  block  and  the  Standing 
Stone  on  the  W.  is  a  small,  <iuite  earth-fast  lump  of  granite  ;  and,  much 
closer  to  the  edge  of  the  bank,  10  feet  8.W.  of  the  south  stone,  lies  a 
diorite  or  fine-grained  granite  Ixjulder.      The  interior  space  is  smooth, 



W--*4 \ ^. 

Fig.  24.  Glassel.     Groand  Plan  and  Section. 

grassy,  and  well   flattened  by  a  path  evidently  the  frecpient  resort  of 
ramblers.     Below  at  the  foot  of  the  bank  flows  the  Canny  Burn. 
Heights  of  the  stones :  — 
The  diorite  boulder  on  the  south  10  inches  thick. 
.„         S.  stone  2  feet  9  inches,  rather  pointed. 
K*     „      3  „     3     „         rounded  at  toj). 
,„       W.     ..      3  .,     2     „         flat-t<jpped. 
^     N.K     ,.      '2  .,   11     „         shari>-i»ointed. 
,t  X.W,     .,      2  „   10     „         flat-topi)ed. 
rUe  |Yroatmt<^  tjandaUme  ia  1  foot  in  thickness. 


Distances  l)etween  the  stones  : — 

Between        S.  stone     and     W.  stone,  8  feet  10  inches 

W.     „  „  N.W.     „       8     „    10     „ 

N.W.     „  „    N.E.     „       9     „      6     „ 

KE.     „  „        E.     „       8     „    10     „ 

„  E.     „  ,,         S.     „       8     ,,    10     ,, 

Total,  44  feet  10  inches 

No,  12,  Leamy, — In  an  upland  field  N.  of  Gownieburn,  beyond 
Milltown  of  Leamy,  to  which  we  walked  from  Torpliins  station,  stands 
tlie  one  stone  of  a  circle  well  known  to  the  folk  not  so  many  years  ago. 
It  is  not  conspicuous,  being  a  rather  thin,  angular,  and  pointed  red 
granite  block.  It  is  set  nearly  N.  and  S.,  stands  4  feet  2  inches  in 
height,  and  girths  at  the  base  10  feet.  One  side  is  over-  4  feet  in  breadth. 
It  is  marked  on  the  6-inch  Ordnance  Map  as  "  Remains  of  a  stone  circle." 

No.  13,  BcUnarraig,  Alulmar. — On  the  farm  of  this  name,  the 
Ordnance  Map  records  and  draws  four  very  large  stones  at  a  point  1 J  mile 
N.W.  of  Torphins.  But,  though  we  made  diligent  search,  and  were 
fortunate  enough  to  fall  in  with  the  present  tenant,  we  could  neither 
see  nor  hear  of  any  vestige  of  a  circle.  On  the  map,  however — and  the 
one  I  refer  to  is  the  25-inch  scale — these  four  large  stones  are  quite  clearly 
laid  down  in  such  a  form  that,  if  measured  from  a  common  centre, 
the  line  of  circumference  would  ])isect  them  all  and  enclose  a  circle  of 
about  80  feet  in  diameter. 

No,  14,  Tfie  AtUd  Kirk  &  Tough,^ — All  that  remains  of  the  once  large 
circle  on  this  remote  moorland  site,  1200  feet  above*  the  sea,  on  the  con- 
fines of  the  parishes  of  Tough,  Cushnie,  and  Cluny,  is  a  more  or  less 
circular  ridge,  to  some  extent  still  stony,  and,  like;  the  hollow  it  eiuiloses, 
densely  grown  with  heather,  and  one  large  Standing  ^Univ  set  un  its 

*  "The  Kirk  '*  is  the  name  of  tlic  site  of  a  <:ircle  on  a  raised  ridge  on  Kirkby  Moor. 
Arehaoloyia,  vol.  xzxi.  p.  450. 



J***-   *  ' 



i^outlierii  ai-c  (fig.  26).  A  glance  aroiiinl  at  tlw»  nearest  dikes  reveals  the 
fact  that  they  are  huilt  largel}'  of  hugo  stones  ;  and  the  suspicion  thus 
raised  of  tlicir  having  hetMi  moved  from  th(»  circle  was  confirmed  on  tlie 
dav  of  my  visit  hy  the  frank  admission  of  the  crofter  at  Denwdls,  to  the 

^^-  o-cTi -««**-  -    -    -^ 

Fi^'.  2il.  Tlie  Aiil«l  Kirk  o'  Toiigli.     (I 

round  I'laii. 

cllect  that  he  had  ''shifted  ihcni  a'  into  the  dikes,'  one  «>f  tliem  also 
being  comi)lacently  shown  forming  the  thrcshiJd  of  his  cottage.  Most 
of  this  wanton  destruction  must  have  occurred  <luring  tlie  last  twenty 


years,  since  Miss  Maclagan  ^  records,  in  her  plan,  seven  stones  iKjsides  a 
Recumbent  Stone  and  two  ]>illar8,  giving  a  view  of  the  latter  group. 
When  examining  this  site,  T  was  puzzled  with  the  strip  of  straight 
contour,  26  feet  l<»ng  on  the  S.W.,  not  having  then  seen  any  plan  of  the 
grouncL  This,  in  idl  likelihoo<l,  was  the  jnisition  of  the  Re<;um})ent  Stone 
and  pillars.  Miss  Miiclagan's  plan  shows  a  circle  of  75  feet  in  diameter, 
the  seven  stones  seiMinited  by  pretty  regular  intervals  of  about  20  feet, 
with  a  gap  of  nearly  40  feet  on  the  E.  Fifteen  f(».et  within,  in  her  plan,  is 
a  perfectly  unbroken  stone-setting,  within  which,  sigain,  is  the  small 
central  setting,  its  interior  very  stony.  My  measurements  bring  out  the 
diameters,  from  the  inner  face  of  the  one  remaining  stone  due  N.  to  the 
opposite  and  much  higher  crest  of  the  ridge  80  fec^t,  and  the  contrary 
diameter  90  feet.  A  go<Kl  many  apparently  earth-fast  blocks  still  define 
the  circumference,  and  numl>erless  smaller  stones  lie  alK)ut  all  over  it. 
(.)f  the  inner  settings  of  8t<mes  n<»t  a  si»ecimen  now  exists.  In  Miss 
Maclagan's  drawing  of  the  gnnip  on  the  S.AV.,  mm  of  the  pillars  is 
twice  the  height  of  its  fellow,  and  the  Kecumlient  Stone  is  not  vertical. 
Its  breadth,  also,  seems  to  equal  iU  length.  But  to  which  side  of  the 
circle  the  Recumbent  Stone  leans,  and  whether  the  tall  pillar  is  on  its  W. 
or  its  E.,  cannot  be  ascertained. 

This  site,  and  the  eight  that  follow,  are  all  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
Hill  of  Fare,  the  long  flat  ridge  of  heathy  moorland  which  for  miles 
forms  so  prominent  a  background  to  the  wood-crowned  uplands  of  this 
side  of  the  Dee  Valley. 

No.  15,  Tomnagani. — Over  5  miles  X.  of  Torpliins  stiition,  and  up  a 
road  that  rises  at  a  steep  and  steady  gradient  for  fully  three  miles,  on  the 
summit  of  a  wooded  hill  600  feet  above  sea-level,  are  t<>  l)e  seen  the 
remains  of  this,  i>erhaps  the  most  intc^resting  of  all  the  circles  described 
in  the  present  report.  In  spite  f)f  several  of  iU  stones  l)eing  now  pros- 
trate, much  of  the  inner  stone- work  remains  in  ftifu,  and  it  is  possible,  on 

*  flill  FortSf  pi.  xxviii. 



paper,  to  reconstruct  tlu*  circle  with  an  amount  of  eertiiintv  most  unnsiial 
with  rcigard  to  these  often  ])arharously  ill-treated  antiquities.^ 




T,  + 


Fi^.  27.  Tonina^oiii.     Ground  Plan  and  Sections. 
The  ground  i)lan  (tig.  27)  sliows  live  Standing  Stones,  a  massive  Re- 

'  Wliat  disturbance  at  the  centre  is  shown  was  due,  I  was  infonncd,  to  the  curi- 
osity of  an  idle  shepherd.  The  tenants  of  the  farm  respect  and  take  an  interest  in 
the  stones. 


ciiiii})ent  SUme  with  its  two  pillarn,  and  four  of  tlio  cmce  erect  stones,  fall(»n, 
Imt  so  cldse  to  the  line  of  circunif«'rence  as  not  to  injure  the  symmetry  of 
the  circle  as  a  whole.  Of  the  Standing  8t(mes,  the  third  is  due  X.  of  the 
ninth,  the  fifth  is  X.E.  of  the  centre  of  the  KecumlnMit  Stone,  which  is  at 
the  due  8.W.  iK)int.  Meiusured  from  S.  to  N.,  the  diameter  hetween  the 
centres  of  the  stones  is  80  feet;  measured  from  the  centre  of  Stone  I. 
(fallen)  to  a  point  mid-way  hetween  Stones  VI.  and  VI T.,  it  is  70  ft.  6  in. 

I  )i«tnnces  lK3tween  the  stones  : — 

IVtween  the  two  fallen  stones  on  the  W.  (1.  and  II.)  26  feet  0  inches 
Stone        II.  and     III.         .  .    24     „    6     ,. 

III.  „        IV.  .    20     „    5     „ 

IV.  „  V.  .     17     „    6     „ 
V.    „        VI.                  .         .     16     „    9     „ 

VI.    „       VII.                  .  .    21  ,,    6  „ 

„        VII.   ,,     VIII.                  .  .    22  „    4  „ 

„      VIII.  „        IX.         .         .  .    31  ,,   0  „ 

„              ,,          IX.    ,,    edge  of  east  pillar  .20  ,,5  „ 

The  S.W.  group,  over  all       .  .     16  „    6  „ 

From  edge  of  west  i>illar  to  centre  of  Stone  1.  .     16  „    0  „ 

Total  circumference    .  226  feet  1 1  inches 

Heights  of  the  present  Stan<ling  Stones  : — 

Stone  III.  5  feet  6  inch(?s,  tapers  to  an  edge. 

„      IV.  (fallen). 

,,        V.  4  feet  0  inches  (hut  overhangs  inwards  2  ft.  10  in.). 

„      VI.  4    ,,    0      ,,       flat,  ohlong  top. 

.,    VII.  5    ,,    4      ,,       broad,  irregular  top. 

„  VIII.  (fallen). 

„      IX.  6  feet  7  inches 

East  pillar  6    .,      5     „ 

Recumbent  Stone  3    „    lOJ   ,,      inside,  5  feet  3  inches  outside. 
West  pillar  2    ,,      7     ,,      (possibly  })roken?). 

Weight  of  the  Recumbent  Stone,  9  tons  1  cwt. 


The  very  marked  difference  in  the  heights  uf  the  two  sides  of  tlie 
Reouml)ent  Stone  is  accounted  for  by  the  hiyer  of  water-worn  bouMers 
and  other  small  stones  that  are  set,  like  a  floor,  in  front  of  it  facing  the 
interior  (see  the  section,  fig.  27).  We  assured  ourselves  of  tlic  regu- 
larity of  this  *  flooring,*  by  lifting  off  many  square  yards  of  the  thick  dry 
fibrous  carpeting  of  moss  that  covers  most  of  the  area  of  this  circle  ;  and, 
in  doing  this,  we  brought  to  light  the  long  narrow  slab  and  its  three 
almost  contiguous  blocks  with  which  the  inner  stone-setting  begins  at 
the  liase  of  the  east  pillar,  and  which  can  be  distinctly  traced  round  the 
east  arc,  though  for  some  portion  matted  over  with  the  ever-abundant 
blaeberry  stems.  See  the  view  of  the  Recumbent  Stone  from  the  interior 
(fig.  28)  which  shows  these  stones.  The  whole  of  the  X.E.  and  N.W. 
arcs  are  al)solutely  devoid  of  earth-fast  stones,  and  the  ground  here  is  so 
level,  that,  if  any  once  existed,  the  clearance  of  them  luus  been  efTected 
mast  rigorously.  Four  large  stones,  varying  from  14  to  26  inches  high 
(the  highest  nwirest  the  S.),  form  a  portion  of  the  stone-setting  on  tlu^ 
W.,  and  between  them  and  the  Kecum})ent  Stone  a  lumi)y  ridge 

In  front  of  and  almost  touching  the  west  [)ilLir  lies  a  block  which  has 
possibly  once  formed  its  apex,  as  on  one  side  the  pillar  shows  a  })road, 
fractured,  not  weathered,  surface,  and  its  present  want  of  height  seems 
*  out  of  keeping  '  with  the  Inilk  and  height  of  the  Recumbent  Stone  and 
the  other  pillar  (see  fig.  29).  In  the  centnd  space,  three  narrow  slabs 
1 4  inches  high  are  all  that  remain  in  situ  ;  Init  the  })road  oblong  slab  now 
lying  about  3  feet  to  their  S.  (with  a  smaller  triangular  one  resting  on  it) 
must  have  once  stootl  in  the  space  now  blank,  its  width  corresponding  to 
the  blank.  The  cavity  thus  originally  enclosed  does  not  appear  to  have 
Ijcen  circular,  but  oblong  or  s^juarish  ;  but  it  is  impossi))le  to  define  its 
limits  (see  view  from  the  W.,  fig.  30).  The  bre^idth  of  the;  free  space 
lying  between  this  central  stone-setting  and  the  outer  one  is  21  feet  9 
inches,  and  the  width  from  the  latter  to  the  Standing  Stones  of  the  circle 
is  13  feet. 

The  site,  now  completely  hidden  by  woodland,  could  at  no  time  have 

VOL.    XXXiV.  31 


been  specially  conspicuous  ;  tliere  are  much  ^^rcater  lieights  on  nearly  all 
sides  of  it. 

No,  16,  Midmar  Kirk, — Quite  on  the  other  and  eastern  side  of  this 
upland  portion  of  the  district,  alwut  600  feet  above  the  sea-level,  and  most 
easily  accessible  from  the  village  of  Echt,  we  find  a  few  stones  remaining 


Fig.  81.  Midmar  Kirk.    Ground  Plan,  etc. 

of  this  circle,  the  parish  church  l>eing  built  so  close  to  it  that  I  am  not 
sure  whether  several  of  its  western  stones  were  not  removed  to  make 
-way  for  the  walls.  Stormy  weather  prevented  our  making  more  than 
one  hurried  inspection  of  this  circle.  I  therefore  wrote  to  tlie  Rev.  E. 
Luinsden,  M.A.,  for  accurate  measurements,  which  were  most  promptly 


and  courteously  afforded  me  ;  and  the  annexed  ground  plan  (fig.  31)  has 
been  laid  out  from  them,  witli,  also,  some  assistance  from  the  plan  given 
by  Miss  Maclagan.^  There  are  at  present  four  Standing  Stones,  in  addition 
to  the  two  very  tall  and  massive  pillars,  and  the  vertically  set  Recumbent 
Stone.  When  complete,  there  were  probably  nine  Standing  Stones,  there 
l)eing  ample  space  for  three  on  the  north  arc.  All  the  stones  are  of  the 
same  material,  the  reddish  granite  much  weathered.  The  pillars  are  un- 
usually equal  in  height,  and  the  Recumbent  Stone  very  broad  throughout. 
It  is  set  on  the  S.W.  arc,  but  not  so  precisely  as  in  other  examples.  It 
is  14  feet  9  inches  in  length,  and  4  feet  at  the  greatest  breadth.  The 
N.E.  diameter  of  this  circle,  measuring  from  the  pillar  on  the  left  to 
the  opposite  stone,  is  55  feet;  the  contrary  axis  is,  of  course,  now 
unasccrtainable.  The  Recumbent  Stone  weighs  9  tons  13  cwt. 
Distances  between  the  stones  : — 

The  Recumbent  Stone  pltm  pillars   . 

Between  pillar  on  right  to  next  stcme 
,,      the  next  two  stones  . 

22  feet  0  inches 



9   „ 



8   „ 



0   „ 



9   „ 

„       the  hist  two  stones    . 
Circumference  of  about  §rds  of  circle  =104  feet  2  inches 

eights  of  the  stones  : — 

The  N.E.  stone  . 

4  feet  6  inches 

„     first  S.E.  stone     . 


n     6     „ 

„     second  „     ,, 


M    3     „ 

„     south  stone 


»    6    „ 

Tli(?  pillars,  each 


n     3     ,, 

The  Kccunibent  Stone 


„    6    „         at  highest 

No.  17,  Balhlair, — At  the  time  of  my  visit  to  the  circle  just  described, 
I  was  not  aware  that  another  once  existed  within  about  100  yards  to  the 

1  mil  Forts,  PI.  xxvii. 



nortli.      But  having  noticed  on  the  6-ineh  O.M.  tlie  remains  of  a  circle 

^'^'"l^eci  at  this  spot,  I  wrote  to  the  Rev.  E.  Lunisden  again,  and  learned 

iroixi.  Him  the  following  particulars.     At  a  point  22  yards  north  of  the  road 

going  east  of  Midmar  Kirk,  and  100  yards  or  so  north  of  it,  there  is  in  a 

wochI  one  tall  stone  standing.     **  It  has,"  says  Mr  Lumsden,  "  quite  the 

<^naructer  of  such  (I'.e.,  circle)  stones — its  surfaces  Ixjing  eitlier  worn  by 

^atura.1  agencies  or  presenting  the  natund  cleavage  of  the  stone.     It  is 

^^ut  Si  feet  high,  and  leans  over  consideral)ly  to  tlie  south."    The  drawing 

®  xvhich  accomixinied  this  description  shows  the  })ase  of  the  stone  as 

^oJios  wide  on  the  west  and  north  sides,  with  the  south  and  the  east 

^  ^  ^li^htly  less  and  rounded,  and  the  stone  as  viewed  from  the  east 

■^^^^^S    to  a  i)oint.     There  is  also  at  its  base  the  remnant  of  a  ridge 

^^^    T  f>  inches  in  height.     Wishing  to  assure  myself  of  the  former  exist- 

^         ^>^    5:1  circle  here,  I  wrote  for  information  to  Col.  Farquharson  of  the 

..     '^^^^^cie  Survey  Department.     In  due  course  a  rej>ly  came  to  the  effect 

*^^     "the  Name  Book  of  date  1864,  three  of  the  residents  in  Midmar 

^"^^X  the  single  stone  remaining  at  that  date  to  be  the  remnant  of  a 

the  c^ 

It  is  not  definitely  stated  that  eitlier  of  them  said  he  had  seen 

^•^^^le  or  any  more  stones  than  this  (me. 


^    ^  18,    Seanhinni/y   or,    to    follow    the    locid    pronunciation    and 

|.  ,         ~^^^=?>  Sunhonei/y^  by  reason  })oth  of  its  size,  the  regularity  of  its  mono- 

*       ^^  Xid  the  almost  un)>roken  smootlmess  of  its  grassy  sward,  l)esides  its 
,  .  ^^^^^ding  position,  is,  perhaps,  the  most  impressive  of  the  circles  of 

^  ^strict,  as  it  assuredly  is  the  most  satisfactory  to  deal  with  from  the 

«  -^^^  ^or's  j)oint  of  view.     A  dike  surrounds  the  jJantation  of  beech  and 

,         _    -fc^ich  in  a  manner  grace  without  confusing  the  view  of  the  stones  ; 

^--^  distance  from  the  outer  ridge  carrying  the  stones  is  sufficiently 

io  allow  of   a  clear  view  of  the    entire  circle.     The  site  is  the 

^  _    ^  Xt  of  the  upland  fields,  400  feet  above  sea-level,  on  this  farm,  which 

^^^nt  west  from  the  village  of  Echt  about  li  miles,  and  across  a 

fully  wooded  valley  J  of  a  mile  X.E.  from  Midmar  Castle. 

^^^^^^       .?  **  name  "  Sunbrick  Circles'*  is  given  to  a  group  on  the  brow  of  a  bill  called 
^^[g,  near  BradMS,  Morecambe  Bay.     ArdiccologiUf  vol.  xxxi.  p.  450. 



Then*  ia  every  reason  to  believe  that  tliis  circle,  in  respect  of  its 
Standing  KStones  at  least,  is  really  in  the  same  condition  as  in  prehistoric 
times.     See  tlie  ground  plan  (iig.  33),  which  shows  nine  stones  on  the  outer 





Kic.  S*2.  S^Anh'uny.    0 round  Plan. 

rid-o  of  t'arih  and  siouos,  two  vi  ry  lan^?  pillars*  and  a  Recnmbent  Stouc 
x»f  ;r.;l\  r,.oc.d;:hix'  pn^ivrtiouis  Wini:  17  feel  4  inches  in  length,  2  feet 
o  iuv  ];os  iJi  ;hiokiu*s<N  and  4  ftvt  0  inches  in  hn^adth,  this  last  dimension 


being  in  reality  its  height,  as  this  vast  mass  of  close  grained  grey  granite 
long  ago  fell  forward,  and  was  (also  long  ago)  ^  robbed  of  a  fragment,  now 
prostrate  at  right  angles,  which  itself  is  of  no  mean  bulk.  It  lies  very 
slightly  west  of  the  S.W.  point.  The  weight  of  tliis  stone  is  over  12 

The  longer  diameter  of  Seanhinny  is  almost  precisely  due  N.  and  S.,  and 
measures  87  feet  6  inches  from  the  centre  of  Stone  III.  to  that  of  Stone 
IX.  The  contrary  axis.  Stone  I.  to  a  ix)int  mid- way  between  Stones  VI. 
and  VII.,  is  81  feet  6  inches. 

Distances  l)etween  the  stones,  centre  to  centre  : — 

I]etween  Stone          I.  and 


25  feot  6  inches 


II.    „ 







III.    „ 







IV.    „ 







V.    „ 







VI.    „ 







VII.    „ 







VIII.    „ 






From  the  centre  of  Stone  IX. 

,  to  east 


of  the  east  ] 







Breadth  of  the  group  (over  a 

11)     . 





From  west  angle 

of  the  west 

pillar  to  the 

centre  of  Stone  I. 







This  gives  a  total  circumference  tlirough 
the  stones  of 

260  feet  6  inches 

Heights  of  the  stones  taken  on  the  inside  of  the  ridge  : — 
Stone         I.  6  feet    0  inches,  shari>edged. 
„  II.  5     „    10       „      pointed  at  top. 

„         III.  5     „      3       „      sharp-edged. 
„         IV.  4     „      6       „      rather  pointed. 

*  See  tiMaoeoimt  of  Seanhinny  in  Arclutologia^  vol.  xxii.  p.  193,  by  .Tames  Logan, 
wtHi  Ui  oudtai  plan  annexed. 


Stono       V.  5  feet    3  inches  sharp-edged. 
VI.  5     „      3       „      flaUnppeil. 
VII    4  5 

„      VIII.  6     „      8       „     tapers  to  point. 
„         IX.  6     „      9       „      square  and  Hat-topi>ed. 
Tlie  f^radual  rise  in  tlie  heights  of  the  stones  towards  the  Recumlient 
Stone  is  made  clear  to  the  eye  in  the  two  sections  now  given  (fig.   33). 
They  are  to  l)e  taken  as  viewed  from  an  imaginary  line,  dottetl  on  ground 
plan  (Hg.  32),  which  nearly  bisects  the  circle. 

The  east  pillar  is  7  feet  6  inches ;  the  west  pillar  is  6  feet  5  inches. 
lV>th  may  be  styled  rudely  pyramidal  when  seen  at  the  angles.  All  these 
eleven  st^^nes  are  of  the  usual  re<ldish  gmnite  or  gneiss ;  but  the  great 
Recumbent  Stone  (lig.  34)  is  of  a  widely  different  composition  and  colour  : 

L fl 4 A A 

*X-JL    a         A      JLil 

Fig.  33.  Seanhinny.     Sectional  Views. 

very  compact,  close-grained,  of  a  cold  grey  hue  ;  and,  though  not  per- 
haps actually  st)  hard  as  the  diorite  boulders  occasionally  seen  in  the  dis- 
trict, tliis  (Mionnous  block  impresses  one  with  a  sense,  not  only  (>{ 
immense  solidity  and  weight,  but  of  the  labour  involved  in  the  mere 
raising  of  it  on  to  its  edge,  wbich  was  presumably  its  original  position. 
Its  dimensions  are  already  given.  On  its  present  ui)per  surface,  how- 
ever, then^  arc  some  shallow  hollows  very  like  the  cup-marks  now  so 
fre([uently  found  in  many  j)arts  of  Scotland,  and  soni(»limes  on  the  pillars 
of  stone  circl(\s.  I  show  these  'cups'  on  my  jJan.  After  careful 
examination,  ]  am  n«>t  incliiKMl  to  regard  these  hollows  as  made  by  tools 
of  any  age.  In  the  first  })lace,  th(»y  do  not  show  the  slightest  vestige  of 
tool  marks.     True  cup-marks  usually  do.     Next,  there  is  not  the  slight- 





est  vestige  of  any  ring  round  them  or  near  them  on  the  stone.  Again, 
when  this  Recumhent  Stone  stood  on  its  edge — its  western  extremity,  by 
the  way,  would  then  bo  precisely  in  line  with  the  inner  end  of  the  west 
pillar — these  cui>liollows,  if  existent  at  that  remote  period,  would,  in  all 
likelihood,  have  been  under  the  ground.  For  the  innermost  of  them  all 
is  but  13  or  14  inches  within  the  margin  of  the  stone,  and  we  must 
allow  quite  that  measure  as  tlie  depth  of  the  founding  of  the  stone. 
Lastly,  the  comparatively  softer  flakes  of  mica  in  this  block  of  granite  do 
weather  into  small  shallow  pits  or  hollows,  and  my  impression  is  that 
these  particular  hollows  may  have  been  formed  by  weathering. 

Of  the  interior  little  need  be  said,  as  my  ground  plan  shows,  without 
useless  detiiil,  tlie  relative  proportions  of  the  two  now-existing  ridges  ;  of 
any  much  smaller  and  almost  central  ridge,  such  as  the  older  views  re- 
cord,^ naught  remains  (see  fig.  35).  Tlie  greater  portion  of  the  area,  at 
any  rate  within  the  inner  ridge,  was  dug  through  and  turned  over  in  the 
years  1855-56,  by  Mr  C.  E.  Dalrymple,  whose  examination  is  thus 
recorded :  - — 

"  Witliin  the  circle  there  is  a  flat  cairn,  about  64  feet  in  diameter,  of  stones, 
raised  nearly  a  foot  above  the  rest  of  the  area,  and  going  down  to  the  subsoil. 
In  the  centre  of  this  cairn,  throuch  a  part  of  it  8  feet  in  diameter,  were  found 
deposits  of  incinerated  bones,  witn  some  charcoal  and  black  mould,  but  in  no 
great  quantity.  This  part  of  the  caim  differed  slightly  in  construction  from 
the  rest,  as  the  stones  were  not  quite  so  closely  packed,  and  were  mostly  marked 
with  lire.  At  the  outer  circumference  of  the  caim,  on  the  south  side,  was 
found  what  seemed  to  have  been  a  deposit  of  some  kind,  as  concave  stones  were 
placed  so  as  to  form  a  circular  cist ;  and  some  fragments,  apparently  of  a  rude 
stone  vessel,  were  found  forming  part  of  the  enclosure  ;  but  everything  of 
animal  substance  had  entirely  disappeared.  At  the  foot  of  several  of  the  pillars, 
at  a  depth  of  from  18  inches  to  2  feet,  flat  stones  appeared,  similar  to  thoee 
which  are  generally  found  placed  above  and  under  the  cmerary  urns  ;  but  any 
deposits  which  may  have  been  inserted  had  entirely  disappearwi.  The  richness 
of  the  soil,  a  deep  black  loam,  might  •])artly  account  for  this.  All  the  soil 
appeared  to  have  been  brought  into  the  circle,  and,  except  in  front  of  the 
jullars,  seenuHl  almost  every^vhere  to  cover  quantities  of  stones,  though  these, 
except  in  the  centre,  were  not  dis])Ose(l  in  a  regular  caim.  The  soil  seemed 
also  to  differ  from  tliat  on  the  outside  of  the  circle,  in  which  stones  only  occur 
occasionally.     At  the  base  of  tlie  pillars,  the  ground  seemed,  in  various  ca-ses, 

'  See  suprn. 

-  Stuart's  ,S<-i(Ij'tur>t^  Sfonrs,  vol.  i.     Appendix  to  tlio  Preface,  p.  xxi. 


to  have  been  dug  down  into  the  subBoil,  so  as  to  form  a  pit  about  2^  feet  in 
depth.  A  ridge  of  loose  stones,  like  the  foundation  of  a  dyke,  runs  round 
between  the  standing  stones.  Some  of  the  latter  had  a  small  semi-circular 
pavement  of  stones  in  front  of  them,  and  they  all  stood  on  deposits  of  middle- 
sized  boulder  stones." 

No,  19. — At  a  point  nearly  mid- way  between  Old  Wester  Echt  and 
New  Wester  Echt,  and  about  two  miles  N.E.  of  Seanhinny,  three  Stand- 
ing Stones  are  shown  on  the  Ordnance  Map,  forming  a  curve  90  feet  long, 
the  remnant  apparently  of  a  circle  about  1 20  feet  ^  in  diameter.  The 
height  above  sea-level  is  over  550  feet. 

On  communicating  with  the  i)resent  tenant  of  the  farm  of  Old  Wester 
Echt,  Mr  James  Gillespie,  I  was  informed  that  after  having  made 
enquiries,  he  learned,  from  a  man  who  remembered  the  site  when  a  boy, 
that  "  there  were  nine  stones  in  a  complete  circle,  and  that  they  were 
removed  about  sixty  years  ago,  the  three  largest- ones  being  left." 

Mr  Gillespie  subsequently  sent  me  the  measurements  of  these.  One 
is  9  feet  in  height  and  girths  at  the  ground  1 4  feet ;  the  middle  one  is 
6  feet  in  height  with  a  base  of  about  14  feet ;  and  the  third  is  8  feet  in 
height,  5  feet  broad  on  two  sides  and  1^  feet  broad  on  the  other  two.. 

No,  20,  Standing  Stones  of  Echt, — Drawn  on  the  25-inch  scale  Ord- 
nance Survey  Map,  as  a  true  circle  of  50  feet  in  diameter,  and  about  100 
yards  to  the  north  of  the^ farm-steadings.  Eight  stones  are  shown.  The 
site  is  on  the  extreme  east  of  Echt  parish.  I  learned  from  the  present 
occupant  of  the  farm,  Mr  William  Hogg,  that  all  the  eight  stones  are  still 
in  situ  and  still  erect ;  this  being,  doubtless,  largely  due  to  the  fact  that 
"  they  are  mentioned  in  the  lease  of  the  farm,  and  must  be  protected." 

This  and  the  next  circle  will  be  fully  described  later. 

No.  21,  BinghUl,  Petercvlter. — This  site  is  rather  over  one  mile  in  a 
straight  line  N.W.  from  Murtle  station,  and  the  circle  is  drawn  on  the 

^  This  rather  unusually  large  diameter  has  been  obtained  by  computation  from  the 
curve  taken  by  the  three  stones  as  shown  ou  the  25-inch  scale  of  the  Ordnance 



map  as  one  of  seven  good-sized  stones,  in  a  plantation  and  a  few  score 
yards  to  the  north  of  a  tumuhia ;  the  diameter  being  55  feet  or  there- 

No.  22,  Tlip  SfamUng  Stonesi,  Dt/ce, — This,  in  older  accounts,  is 
called  Tyr-lKigger  or  Tyrie-baggor.^  The  sitcj  is  2  miles  W.  of  Dyce 
junction.      The  circle,  now  planted  round  with  trees,  must,  long  ago, 



31 ':•■%.    ' 

"a  *■■■■■•  ■^^■•■;. 

*   ■      Vji-.n  ^-.  ^'  ~   -^^^^        ■'  '  ■     ■  \  ■■ 

^-;r  t 

Fig*  8d.  Tyre- bigger,  or  Standing  Btonn  nf  Dyce* 

have  l)een  very  con^picuotia,  sitiialod  m  it  h  on  ih}  cfnwit  of  ja  hilt 
500  f(M't  above  thf  Sfa-lt*v-i,  .fr^l  bmrif*  rmiifiom-H!  tif  cixttdiiitily  uH  aiitl 
imjMwingly-arningtHl  niun.  '•'■,*- in  t^ll  hirtniiivri,?.     narftle*  ihi»  mmh 

'  Meaning  Hd^-^fwl  hy  I^i^ui 
Ittinl,  c»f  acoriih 



larity  to  Seaiihiruiy  and  otlicrs,  Dycc  circle  iwssesses  some  characteristics 
of  its  own  which  render  it  interesting.  In  the  first  place,  as  the  ground 
plan  (fig.  36)  and  the  section  show,  the  ridge  carrying  the  stones  is 
specially  welklefined  and  high,  the  interior  very  level,  and,  although 
full  of  hroom  and  whin,  almost  unbroken  hy  stone  work.  Part, 
however,  of  this  distinctness  of  ridge  is  really  due  to  the  very 
matter-of-fact  purpose  once  served  hy  the  circle  ;  I>ogan  ^  recording  that 
the  spices  Ijetween  the  stones  were  huilt  up  with  loose  stones  and  the 
spot  thus  converted  into  a  cattle-pound.  Another  feature  not  so  easily 
accounted  for  is  the  existence  of  the  two  thin  stones — slabs,  one  might 
almost  call  them — close  together  on  the  X.E.  arc,  Nos.  VI.  and  VII.  The 
great  magnitude  of  the  pillars  and  the  Recumbent  Stone?,  and  the  striking 
l)osition  of  the  last,  combine  to  impress  this  circle  on  the  memory. 

The  main  diameters  are  : — 

N.W.  to  S.E.,  Stone  III.  to  IX 61  feet 

S.AV.  to  N.E.  outside  of  the  Recumbent  Stone  to  Stone  IV.      56    „ 

Distances  between  the  stones,  centre  to  centre  : — 

Stone         I. 



15  feet 

0  inches 


































„       VII. 






„     VIII. 







From  the  ninth  stone  to  edge  of  ( 






The  group  of 

three  (over  all)  . 






From  the  ed^ 

[e  of  the  west  pillar 

to  centre 

of  Stone  I. 







This  gives  a  totid  circumference  of       166  feet  10  inches 
^  Archcdolotjia^  vol.  xxii.  p.  411. 


Heights  of  the  stoues : — 

Stone         I.         7  feet  3  inches,  leans  outwanls  ;  somewhat  i)ointed 

at  top.     (See  section,  fig.  37.) 

































The  east  pillar     9     „   5 
„    west     ,,      11     ,,   0 





V— ? — ? — ¥ — ¥ — ?^-^ 

Fig.  37.  Tyre-bagger,  or  Standing  Stones  of  Dycc.    Sectional  Views. 

Those,  two  j^rcat  stones  arc  very  dissimilar  in  form.  See  the  various 
views  (figs.  40,  41,  42). 

The  vertical  height  of  the  Recum})ent  Stone  can  he  stated  with 
some  certainty.  Its  present  measurahle  sides  show  that  (a)  its  upper 
edge;  is  now  4  feet  phnnh  ahove  the  hedding  of  small  stones  (see  sec- 
tion, hg.  38,  and  view  from  the  west,  fig.  39)  ;  that  {h)  its  under  side 
from  edge  to  ground  is  6  feet  5  inches  wide ;  and  that  (r)  its  outer  side 
or  hack  is  10  feet  6  inches  wide.  If  *  restored  '  and  set  cm  its  edge  ver- 
tically, with  2  feet  depth  as  foundation,  wci  should  still  have  a  stone  of 
fully  8  feet  in  height — a  dimension  well  in  keei>ing  with  the  remarkahlc 
height  of  its  two  pillars  (see  tlie  two  views,  ligs.  40  and  41).  The 
eastern  end  of  its  edge  (or  top  If  *  restored ')  is  the  widest  portion,  and 


the  middle  is  rather  protiil)crant  and  rough.  The  material  is  a  darkish 
grey  granite,  not  so  fine-grained  as  that  just  described  in  the  Recumbent 
Stone  at  Seanhinny,  but  of  a  quite  different  species  from  that  of  any  of  the 
otli(!r  stones  in  the  circle,  most  of  which  appeared  to  me  to  l)e  reddish 
and  much  more  gritty.  The  Recum})ent  Stone  is  shown  in  Logan's  plate, ^ 
done  in  1822,  leaning  inwards  much  as  it  is  at  present.  This  stone 
being  s*)  much  out  of  the  grcnmd,  its  culiical  contents  am  Ije  more  fully 
gauged ;  and  its  computed  weight,  therefore,  of  nearly  24  tons  need  be 
no  matter  of  surprise.  In  my  view  of  the  circle  (fig.  42),  taken  from  as 
near  the  north  as  was  feasible,  the  two  short  thin  sla})s  (Stones  VI.  and 
VII.)  are  on  the  extreme  left. 

ii'iiii|'i'TMmiHMiniii|iiiii|i|i  iiii||i|i|i  II rr 

R  0  5  10  19  to  t5  30 

1  I  I  1 1  I 1 1 1 1 1 \raz. 

Fig.  38.  Tyre-bagger,  or  Standing  Stones  of  Dyce. 

CoiiclusiofL — The  first  result  o})tjiined  by  the  survey  here  recorded  is 
that  in  fifteen  of  the  stone  circles  still  possessing  features  sufficiently 
definetl  for  julmeasurcment,  three  distinct  types  are  exemplified  :  first,  the 
tyi>e  having  oidy  the  free-st-inding  pillar  stones,  as  Craighead,  Cairn- 
f judd,  and  Glassel ;  second,  the  type  comprising  the  pillar  stones  plus  one 
or  more  interior  stone-settings,  as  Cairnwell;  and  thirdly,  the  type^ 
wliich  is  characterised  by  the  most  striking  feature  of  the  Recum})ent 
Stone,  which  is  in  situ  at  Old  JJourtree  IJush,  AuclKpihorthies,  Raes  of 
Clune,  Garrol,  Esslie  (the  greater),  and  Tomnagom,  Midniar  Kirk,  Sean- 

^  Archasologuif  vol.  xxii.  p.  411. 

•'-*  Drawings  and  measurements  of  many  circles  of  this  type  in  Aberdeenshire  were 
made  so  long  ago  as  1S62  by  Dr  (now  Sir)  Arthur  Mitchell,  to  whose  note-books  I  am 
indebted  for  information  regarding  them. 










196  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,   JANUARY  8,   1900. 

hiniiy,  and  Tyrbagger,  and,  though  out  of  place,  visible  at  Esslie  tlie 
smaller,  if  we  include  the  Auld  Kirk  of  Tough  as  having  oidy  within  the 
last  twenty  years  or  so  b<M»n  liereft  of  its  Recuniljent  Stone,  it  is  evident 
that  this  tliiitl  type  is  the  type  of  this  district.  In  this  tliird  typical 
group,  also,  there  exist  remains  of  at  least  one  interior  stiuussetting.  The 
next  result  is,  tliat  in  the  circles  having  the  Recumbent  Stone,  the  |>osition 
nf  that  stone  varies  in  its  orientation  from  a  point  S.E.  of  tlie  c(»ntre  t«) 
S.  and  S.W.  Further,  its  position  in  relaticm  to  the  stones  on  the  cir- 
cumference is  variable.  In  the  greiit  Auchquhorthies  examjile  it  stands 
well  within  the  circumference ;  in  all  the  others,  unless  we  except  Plsslie 
(the  greater)  as  presenting  difficulties  not  now  lightly  to  l>e  explained, 
the  Kijcumlx'-nt  Stone  is  placed  on  the  circumference,  thougli  n«>t  always 
upon  st>  well-<letined  a  ridge  as  that  upon  which  the  free  stone.s  stand. 
Again,  tlie  intervals  l)etween  the  stones  are  far  from  regular ;  assurciUy, 
they  have  not  been  placed  with  exact  spacing,  such  a,s  would  have  l^een 
employed  if,  e.g.,  we  supiM)se  that  the  circles  were  erected  in  media* val 
times  or  by  people  influenced  by  p(»st-Konmn  science.  I  have  not 
yet  foun<l  any  intenti<mal  gaps  }>etween  any  two  stones,  for  instan<!C 
on  the  N.E.  arc '  or  the  S.W.  arc  ;  and,  in  a<ldition  U^  this,  these  cin'les 
exhibit  a  want  of  exactness  in  the  relation  of  the  two  stones  which 
mark  the  extremes  of  the  main  diametei-s.  These  diameters  are  in 
scarcely  any  instance  *  oriented'  to  any  point  of  the  compass  as  we  under- 
stand the  term.  For  even  in  such  examples  as  possess  two  stcmes 
pmctically  at  the  north  and  the  south  points,  the  line  between  them  so 
rarely  })isects  the  circle,  that  we  may  safely  conclude  that  the  position  of 
the  stones  was  accidental. 

Then^  does  exist  one  feature,  however,  in  several  of  the  circles  which 
the  measurements  of  this  survey  emphasise:  this  is,  that  the  stones  rise 
in  height  as  tln'y  approach  the  Recumbent  St<.)ne — a  feature  already 
noted  by  the  Rev.  James  Peter  in  the  circle  at  Aikey  Brae,  Old  Deer. 
(See  Proc,  xix.  p.  375.)     How  far  this  rise;  in  height  is  intentional,  and 

^  Mr  A.  L.  Liewis,  who  ha«  examined  many  stone*  circles,  claims  this  as  a  feature 
directly  connected  with  their  use  as  astronomical  observatories. 



^^*'  F^si&z-    it  is  regular,  are  moot  ix^ints,  perhaps ;  but  the  evidence  suggests 

^iit  4A  t    2i.nyrate  the  Recumbent  Stone  was  of  the  liighest  importance,  the 

*^Ur  fcs'toxies  nearest  being  usually  the  largest  and  most  prominent.    V^mi 

pi^eis^i      ^iieaning  or  purpose,  pmctical  or  symlnjlic,  governed  the  placing 

th:i.£^        |)articular  stone,  we  are  not  yet  in  a  i)08ition  to  explain;  and 

^^   t*Ac^<:jries>  already  so  lavishly  proi)ound<'d  appear  to  me  so  inter- 

'^*>ntrffx,^3.ictory,  and  the  majority  of  them  t<^  lie  built  ui)on  so  very  slim  a 

ound.i^-^-j^jjj   of  fact,   that   we  ris<*  from  a  perusal  uf  them,   interested, 

IKWsil-^Xjv^,  hut  not  convinced. 

^^      ^^^1)68  of  stone  circle  found  in  the  north-eastern  jxjrtion  of  Scotland 

*\V>       «^^  :^ter  all,  Imj  quite  distinct  from  the  types  of  those  existing,  say, 

"^^^^meijs  and  Perthshire,  or  in  (Jalloway;  and   without  comi)etent 

*^^^tion  we  caiuiot  assume   that  their  meaning  and  purpose   and 

^^  "t-^r  are  the  same  everywhere.     Yet,  so  far  as  direct  evidence  has 

^^-^^^"fctainetl  through  rightly  conducted  excavations,  the  outstanding 

^"^^    of  all  the  Scottish  stone  circles  that  have  been  thus  investigated 

,         ^  presence  within  them  of  interments  of  the  Bronze  Age.^     Any 

^  use   or   purpose   of    these    stone-encircled   areas   has   yet  to   be 

..  "^i  ,     And  I  would  submit,  that,  with  a  view  to  the  {iscertauiment  of 

.   I  ~^^  ^'er-ground  phenomena,'^  waiving  excavation  in  the  meantime,  the 

e     .  ^^">iethod  to  be  employed  is  to  institute  a  complete  survey  of  these 

I    .  -  -^"^uishing  remains,  in  onler  that  we  may  become  jwssessed  of  a  foun- 

^"^    of  facts  as  trustworthy  as  possible.     As  portions  of  this  subject 

which  we   still  want   definite   information,    we  may  state  these 

Maci'^^      ^  ^At  the  Recumbeut  Stoue  was,  c*/.,  the  lintel  of  the  doorway  to  a  broch  (MiHS 
au<l     --^^^"^^^n*8  Hill  Farts) ;  tliat  it  was  an  altar  upon  wliich  Druid  priests  offered  human 

ttfim  ^^,^-^icr  sacrifices (Stukeley,  Aubrey,  and  their  school) ;  that  the  circles  were  Viking 
Wa^-^  ^  ^^=5:8  of  (XUii  and  Courts  of  Jiutice  (MaccuUoch,  Hibbort,  llarry,  and,  alas  !  Sir 
HHim.      ^^^'  "^»Scott)  ;  that  they  are  but  tlic  rini-stoncs  of  Cairns  (Lukis) ;  tliat  they  were 

*        ^^^-  "^iples  and  observatories  (Lewis  and  other  writers). 
aVHJfc'Xr-     ^^«  l^*ve  no  record  of  any  excavation  having  been  made  in  seven  of  the  sites 
coi^^m^^       described.     But  regarding  eight  other  sites  in  whicli  excavation  was  rightly 
^^i^^s     ^^^  ^ted,  we  (lossess  distinct  descriptions  of  remains  fountl  ;   and  these  remains 
*%.         '^'te  burnt  burials,  sometimes  in  cists,  at  other  times  without  cists. 
"^^-cxie^tHrf  i/t  Pagan  Times, 




items :  Wliat  is  the  geograpliical  distribution  of  the  tnie  stone  circle, 
i.e.,  an  area  more  or  less  circular  enclosed  by  free  standing  pillar 
stones?  To  what  extent  do  circles  of  this  type  possess,  within  their 
area,  in  addition  (as  I  have  shown  many  in  the  district  under  notice  do 
possess),  one  or  more  Jipproxiniately  circular  stone  settings?  In  wliat 
proportion  to  tlie  simple  circles  of  free  standing  stones  do  the  circle* 
with  the  Recumbent  Stone  stand?  Is  the  interior  of  thcj  circle  sonie- 
times  on  a  higher  level  than  the  level  of  the  ground  outside  of  tlie 
pillar  stones,  as  notably  at  Craighead,  and  in  a  sjyecial  manner  at  Tomiia- 
goni  ?  Is  the  feature  of  the  rising  in  height  of  the  pillar  stones,  as  they 
approach  the  Kecuml)ent  Stone,  a  constant  one  ?  In  short,  we  require 
definite  information  on  the  mere  external  details  of  the  various  types  of 
stone  circles  to  such  an  extent  as  to  render  any  attempt  at  making  a 
proper  classification  of  them  at  present  impossible. 



3  ! 










Old  Bourtreebush 

Auchquliorthies  .    ' 

Cairn  well     .        .    ' 
CYaighead     . 
Raes  of  Cluiie 

Caimfauld    .        .    | 
Qarrol  Woo<l 

Esslie  (the  greater) 

Esslio  (the  smaller) 

Glassel .  . 

Auld  Kirk  of  Tough  I 


Midmar  Kirk 

Scanhinny    . 

Echt     ... 


Tyrebagger,  orDycc! 




DiametefK.        Peculiar  Features. 


100'  X  75'  Recumbent  SU>ne 

I  (on  S.E.) 

97'x74'«"  I  Recumbent  Stone 


30'  X  30'  Triple-concentric 

(?)  33'  X  24' 

75'x75'      I 

89'  X  73'6'' 



SO'  X  70' 




39'  X  -'JG' 

Kecumlient  Stone 
(on  S.) 

Recumbent  SU)ne     , 
(on  S.)  ' 

Recumbent  Stone 

(on  S.S.W.) 
Recumlient  Stone 

(on  S.S.W.)  I 

Reoumi>ent  Stone 
I  (i)robablyou  SS.W.) 

Recun)1>ent  St<>ne 
I  (on  S.W.) 

Recumbent  Stone     ; 
I  (on  S.W.) 

Recumbent  Sterne 

(on  S.W.) 
Several    circles    of 
set  s^me8  mm-con- 
centric  within  area 
Recumbent  Stone 

(on  S.W.) 

Recumlient  Stouc 

(on  S.W.) 

Relics  found. 

None  recorded 

Cist :  fragments  of  urn  and  cal-  I 

cined  bones 
Fragments  of  Ave  urns  and  frag    I 

ments  of  bones  and  charcoal 
No  record 
No  record 

Human  bones  in  the  centre 
None  recorded 

Remains   of   a   cist    and    uf       i 

human  remains 
Remains,  probably  of  a  cist  ' 

No  rect)rd  1 

No  reconi 

Remains  of  cist  extant 

No  record 

I)eiM)8it8  of  incinerated  hunes 

No  record,  and  site  almost  un. 

No  record,  interior  undisturlnrd 

No  record 



WILLIAM  FLEMING,  BY  KING  CHARLES  IL,  dated  at  Breda, 
22nd  May  1650.    By  A.  G.   REID,   F.S.A.  Scot. 

1  lately  purchased,  at  an  auction  sale  in  Edinburgh,  an  odd  volume, 
being  tlie  2nd  of  the  MUrellanij  of  the  Maitland  Club,  In  going  over 
the  Wigton  l^apers  in  that  volume,  I  discovered  an  original  pai)er  bear- 
ing the  8uperscrij)tion  of  King  Charles  II.,  entitled  "Instruction  for  S"^ 
WiUiam  Fleming,  Kn^".  "  Given  at  Breda,  fj-th  day  of  May  1650."  It 
is  of  considerable  historical  interest.  His  ^lajesty  states  that  he  had 
heard  a  report  of  a  fight  })etween  Lieutenant-(  teneral  David  Lesley  and 
the  Marquis  of  Montrose,  wherein  tlie  forces  of  tlie  ^larquis  were  totally 
routed  and  defeated ;  and  that  on  Sir  William  Fleming^s  arrival  in  Scot- 
land, if  he  should  find  this  to  be  the  case,  he  should  carefully  conceal  the 
letter  directed  to  the  Committee  of  P^states;  but  in  the  event  of  the 
news  being  untrue,  the  letter  should  be  delivered.  These  instructions 
do  not  form  part  of  the  AVigton  Pai)ers  published  in  the  Miscellany,  and 
so  far  as  known  have  not  })een  printed. 

Sir  James  Balfour  states^:  ** Saturday,  25th  May  1650:  A  letter 
from  the  King's  Majesty  to  Parliament,  dated  from  Breda,  12th  May 
1650,  showing  that  he  was  heartily  sorry  that  James  (5raham  had 
invaded  this  Kingdom,  and  how  he  had  discharged  him  from  doing  the 
same,  and  earnestly  desired  the  Estates  of  l^arliament  to  do  himself  that 
Justice  as  not  to  l^elieve  that  he  was  accessory  to  the  said  invasion  in 
the  least  degree, — reiid. 

"^Vlso  a  double  of  His  Majesty's  letter  to  James  (Jraham,  dated  15th 
of  May  1650,  conunanding  him  to  lay  down  arms  and  secure  all  the 
ammunition  under  his  charge, — read  in  tlie  house. 

'*The  House  remits  to  the  Committee  of  Despatches  to  answer  His 
Majesty's  letter  to  the  Parliament." 

*  Balfour's  Aatmlsy  vol.  iv.  p.  24. 


The  teruis  of  the  letter  from  the  King  to  the  Parliament,^  dated  18th 
May  1650,  are  quite  different  fn)ni  those  in  the  letter  of  the  12th  as 
given  by  Sir  James  Rilfoiir.  He  expresses  no  regret  that  ^Ioutros<»  has 
invaded  the  Kingdom,  and  he  tloes  not  disclaim  his  having  lM»en  accessory 
thereto.  He  merely  states  that  he  had  given  satisfaction  to  the  Commis- 
sioners, and  laid  the  foundation  of  a  happy  agreement  and  perfect  imder- 
standing  between  them  and  him  "  for  tlie  time  to  come,  Iwing  resolved  to 
cast  ourselfe  on  the  allections  of  that  our  ancient  Kingdom  of  Scotland, 
and  to  endeavour  the  good  and  peace  thereof  in  all  things  to  the  utter- 
most of  our  power,''  and  that  he  had  accordingly  given  orders  for  tlie 
disbanding  of  the  Forces,  and  for  their  withdrawing  out  of  the  Kingdom. 

Private  instructions-  were  given  to  Sir  William  Fleming,  dated 
19th  May  1650,  to  sec  Montrose,  and  if  the  prevailing  party  in 
Scotland  were  not  satisfied  with  the  concessions  he  had  granteil  to 
them,  that  Montrose  should  not  lay  down  arms;  that  if  His  ^lajesty's 
friends  in  Scotland  did  not  think  fit  that  ^lontrose  should  lay  down 
arms,  "then  as  many  as  can  may  repair  to  him,  and  if  Sir  William 
Fleming  should  see  if  the  ^fanpiis  have  a  considerable  numbi»r  of  men, 
and  if  he  have,  you  must  use  your  best  indevt^r  to  get  them  not  to  be 
disbanded,  but  if  Montrose  be  weke  then  he  should  disband." 

From  these  documents  it  is  clear  that  Sir  AVilliam  Fleming's  instruc- 
tions were,  if  he  found  ^Montrose  still  in  strength,  His  Majesty's  letter 
should  not  1)0  produced  to  Parliament,  but,  if  otherwise,  that  the  letter 
should  be  pr(Kluce<l. 

These  instru(;ti«ins  were  given  before  hciuing  of  the  discomfiture  of 
Montrose  at  Corbiesdale,  and  there  is  no  dubiety  about  their  imjwrt. 
Those  n«)w  exhibited  were  written  after  his  disiistrous  defeat,  and 
by  them  Sir  William  Fleming  was  carefully  instructed,  in  the  event 
of  bis  finding  the  news  to  be  true,  t»r  that  the  Marquis  should  not  Ik; 
within  the  Kiugilom  of  Scotland,  the  letter  to  Parliament  should  not  bo 
delivered  and   be  carefully  concealed  ;  but  that  if  he  foun<l   tlu'   news 

'   "  Wi^tou  PaiHjrs,"  MisctU>nt>f  of  Ih  Moithnol  Cli(h,  vol.  ii.  p.  478. 
'•'  **  Wigton  I*a|»ers,"  xli. 


iiiitnie,  .iiul  the  Marquis  in  coiiaidemble  force,  tlie  letter  should  be 
«l«livered  to  the  Parliament,  to  the  end  that  by  their  direction  Montrose 
might  1m»  induc(Ml  t<»  lav  down  arms,  nceoi*ding  to  his  express  onler  on 
tliat  Ixdialf. 

The  tenor  of  these  secret  instructions  api>eai's  contradictor  v.  Accoi-ding 
t:«  »  the  instructions  given  previous  to  the  news  of  Montrose's  defeat,  the 
1  cotter  to  Parliament  was  not  to  be  delivered  in  the  event  of  ^fontrose 
^  >«ing  able  to  hold  liis  own,  while  the  instructions  given  afti»r  his  <li8- 
<*<iniliture  were  that  it  should  Ik?  delivered  on  nf)  account  if  the  tidings 
*->f  his  defeat  should  prove  to  be  true. 

It  is  diflicult  to  reconcile  the  two  sets  of  instructions,  but  the  letter 
X  ^ow  exhil»ited  proves  that  Sir  William  Fleming  disobeyed  his  ultimate 
*->T<lcrs,  and,  notwithstanding  of  the  instructions  to  conceal  the  letter,  on 
^^nding  that  Montrose  was  routed,  it  was  produced  to  Parliament. 

It  seems  to  be  matter  of  inquiry  if  Sir  William  Fleming,  on  finding 
^lontrt»se  utterly  defeated,  and  subsequently  condemned  and  executed, 
^  lid  not  think  it  a  matter  of  worMIy  prudence,  in  conjiuiction  with  His 
^lajesty's  supjwrters  in  Scotland,  to  disreganl  His  Majesty's  ultimate 
^-jrders  to  pi-oduce  the  letter,  and  with  the  view  of  conciliating  the  party 
i  u  power,  disingenuously  to  disavow  the  authority  given  to  Montrose. 

The  followuig  is  a  copy  of  the  letter : — 

Charles  R. — Instruction  for  S*"  William  Fleming,  Kn^ 

As  scone  as  you  arrive  in  Scotland  you  shall  carefully  informe  yo^^  selfe  con- 
<3eming  the  Report  that  is  lately  come  hither  of  a  fight  betweene  L^  Q'rall  David 
Xiealey  and  the  Marquis  of  Montrose,  wherein  (as  it  is  said)  the  forces  of  the 
^«aid  Marquis  were  totally  routed  and  defeated,  and  if  you  find  the  same  to  be 
Urue,  or  that  he  be  not  in  the  Kingdome  of  Scotland,  then  our  pleasure  is  that 
>'ou  doe  not  deliver  our  Letter  directed  to  the  Parliam^  or  Committee  of 
i^^tates,  but  that  you  carefully  conceale  the  same,  and  do  not  communicate  it  to 
€*ny  i)erson  whatsoever.  But  if  upon  enquiry  you  find  that  either  there  hath 
>>ecn  no  such  tight,  or  that  notwithstanding  the  same,  the  forces  of  the  said 
^larquis  of  Montrose  are  still  in  a  considerable  IxkIv,  you  are  then  to  deliver 
t..bc8riid  lictter  to  the  Parlia"*^  to  the  end  that  by  their  direction  therein,  the 
**aid  Marquis  of  Montrose  may  l>e  induced  to  lay  downc  amies  iiumediatly, 
^According  to  our  ex]>re8se  order  in  that  I>eholfe.  IJiven  at  Breda,  the  *f  Hi»«  day 
«.>f  May  HmO. 

The  document  is  in  the  handwriting  of  an  amanuensis,  with  tlie  cxcep- 


tion  of  an  interlineation,  "  or  that  he  be  not  in  the  Kingdome  of  Scot- 
land," which  is  holograph  of  tlie  King. 



Although  the  existence  of  the  large  and  imjwrtant  earth-house  at 
l*itcur  has  been  known  to  this  Society  for  many  years,  the  Society's 
volumes  of  Proceedings  contjiin  as  yet  no  representtition  of  the  place.  It 
is  for  this  reason  that  T  now  submit  a  brief  description  of  this  interesting 
structure,  illustrated  by  a  carefully-executed  diagram  of  its  ground  plan,^ 
with  some  sectional  views. 

It  is  situated  in  a  field  on  the  farm  of  Pitcur,  2J  miles  south-east  of 
Coupar- Angus,  and  it  is  locally  known  as  *The  Cave.'  Access  to  it  may  be 
obtained  either  by  entering  a  gate  on  the  east  side  of  the  public  road 
opposite  the  ancient  tower  and  modern  farm-house  of  Pitcur ;  or  other- 
wise it  may  be  approached  from  the  south  side  of  the  farm-house  of 
*  Leys  t)f  Ilallyburton,' which  is  only  a  few  hundred  yanls  from  *The 
Cave.'  A  protective  post-and-wire  fence  marks  the  spot ;  and  that  por- 
tion of  the  structure  which  is  still  roofed  over  is  further  safeguarded  by 
having  a  locked  door  at  its  entrance  {r  in  the  ground  plan),  the  key  of 

which  is  kept  by  the  lodge-keeper,  at  the  main  entnmci^  to  llaliyUaiton 
House.     Visitors  to  the  *  Cave '  will  therefore  hmx  in  mind  Uiat  the  iipsl 
stop  is  to  obtain  the  key,  if  the  original  appearnuce  of  the  building  bt  to  b 
lu-operly  understood  ;  for  the  greater  part  of  thf  eartli-hou^e  is  a  cumiJfii- 
wreck,  and  only  the;  roofed-in  portion  remains  luuiltere*?  "' —  "' 

It  will  be  seen  from  tlie  ground  plan  (iig.  1)  that  * 
longer  and  ui»>ri'  varied  than  most  of  its  congene 

'  The  oriontatiou  of  the  «{rouii(l  )ilan  is  obtained  from 
vcy  :  Tor   wliicli   I  have   to   cx|ii-css   my  indebtedness  to 

Ikecliwood.  ( .'oiij)<ii  -Angus. 





Cross  section,  a—b. 

Doorway  at  tf. 

Entrance  to  covered 
IK>rtiou  at  r. 

Elevation  and  section 
of  recess  at  c» 

o        K       to 

Scale  ^  Ret 


Fig.  1.  Ground  Plan  and  Sections  of  Earth-House  at  Pitcur,  Forfarshire. 

208  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,  JANUARY  8,    1900. 

The  Pitciir  earth-house  had  at  least  three  separate  entrances,  namely, 
at  the  j)oints  //,  t,  and ./.  The  subsidiary  room  appears  also  to  have  had  an 
independent  connection  with  the  outside  world,  at  the  ^loint  </,  ajid  per- 
ha|)s  also  at ./',  thou^li  tlie  latter  may  only  mark  a  fireplace  or  air-hole, 
for  the  condition  of  the  ruin  makes  it  difficult  for  one  to  speak  with 
certainty.  The  entrance  at  »,  wliich  slopes  rapidly  downwanl,  is  roofed 
all  the  way  to  </;  and  consequently  this  short  passage  remains  in  its 
orij^inal  suite. 

Within  the  covered  i)ortion,  and  quite  ne^ir  its  entrance,  a  well-built 
recess  (^  in  the  plan)  seems  clearly  to  have  l>een  used  as  ji  fireplace, 
although  the  orifice  which  ju'csumably  once  connected  it  with  the  upper 
air  is  now  covered  over.  Another  and  a  smaller  recess  in  the  covero<l 
portion  (/r  in  the  plan)  can  hai'<lly  have  Ix^en  a  fireplace,  and  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  know  what  it  was  used  as. 

One  other  point  of  int(»rest  is  the  presence  of  two  cup-marked  stones 
(p  and  7  on  the  i)lan).  Of  these,  the  former  is  lying  isolate<l  on  the 
surface  of  the  ground  near  the  entrance  i,  while  the  latter  forms  one  of 
th(»  wall  stones  ])cside  the  doorway  c.  Curiously  enough,  the  two  cuj)- 
marked  stones  in  the  earth-house  at  Tealing,  in  th(»  same  county  of 
Forfar,  occupy  exactly  similar  jKJsitions.  The  j)resence  of  these  cuj>- 
iiiarked  stones  at  l^itcur,  however,  is  only  mentioned  here  as  a  necessary 
iletail  of  th(?  description.  For,  as  Dr  Anderson  remarks^  in  connection 
with  the  stones  at  Tealing,  such  cup-marked  stones  are  found  in  various 
situations,  and  their  occurrence  in  connection  with  that  earth-house 
"  has  tlicrefore  no  special  significance  witli  respect  to  the  age  of  the 
structure,  and  there  is  nothing  in  the  association  or  the  circumstanctis  in 
wliich  they  occur  in  this  ])articular  instance  winch  contributes  to  our 
knowledge  of  the  puri)osc  or  significance  of  the  markings  themselves. 
They  may  or  may  nr>t  have  ]>een  scul])tured  on  the  stone  l)efore  it  was 
taken  to  form  part  of  this  underground  gallery."  These  observations, 
made  with  reference  to  the  cu])-niarked  stones  at  Tealing,  are  equally 
a]>]>licable  to  those  at  Pitcin'. 

i  ScoUandin  Paffm  Timrs :  Tlu- Irtm  Ay\  Kdiuburgh,  1883,  pp.  299-300. 

210  PROCEEDINGS  Otf  THfc  SOCIETY,  JANUARY  8,   1900. 

1  mile  north  of  Mudhall ;  ^  one  at  Ruthven,  5  miles  north-east  of  Cou par- 
Grange  ;  *^  five  at  Airlie,^  2  miles  north-east  of  Ruthven,  of  which  one  still 
survives,  thanks  to  the  care  of  a  former  Earl  of  Airlie,  who,  at  the  time 
of  its  discovery  in  the  latter  part  of  last  century,  inserted  a  special 
clause  in  the  lease  of  the  farm  on  which  it  is  situated,  stipulating  that 
the  tenant  in  all  time  coming  should  be  bound  to  do  no  damage  to  the 
earth-house ;  "*  and  lastly,  there  was  an  earth-house  at  Meigle,  4  miles 
north  of  Pitcur,  of  which  a  portion  is  believed  yet  to  exist  within  the 
grounds  of  the  manse.^ 

Thus  the  Pitcur  earth-house  and  the  specimens  at  Tealing  and  Airlie, 
altogether  only  three  in  number,  are  the  only  survivors  of  a  scattered 
group  of  about  twenty,  which  have  been  discovered  at  various  times 
during  the  last  four  or  five  generations.  Special  precautions  have  pre- 
served the  Airlie  specimen  intact,  and  that  at  Tealing  appears  to  have 
been  fairly  well  looked  after.     It  is  a  matter  of  regret  tliat  the  Pitcur 

with  rough  whinstones.  In  their  length  they  were  not  straight,  but  a  portion  of 
a  circle.  It  would  seem  that  they  had  been  roofed  with  wood,  and  covered  above 
with  earth  and  turf."*  The  foregoing  is  extracted  from  an  unpublished  MS.  of  the 
late  Rev.  George  Brown,  minister  of  Bendochy,  with  reference  to  which  his  son,  the 
Rev.  James  Brown,  Elchies,  Morayshire,  observes  (2nd  January  1900):  *' There 
were  no  traces  of  these  '  earth-houses  *  left  by  the  time  my  father  became  minister  of 
Bendochy.  In  his  MS.  he  distinctly  states  that  the  discovery  was  made  on  the 
estate  of  Miul/tall.  As  to  the  Coupar-Grange  affair,  I  rather  think  it  was  a  different 
building  entirely.  At  least  Pennant's  description  of  the  remains  in  his  Second 
Tour  points  that  way."  It  may  be  explained  that  Coupar-Grange  lies  about  1 
mile  to  the  north  of  Mudhall.  It  is  therefore  quite  possible  that  the  earth-house 
referred  to  in  Pennant's  Tour  7nay  have  been  one  of  those  on  Mudhall.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  fact  that  Coupar-Grange  is  specified  seems  to  indicate  that  the  weem 
was  situated  within  the  lands  of  Coupar-Grange. 
^  See  preceding  note. 

*  "  In  a  brae  south  of  the  Kirk  of  Ruthven  there  vxis  a  weem,"  says  Dr  Marshall 
{Hi'sforic  Scenes  in  Forfarshire,  p.  153). 

^  Dr  Anderson  {Scotland  in  Pagan  Times:  The  Iron  Age,  p.  292)  specifies  "a 
group  of  five,"  four  of  which  appear  to  have  been  obliterated  during  recent  times. 

*  For  accounts  of  this  weem  see  the  Society's  Proceedings^  vol.  v.  pp.  352-355,  and 
Plate  XXI.  ;  also  The  Antiquary  for  July  1898  (Elliot  Stock,  London). 

^  This  I  was  informed  some  years  ago  by  a  local  worthy,  who  stated  that  the  weem 
crossed  the  present  road  in  front  of  the  manse,  but  had  been  greatly  destroyed  at  the 
time  the  road  was  made  or  modified. 



DfiSCRlPTlON   01?  AN   EARtlt-IlOUSfi  At   PtTCUtJ.  21 1 

^rt.lx-liou8e,  which  is  of  much  greater  importance  in  size  and  character, 
should  have  undergone  so  much  destruction  since  its  discovery;  but 
ther-^  i  *3  at  least  this  consolation,  that  the  small  portion  of  it  which  has 
esca- j>^^cl  ruin  is  now  carefully  safeguarded  by  the  proprietor. 

'^ix^crc  the  above  paper  was  read,  several  interesting  facts  have  come 

^  ^"*-y    laiowledge.     Acting  upon  the  suggestion  of  Dr  Anderson,  I  placed 

mya^ljf    in  communication  with  Mr  A.  Granger  Heiton,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  son 

^'  ^Xx*     John  Granger,  tenant  of  the  farm  of  Pitcur,  who  was  at  the 

exp^i:!.^^  of  excavating  the  earth-house,  or  a  portion  of  it,  at  the  time  of 

its  discovery  in  1878. 

,    '  ^'*x«  objects  found  by  him,"  writes  Mr  Heiton,  "  were  (1)  a  small  red  clay 

^^^  o:^  Samian  ware  in  pieces,  afterwards  put  together  and  found  to  be  com- 

r*^^^    »       (2)  a  Roman  com.     One  or  two  other  coins  were  reported  as  having 

^®*V^"Oimd,  but  were  not  seen  by  him.     These  two  articles  were  the  only  ones 

j?^**^J^    \)y  members  of  my  family.  ...     I  am  of  oninion  that  our  knowledge  of 

^f^^J^^^xlding  could  and  should  be  greatly  increasea  by  a  systematic  examination 

pj^     ^^  ^oil  in  and  around  the  builoing  ;  the  soil  never  havinjg  been  sifted.    The 

^^l*^*'i^tor  would  doubtless  give  permission  if  approached  in  the  name  of  the 

^V-irther  learned  from  Mr  Heiton  that  the  earth-house  described  in 

^^      X^S^s  is  quite  sejmrate  and  distinct  from  that  Pitcur  earth-house,  a 

"^^^^^Xi  of  whose  contents  was  given  to  the  Museum  as  far  back  as  13th 

-^       1863.^     Hitherto,  having  been  unaware  of  the  fact  that  the  large 

^^  —  ^ouse  had  not  been  discovered  until  1878,  1  had  assumed  tliat  the 

,        ^^       in  the  Museum  had  come  from  it  instead  of  from  the  structure 

*~^-    had  been  unearthed   fifteen  years  earlier.     With  regard  to  this 

^  — ^^ouse  last  referred  to,  Mr  Heiton  writes : — 

chi^,^^^t^^  to  the  other  find  on  the  farm  [of  Pitcur],  I  have  heard  of  an  underground 
on^^^^^^^^r  having  been  discovered  in  a  sandy  knoll  in  a  field  called  Ballo-field, 
Bal'i^^^^  S.W.  of  the  farm,  and  just  below  the  road  leading  between  Pitcur  and 
^gix^^^^  larms.  Mr  Hood  [who  presented  the  relics  to  the  Society  in  1863]  was 
jjft,^^?^^^'^  of  Pitcur  at  that  time,  but  I  only  heard  of  the  discovery  fifteen  years 
^(^^w  ^t  took  ^lace,  when  all  trace  had  disappeared,  and  only  the  vague  descrip- 
^^^  the  grieve  who  was  at  the  discovery  was  to  be  obtained." 

'^^T  Society,  therefore,  does  not  at  present  ])ossess  any  relics  from  the 

^>.     ^«e  p.  244  of  Catalogue:  HD,  (1,  2)  fragments  of  red  embossed  lustrous  ware, 
^        ^tut  chip,  (4)  bodkin  of  bone,  found  along  with  iron  implements. 


earth-house  described  in  the  foregoing  pages ;  but  by  the  favour  of  Mr 
W.  D.  Graham  Menzies  of  Hallyburton  and  Pitcur,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  bowl 
found  in  1878  has  been  sent  for  exliibition,  and  a  representation  of  it  is 
now  here  figured,  elucidated  by  a  description  from  the  pen  of  Dr  Joseph 

[The  Samian  lx)wl,  wliich  has  been  reconstructed  so  far  as  the  pieces 
fit  togetlier  and  is  shown  in  fig.  4,  is  8  inches  in  diameter  and  5  inches 
high.  It  is  of  the  usual  form  of  these  bowls,  with  ornamentation  in 
relief,  having  a  rounded  lip,  underneath  which  is  a  plain  band  1 J  inches 
in  depth.  Under  the  plain  band  is  the  usual  band  of  festoon  and  tassel 
ornament.  Below  this  on  the  round  of  the  lower  part  of  the  )x)wl  is  a 
band  of  ornament  in  relief  arranged  in  panels  or  spaces  separated  verti- 
cally by  wavy  lines.  These  panels  are  wider  at  the  top  than  at  the 
bottom,  in  conformity  with  the  rounded  shape  of  the  bowl,  and  are  also 
of  different  widths.  In  the  first  panel  to  the  left  (as  shown  in  fig.  4), 
which  is  subdivided  across  the  middle  of  its  height,  there  is  in  tlie  upper 
part  a  bird  within  a  medallion,  and  Ijelow  it  a  hare.  Below  the  hare  are 
two  small  circles  in  relief.  In  the  next  panel,  which  is  not  subdivided, 
is  a  standing  figure  nude,  and  bearing  a  pabn  branch  in  the  right  hand. 
Underneath  is  a  dog  at  speed.  The  tliird  panel  is  a  repetition  ,of  the 
first.  The  fourth  is  double  the  width,  and  contains  at  the  top  a  lion  in 
the  act  of  springing,  enclosed  in  a  half  circle ;  underneath  is  the  sub- 
division of  the  panel  by  a  row  of  five  small  circles  between  two  Iwrtlcrs 
of  wavy  lines.  In  the  lower  sulxlivision  of  the  panel  is  another  lion  also 
about  to  leap.  The  fifth  panel  repeats  the  first  and  third.  In  the  sixth 
panel  is  another  standing  figure  nude,  tluj  upper  part  broken  away. 

With  this  bowl  there  are  fragments  of  at  least  two  other  Samian  Iwwls 
and  a  portion  of  the  lip  of  a  vessel  of  tlie  ordinary  coarse  native  pottery.] 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  both  in  tlic;  earth-house  discovered  in  1863 
— of  which,  unhappily,  no  trace  now  survives — and  in  the  large  earth- 
house  still  existing,  there  were  found  fragments  of  *  Samian'  ware. 
Specimens  of  this  ware  were  also  found  in  the  earth-houses  of  Tealing 
and  Fithie,  both  in  Forfarshire ;  and  thus  there  are  four  underground 








sites  on  record,  in  this  one  county,  in  which  this  particular  ware  has  been 

Unfortunately,  the  Roman  coin  which  was  picked  up  at  the  same  time 
as  the  bowl  has  been  lost  sight  of ;  temporarily,  it  may  be  hoped.  Nor 
does  there  appear  to  be  any  trace  of  the  "one  or  two  other  coins 
reported  as  having  been  found." 

It  would  furtlier  seem  that  Mr  Granger's  excavation  of  1878  was  only 
partial,  followed  afterwards  by  supplementary  excavation  on  the  part  of 
the  late  proprietor,  Mr  R.  Stewart  Menzies,  M.P.,  with  the  result  that 
many  more  objects  were  exhumed.  The  Hally burton  forester,  who 
superintended  these  later  excavations,  speaks  of  "  a  bronze  pin,"  as  well 
as  of  a  quantity  of  "  stones,  beads,  etc.,"  all  taken  from  this  earth-house. 
And  Sir  Arthur  Mitchell,  who  visited  the  place  in  company  with  the  late 
proprietor,  and  who  saw  the  whole  collection  of  objects  recovered,  retains 
the  impression  that  these  numl)ered  from  one  to  two  hundred,  "  many,  of 
course,  fragments,  and  many  of  no  value."  The  numerous  articles  thus 
indicated  by  Sir  Arthur  Mitchell  and  the  Hallyburton  forester  seem  to 
have  been  mislaid — it  is  hoped  not  irretrievably — some  time  after  the 
death  of  the  late  Mr  Stewart  Menzies. 

[The  Society  is  indebted  to  Mr  MacRitcliie  for  the  use  of  the  blocks 
of  the  ground  i)hm,  and  interior  views  of  the  Earth-House.] 



SHIRE.     By  THOMAS  WALLACE.  F.S.  A.  Scot. 

1.  On  the  farm  of  Moray  town,  in  the  parish  of  Dalcross,  Inverness- 
shire,  on  the  19th  June  1899,  a  stone  cist  was  discovered  during  agricul- 
tural operations.  It  measured  4  feet  3  inches  by  2  feet  2  inches,  and 
consisted  of  four  large  slalis  of  sandstone  peculiar  to  the  district.  One 
of  the  side  slabs  had  fallen  outwards,  causing  the  covering  slab,  which 
was  of  unusual  size,  to  fall  into  the  grave. 

It  contained  a  skeleton  very  much  decomposed,  but  sufficient  remained 
to  show  the  position  of  the  body,  which  lay  doubled  up  with  the  head  to 
the  north.  Portions  of  the  skull  and  of  the  thigh  and  leg  bones  were 
distinguishable.  Although  a  careful  search  was  made,  no  implements  or 
ornaments  were  found. 

2.  On  the  21st  of  June  1899,  a  little  to  the  east,  a  second  cist  was 
found  of  similar  structure.  In  this  case  the  skeleton  was  remarkably 
well  preserved,  and  lay  doubled  up  with  the  head  to  the  east.  The  skull 
was  well  formed  and  of  the  Brachycephalic  type,  with  teeth  well  pre- 
served. Tliree  small  flat  jet  beads,  but  no  imj)lements,  were  found. 
The  skull  was  preserved. 

In  grave  No.  1  the  body  lay  on  the  right  side,  while  in  No.  2  it  lay  on 
the  left. 

3.  On  the  same  evening,  21st  June,  a  little  to  the  east  of  grave  No.  2, 
a  circular  pit,  built  with  water- worn  stones,  was  discovered.  It  was  in 
shape  like  an  inverted  bee-hive,  and  not  quite  circular,  as  the  diameter 
varied  from  30  to  34  inches.  From  the  floor  of  this  chamber  an  arched 
passage  built  of  the  same  kind  of  stones  extended  8  feet  to  tlie  west  and 
ended  in  a  chamber  39J  inches  by  30^  inches.  The  height  of  the 
arched  passivge  at  the  east  end  was  17  inches,  and  at  the  west  26  inches ; 
and  about  18  inches  wide. 

In  the  circular  chamber  were  found  shells  of  the  oyster,  mussel,  and 



cockle,  with  bones  of  some  large  bird,  and  of  a  small  animal,  possibly  the 
rabbit,  along  with  several  jaws  of  some  carnivorous  animal,  perhaps  the 

Much  credit  is  due  to  Mr  Macdonald  for  the  great  care  he  took  to 
have  the  remains  thoroughly  examined. 

Mr  Macdonald  possesses  an  iron  axe  of  peculiar  shape  (fig.  1),  found  on 

Fig.  1.  Iron  Axe  of  peculiar  shape  found  at!  Moray  town. 

the  same  farm  in  1876  ;  and  a  stone  axe  (fig.  2),  7  by  4}  inches,  said  to 
have  been  found  at  Culbin  Sands  ;  although  there  can  be  little  doubt  of 
its  having  come  from  the  West  Indies,  as  it  is  evidently  of  the  special 
form  peculiar  to  the  Caribbean  area.  He  also  possesses  a  steel  implement 
found  at  Alves  in  1885,  at  the  place  where  Cumberland  rested  on  his 
way  to  Culloden.     The  iron  axe  cannot  be  very  old,  but  the  peculiar 


hook    shape  of  the  cutting  part  makes  it   interesting.     The  edge,  of 
course,  is  on  the  side   away  from  the   handle.     It  could  not  well  be 

Fig.  2,  Stone  Axe  said  to  have  been  found  on  Culbin 
Sands,  but  probably  Caribbean. 

used   as  a  hook.     The  steel  implement  may  have  been  the  point  of  a 
lance,  or  the  top  of  a  pole  to  which  a  standard  had  been  fixed. 

218  PROCBEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,   FEBRUARY  12,   1900. 

Monday,  I2tk  February  1900. 
Mr  gilbert  GOUDIE  in  the  Chair. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  ordinary  business  : —   . 

The  meeting  resolved  to  record  its  sense  of  the  great  loss  the  Society 
has  sustained  in  the  recent  death  of  its  President,  The  Marquess  of 
Lothian.  Elected  as  President  of  the  Society  in  1876,  his  Lordship  held 
that  office  without  intermission  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century,  continu- 
ing during  that  long  period  to  take  a  warm  interest  in  all  its  affairs  ; 
and  to  the  influence  which  he  exerted,  and  the  sagacious  advice  he  was 
ever  ready  to  give,  the  present  prosperous  condition  of  the  Society,  as 
well  as  that  of  the  National  Museum  under  its  charge,  may  in  a  great 
measure  be  ascribed. 

In  the  latter  part  of  Lord  Lothian's  Presidency,  the  value  of  his 
counsel  and  guidance  was  specially  conspicuous  in  promoting  the  success 
of  the  long  and  arduous  efTorts  of  the  Society  to  obtain  from  Government 
adequate  accommodation  for  the  Museum,  which  had  far  outgrown  the 
space  originally  assigned  to  it  in  the  Royal  Institution  ;  and,  subsequently, 
when  that  accommodation  had  been  sujiplied  by  the  generous  gift  to  the 
nation  by  the  late  Mr  John  Ritchie  Findlay  of  this  spacious  building,  in 
obtaining  tlie  niean.s  to  provide  for  the  adecpiate  exhibition  of  this 
Collection  and  for  the  maintenance  of  tlie  increased  staff.  More  recently 
the  Society  was  again  inde])ted  to  Lord  Lothian  for  his  servicer  in 
securing  an  annual  grant  from  the  Treasury  for  purchases  for  the 
Museum  and  the  Library  attachwl  to  it ;  and  in  successfully  defending 
the  claim  of  our  National  Museum  to  the  first  choice  in  the  purchase  of 
articles  specially  ai»pertaining  to  Scotland. 

But  it  wjis  not  only  in  the  Inisiness  of  the  Society  that  Lord  Lothian's 
influence  as  an  arclueologist  was  beneficially  exercised.  He  took  an 
intelligent  interest  in  the  science  of  archaeology,  and  he  showed  an 
example   which   it   would  be   well    that  others   should   follow,  in    the 


judicious,  careful,  and  cautious  manner  in  which  he  renovated  and  re- 
paired the  Abbey  of  Jedburgh,  excavated  the  Roman  remains  at  Oxnam, 
uncovered  and  marked  out  the  foundations  of  the  Abbey  Church  at 
Newbattle,  and  cleared  away  the  modem  obstructions  that  veiled  or  hid 
the  remains  of  the  Abbey  buildings  within  the  house. 

The  many  important  services  rendered  by  Lord  Lothian  during  his 
long  tenure  of  office  were  all  the  more  appreciated  from  his  unfailing 
loyalty  to  the  interests  of  the  Society,  and  the  frank  and  genial  manner  in 
which  he  discharged  the  duties  of  the  Presidentship. 

The  meeting  likewise  resolved  to  record  its  great  regret  at  the  unex- 
pected death  of  Dr  James  Macdonald,  one  of  tlie  most  distinguished 
Fellows  of  the  Society.  Dr  Macdonald  showed  the  archaeological  bent 
of  liis  mind  at  an  early  period  of  his  busy  professional  career  by  under- 
taking, in  1860,  the  superintendence  of  the  excavation  of  Burghead  on 
behalf  of  the  Elgin  Literary  and  Scientific  Society,  and  by  writing  the 
admirable  historical  notice  of  the  place  and  description  of  the  excava- 
tions which  appears  in  the  fourth  volume  of  our  Proceedings,  In  1874, 
when  Rector  of  the  Ayr  Academy,  Dr  ^Macdonald  became  a  Fellow  of  the 
Society,  and  was  subsequently  transferred  to  the  Rectorship  of  the  Kelvin- 
side  Academy,  on  his  retirement  from  which  he  had  leisure  to  devote 
himself  with  greater  ardour  to  antiquarian  pursuits.  In  1890  he  became 
a  member  of  the  Council  of  the  Society,  from  1893  to  1896  he  held  the 
office  of  Vice-President,  and  afterwards,  till  his  lamented  death,  acted  as 
one  of  the  Foreign  Secretaries.  In  all  these  positions  Dr  Macdonald's 
sagacious  counsel  was  highly  valued  ))y  his  colleagues,  to  whom  he  was 
also  endeared  by  the  charm  of  a  singularly  gentle  and  amial)le  disposition. 
Their  appreciation  of  his  extensive  and  accurate  knowledge  of  Roman 
Uterature  and  antiquities  in  particular,  was  evidenced  by  his  ai)pointment 
to  the  Rhind  Lectureship  for  1897  on  the  Roman  Occupation  of  Scotland, 
and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  work  founded  on  his  course  of  lectures, 
upon  which  he  had  been  engaged  for  some  years,  is  sufficiently  advanced 
for  publication. 

The  Secretaries  were  instructed  to  forward  copies  of  these  resolutions 

220  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,   FEBRUARY   12,   1900. 

to  The  Marchioness  of  Lothian  and  to  Mrs  Macdonald,  from  whom  the 
following  replies  have  been  received : — 

Nkwbattle  Abbey,  21«t  February  1900. 

Sir, — I  have  received  the  copy  of  the  Minute  recordinff  the  feelings  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  at  the  death  of  Lord  Lothian. 

I  would  ask  you  to  assure  the  members  of  the  Society  that  I  have  received 
most  gratefullv,  and  value  most  highly,  this  expression  of  the  esteem  in  which 
they  held  Lord  Lothian.  I  am  very  glad  to  remember  the  details  of  those  ser- 
vices which  Lord  Lothian  delighted,  I  know,  to  render  to  the  cause  for  which 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries  labours ;  and  to  possess  the  testimony  of  such  a  bodv 
to  the  manner  in  which  he  advanced  the  cause  of  Archaeology  generally.  Such 
a  record,  so  kindly  made  by  your  Society,  shall  always  be  gratefully  cherished 
by  myself  and  my  family. — Believe  me,  faitlifully  yours, 

Victoria  A.  LoTHIA^^ 

To  D.  Christison,  Esq. 


19^^  February  1900. 

Dear  Sir, — I  am  desired  by  my  mother  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  letter 
of  16th  inst.,  inclosinc  copy  of  Minute  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotlajid, 
with  reference  to  my  late  father,  Dr  Macdonald.  She  begs  you  to  convey  her 
grateful  thanks  to  the  Society  for  the  kindly  and  appreciative  terms  of  their 
resolution.— Yours  faithfully, 

D.  W.  Macdonald. 

To  D.  Christison,  Esq. 

A  Ballot  having  been  taken,  the  following  Gentlemen  were  duly  elected 
Fellows : — 

William  Johnston,  M.D.,  Lt.-Col.  (retired),  Army  Medical  Staff, 

of  Newton  Dee,  Murtle,  Aberdeenshire. 
William  Lawrence  Taylor,  Broad  Street,  Peterhead. 

The  following  Donations  to  the  Museum  and  Library  were  laid  on 
the  table,  and  thanks  voted  to  the  Donors : — 

(1)  By  Robert  Shiells,  F.S.A.  Scot,  Neenah,  Wisconsin,  United 
States  of  America. 

Indian  Socketed  Spear-head  or  Knife  of  native  copper,  4^  inches  iii 
length  by  1 J  inches  in  breadth,  from  Neenah,  Wisconsin. 

Two  Luckenbooth  Brooches,  three  small  Pendant  Crosses  (of  the  shape 
shown  in  fig.  1),  a  Circular  Mounting  with  five   included  circles,  and 


eleven  small  Buckles,  all  cut  out  of  thin  sheet  brass,  found  together  in 
excavating  an  Indian   mound  at   Kaukauna,    Outagamie   Co.,  State  of^ 

Mr  Shiells  has  supplied  the  facts  for  the  following   account  of  the 
locality  and  circumstances  connected  with  the  discovery  of  these  curious 

Fig.  1.  Luckenbooth  Brooch  aud  Cross  found  in  an  Indian  nionnd.     (g.) 

reb'cs  of  the  old  intercourse  between  the  British  and  the  Indians.  Kaukauna 
is  on  the  Fox  River,  23  miles  W.  of  (xrecjn  Bay,  which  is  one  of  the  very 
oldest  settlements  in  North  America,  at  the  south  end  of  a  large  bay  of 
Lake  Michigan  and  the  moutli  of  the  Fox  River.  It  was  the  seat  of  a 
Jesuit  Mission,  and  a  depot  for  the  fur  traders.  The  river  was  the  high- 
way to  the  Mississippi.  Its  sources  are  on  the  south  side  of  the  water-shed 
of  Lake  Superior.  It  runs  in  a  southerly  course  to  the  city  of  Portage, 
where  it  turns  easterly  to  the  bay.  The  Wisconsin  River  pursues  a 
similar  course  to  Portage,  where  a  sliglit  water-shed  deflects  it  westerly 
to  the  Mississippi.  The  two  rivers  come  within  three  or  four  miles  of 
each  other  and  are  now  joined  by  a  canal.  The  Indian  traders  used  to 
take  their  canoes  up  the  Fox  River  by  Kaukauna  and  Xeenah  to  Portage, 
carry  them  over  the  slight  ridge,  and  go  down  the  Wisconsin  to  Prairie 
du  Chien  on  the  Mississippi.  Mr  P.  V.  Liwsun,  ex-Mayor  of  Menasha, 
has  written  an  account  of  the  circumsUmces  in  which  these  Luckenbooth 
brooches,  crosses,  and  other  trade  articles  came  to  be  ]>uried  in  the  Indian 
mounds  on  this  route.  The  method  of  obtaining  the  friendship  of  the 
Indian  tribes  during  the  occupation  of  the  French  and  English  was  by 
making  presents  to  the  savages.  By  lavish  gift-making  the  British  had 
the  strong  support  of  all  the  savage  tribes  of  the  north-west,  even  after 


the  treaty  of  1789,  and  up  to  and  all  through  the  war  of  1812.  From 
memoranda  found  in  the  Canadian  archives  it  appears  that  there  were 
given  to  a  chief  from  the  upper  country,  among  other  items:  "three 
hundred  brooches,  twelve  pair  ear-bobs."  In  1814,  in  the  official  list  of 
goods  sent  to  Green  Bay  for  distribution  were  "  eighteen  hundred  and 
seventy-four  brooches,  twelve  hundred  and  fifty  ear-bobs."  By  means  of 
such  gifts  nearly  every  tribe  in  the  great  north-west  fought  on  the 
British  side. 

(2)  By  Mr  Andrew  Law,  through  Mr  G.  L.  Soott  Elliot. 

Digging  Stone  of  purplish  steatite,  6J  inches  diameter,  perforated  by 
an  aperture  made  from  both  sides,  2  J  inches  diameter ;  and  Perforated 
Disc  of  yellowish  sandstone,  1^  inches  diameter,  both  from  Tanganyika, 
Central  Africa. 

Mr  Scott  Elliot  sends  the  following  account  of  the  Digging  Stone : — 
Mr  Andrew  Law,  for  a  long  time  stationed  at  Tanganyika  in  charge  of 
the  African  Lakes  Company's  post  there,  and  also  subsequently  in  various 
places  in  British  Central  Africa  in  forts  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  sent  this  to  me  through  tlie  kind  offices  of  Captain  Boileau,  R.E. 
Mr  Law  stated  that  this  stone  was  dug  up,  and  was  the  most  perfect 
that  he  had  ever  seen.  The  use  of  the  stone  was  not  known  to  the 
present  inha})itants  of  the  country,  and  Mr  I-aw  was  himself  not  aware  of 
the  manner  in  whicli  the  Bushmen  of  the  Kalahari  use  similar  instru- 
ments. It  seems  prohalJe  that  it  is  tlierefore  a  relic  of  the  former  occu- 
pation of  this  ])art  of  Africa  by  tribes  which  have  now  been  driven  into 
the  extreme  Soutli  l)y  the  advance  southwards  of  natives  allied  to  the 
Zulus.  A  stick  pushed  through  the  hole  would,  undoubtedly,  be  a  good 
instrument  for  levering  up  large  tubers  and  bull)s,  which  form  a  consider- 
able part  of  the  Buslimen's  food. 

(3)  By  ^Ir  W.  G.  Stewart,  Makarora,  New  Zealand. 

Rudely-made  Axe  of  jade,  4  inches  in  length  by  2J  inches  in  breadth 
and  I  inches  in  thickness,  from  Makarora,  Pembroke,  New  Zealand. 


(4)  By  Mr  Alex.  Bbll,  Gasworks,  Dalkeith. 

Stoue  Ball,  2^  inches  diameter,  found  at  Eldonhauj^h,  near  Melville 
Castle ;  Stone  Ball,  2^  inches  diameter,  found  netir  Straiton  ;  and  Perfor- 
iiteil  Stone  Disc,  rudely  triangular  in  outline,  3J  inches  by  2J  inches, 
found  in  Gala  Water. 

(5)  By  Dr  A.  P.  Aitken. 

Fragments  of  a  small  Cinerary  Urn,  found  at  I^swalt,  Wigtownshire. 

(6)  By  Mr  Jambs  Cameron,  Marlee,  Blairgowrie,  through  David 

Macritchie,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Three  Arrow-heads  and  a  Spear-head  of  chert,  3  J  inches  by  2^  inches, 
from  Nebraska,  U.S.A. 

(7)  By  Mr  John  Bertram. 

Medal,  in  copper,  of  the  Elgin  Marbles,  dedicated  to  George  IV. 

(8)  By  the  Misses  Drummond,  Royal  Crescent. 

Small  Luckenbooth  Brooch  in  gold,  heart-shaped,  |;  inch  in  diameter, 
set  with  garnets. 

(9)  By  T.  Watson-Greig,  of  Glencarse,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Banner  Pike-head,  25J  inches  in  length,  found  at  Dalchosnie,  Perth- 
shire. The  pike  is  four-edged  and  10  inches  long,  with  a  knol)  at  the 
lyase  and  straps  riveted  down  the  sides  of  the  shaft,  the  globular  heads 
of  the  rivets  pierced  with  holes  for  the  attachment  of  the  banner. 

(10)  By  F.  G.  Hilton  Price. 

A  Catalogue  of  the  Egyptian  Antiquities  in  the  possession  of  F.  G. 
Hilton  Price.     4to.     1897. 

(11)  By  C.  Sanford  Terry,  the  Author. 

Civil  War  Papers.     Extract  from  Ardiwoloyia  ^Eliana, 


(12)  By  Col.  Jambs  Allardyce,  LL.D. 

The  Strachans  of  Glcnkindie,  1357-1726.     4fco.     Printed  for  private 

(13)  By  Jambs  Curle,  Librarian. 

Das   I^  Tunc  Grabfeld  von  I^ngugest,  bci  Bilin  in  Bohmen,  von 
Robert  Hitter  von  Wcinzierl.     4to.     1899. 

There  were  Exhibited : — 

(1)  By  William  Buchan,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Bronze  Scabbard-Tip  of  Late-Celtic  type,  found  on  Glencotho  Farm, 
Peeblesshire.     [See  the  subsequent  paper  by  Mr  Buchan.] 

(2)  By  T.  Watoon-Oreig  of  Olencarse,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Scid  (impression)  of  James  Sharpe,  Archbishop  of  St  Andrews. 


By  JOHN  SINCLAIR,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Wc  may  question  if  in  the  whole  of  Scotland  there  is  one  sjwt  whicli 
is  better  known  or  more  deeply  impressed  with  tragic  associations  than 
the  lIolyroo<l  of  Mary  Stuart.  Not  only  to  our  own  countrymen  but 
to  the  English  speaking  nations  it  has  become  a  pilgrimage  of  never 
failing  interest ;  and  even  in  the  devotee  fix)m  foreign  lands  who  can 
only  mutter  the  words  '  Marie  Stuart '  as  he  finds  his  way  through  the 
old  Towers,  the  same  keen  sense  of  profound  interest  is  manifest.  The 
regal  2>alaces  of  Falkland,  I^inlitligow,  and  Stirling's  towering  stronghold 
have  each  their  tales  of  strife  and  roll  of  births  and  royal  Stuart  deaths, 
but  the  story  of  Mary  Stuart's  six  years'  misery  in  her  father's  Towers 
of  Holyrood  has  made  an  indelible  mark  in  Scottish  history. 


What  has  heen  often  designated  as  descriptive  treatment  of  James 
Fifth's  Towers  has  yet  left  us  without  one  thorough  exposition,  either  of 
their  external  elevation  and  varied  changes,  or  of  their  curious  and 
somewhat  intricate  interiors  in  which  so  many  historic  and  tragic  events 
have  occurred  Even  in  the  Prore&Hngs  of  this  Society  tliere  is  a  singu- 
lar paucity  of  that  exact  i)eriodical  tracing  which  we  expect  to  find  from 
the  study  of  such  a  deeply  interesting  pile.  We  may  except  from  this 
remark,  however,  the  lucid  description  of  the  ceiling  of  Queen  Mary's 
Audience  Chaml>er  hy  Henry  Laing,^  which,  strange  to  say,  has  never 
yet  found  its  way  out  of  the  volume,  not  even  into  the  pages  of  the 
official  guide.  It  is  hoped  that  an  initiatory  paper  such  as  this  may 
lead  the  way  to  a  further  investigation,  not  only  dealing  with  the 
Towers  as  they  stand,  but  with  the  unsolved  question  whether  they 
originated  with  James  Fifth  or  his  ill-fated  father. 

James  Fourth  was  married  to  Margaret  Tudor  in  1503  in  the  Ahhey 
of  Holy  rood,  and  there  was  some  sort  of  a  royal  palace  ready  to  receive 
her  then.  It  appears  that  although  Henry  S(iventh  had  long  i)roposed  the 
alliance,-  it  was  not  till  1502  that  the  royal  pair  were  formally  affianced ; 
and  part,  at  leiist,  of  the  palace  was  ready  in  1503,  as  devscrilxid  in  glowing 
terms  by  Jolin  Younger,  Somerset  Herald.-^  That  it  was  of  a  somewhat 
extensive  nature  there  is  clear  and  convincing  proof.  On  his  arrival,  we 
are  told,  after  Te  Deum  had  been  sung,  "  the  King  in  a  most  loving 
manner  conducted  the  Princess  out  of  the  church  through  the  cloistei's 

'  ProacdingSf  vol.  ix.  p.  381. 

'•*  About  1495.  Seo  Ty tier's  Sci)tlrinify  vol.  ii.  p.  261.  Rymer'a  Fcedera,  vol.  xii. 
p.  572.  Rymer,  vol.  xii.  p.  765,  gives  the  date  of  the  dispensation  for  the  marriage 
5th  August  1500.     See  Tytler,  vol.  ii.  p.  269.     Wilson,  vol.  i.  p.  25. 

'  HiiUary  of  Holyrood,  pp.  25  and  124.  That  there  were  apartments  for 
the  Stuart  kings  in  Holyrood  long  previous  to  this  is  beyond  any  doubt,  for  as 
early  as  1430  the  Queen  of  James  First  gave  birth  to  twin  sons  in  the  Abliey,  the  elder 
of  whom  died,  the  survivor  In-ing  James  of  the  Fiery  Face.  James  Third  made  it  his 
residence  almoMt  constantly  ;  then  followed  his  son  James  Fourth,  who  apt>ears  to  have 
much  frequented  the  Abl)ey,  and  received  there  the  liistoric  sword  presented  by 
Pope  Julius  II.,  which  forms  i>art  of  tlie  Regalia  of  Scotland  ;  but  seemingly  he  had 
become  convinced  that  the  offices  of  the  Canons  of  St  Augustine  were  not  suitable, 
and  hence  arose  the  first  royal  x^alace  to  receive  his  bride. 


226         rK<)cEEi>iN(;s  of  the  society,  februaky  12,  1900. 

Ut  her  apartments  in  the  ailjoining  pahice.  After  a  brief  space  the 
Princess  wits  hruu^ht  l)y  the  Kin«^  into  *the  CJreat  Hall/  where  she  was 
introdiUMMl  to  a  j^eat  conipjiny  of  hulies,"  etc.  ^ 

In  the  Treasurer's  Accounts  of  1502-3  mention  is  made  of  the  con- 
struction   of   *a  new   hall,'  the  construction  of   *the  galler}'  and 
windoes,'  and  the  *  turatis  of  the  for-yet/  which  *  turatis'  do  not  lead  u^ 
to   James  Fifth's  Towers,  l>ut   to  the  j^ateway  at  the  entrance   to  th»- 
jialace  yanl.     Then  we  have  note   of  *the  Queen's  great  Chamher/ 

*  the    King's   ( hatory,'   and   of    *  the  Queen's   Oratory  * ;    but  there 
nothing  Ui  bring  us  nearer  to  the  tliree  Towers.-     In  the  Liber  Car 
Sancf(v  Ci'uru  it  is  stated: — "After  his  treaty  of  marriage  with  Kii 
Henry  Seventh  for  the  youtliful  Tu<lor,  lie  set  (earnestly  to  work  for 
bigging  of  a  palace  l>eside  the  A])bey  of  the  Holy  Croce."* 

After  Flodden,  John,  Duke  of  Albany,  Wiis  recalled  from  France,  i 
in  1515  took  up  his  residence  in  Holyrotnl  and  continued  the  irnrl 
James  Fourth  which  had  b<»en  carried  t>n  till  his  death.'*     It  shoul^B^ 
here  noted  that  a  certain  Maister  lA)gy  is  mentioned  as  early  as  150 
receiving   paymtuit   for  **  aiding   and    toi)ping   the   chimnais,"   and 
'*com|»leting  of  the  *  toure '  in   llalyrudhous" ;  and  in  the  iirst  of  t.l 
years  a  grant  of  £[0  yearly  is  made  to  him  for  his  diligence   in.  "fcli* 

*  bigging'  o(  tlu'  palace  beside  the  Abbey  of  the  Holy  Croce.^ 

With  the  i^xeeption  of  the  faint  trace  we  have  in  I^)gy's  ])aymcnt^«^        '^^ 
completing  Mbe  toure,'  there  is  little  to  guide  us  to  a  solution  oJc  'tJ 

ipiestion     \Vt»re  the  Towers  which   are  named  after  Jame^  Fifth  im'M^        ai- 

'   Aivtnmt   of  Jolm    Vounucr,    SomocNot    Hi'ralil.     Hi:itonj  of  Ilofj/rood,      T '^ — 
LilamrN  ('.//Y.i '«..'.  vol.  i\ .  p.  'JSl*. 
-■  TnMMUA'r'N  Avvouiits.     /iist<>rt/  •■/  //•.»';  /•.'♦«/,  p.  124. 
'^-  O    WUsvui'n  r-'i-.h   r-ih.  vol.  i.  p.  •-•:».     LiW.\  Prvtac-e  58. 

•..',•.,.',,   p.    IS.     r.ranr,   \oI.    ii.   |».   62.      Uistoi-y  of  IF*^^ £f » 


shape  part  of  James  Fourth's  palace  ?     But  there  is  one  other  reference 

worthy   of  notice.     An   annalist,^   cited   in   the   preface   to   the  Liher 

Cartainim  Sandce  Ctttds,  records  that  "  the  Duke  of  Albany  committed 

the  Lord  Houme  in  1515  to  the  *auld  toure'  of  Holyrudhouss  which 

was  founded   by  the   said   Duke."^     Taken   in   conjunction   with   the 

records  of  Maister  Logy  and  the  Duke  of  Albany  as  to  the  *auld  toure/ 

^nd  looking  to  the  fact  of  the  jail  being  in  the  present  Towers  apparently 

^constructed  and  fitted  for  such  a  use,  and  having  all  the  appearance  of 

antiquity,  there  is  some  room  for  the  belief  of  those  who  argue  that  the 

powers  were  only  remodelled  and  extended  by  the  Fifth  James. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  this  corner  of  Holyrood  has  three  claimants 
£oT  the  honour  of  its  erection ;  and  while  there  is  not  much  more  than 
supposition  to  back  the  claim  for  James  Fourth,  there  is  still  less  in  the  case 
of  the  *Ducke  of  Albany,'  although  there  is  a  distinct  historical  assertion 
to  the  contrary.     It  may  be,  however,  that  the  whole  three  took  part  in 
the    'bigging'of  the  Towers,  beginning  between  1501  and  1503  with 
James    Fourth,  carried  on  after  his  death  by  Albany,  and  finished  or  re- 
modelled by  his  son,  after  his  translatibn  from  Stirling  to  Edinburgh  in 
1524     '^vlien  he  was  in  his  twelfth  year,  on  Albany's  final  retiral  to  his 
native   France. 

In  the  Diurnal  of  Occurrents  it  is  recorded  that  James,  in  1524,  was 

brougHfc    from  Stirling   to  Holyrood  at  twelve   years  of  age.     Then  in 

Pitscottie's  Chronicle  : — "  In  the  spring  of  the  year  1525  he  founded  a  fair 

palace  in   the  Abbey  of  Holyroodhouse  and  three  great  towers  till  rest 

into  wlien  he  (James  Fifth)  pleased  to  come."  ^     Hawthornden  (p.  23) 

^  Marjorey bank's  Annals.     Pitacottie,  vol.  ii.  p.  296. 

'  This  is  most  i)erplexing,  as  it  is  the  very  year  in  which  he  came  from  France, 
and  but  two  years  after  the  death  of  James  at  Flodden.  It  is  puzzling  to  connect 
Mbany  with  the  founding  of  an  *auld  toure,'  for  if  it  had  years  at  all,  surely 
they  should  hark  back  to  James  Fourth  at  least !  Unless  we  presume  that  the 
Mud  touro '  is  one  seen  in  both  Hollar  and  Gordon,  situated  in  the  south  court, 
s^  prison  in  which  Lord  Houme  was  *  wardit '  is  still,  as  it  doubtless  was  then, 
I  called  James  Fifth's. 

;  Somervillsy  vol.  i.  pp.  315,  316,  it  is  stated  that  the  architect 
I  Sir  James  Hamilton  of  Finuart. 


to   }ier   apartuitaits  in  the  adjoining  jmliice.     After  a  bri- 
Princess  wius  l)rou«,'lit  l»y  the  Kin;^  into  *the  Cftent  Hall,'  • 
intnxliic'iMl  to  a  great  ('(»nii»any  of  Isulies,"  etc,  ^ 

In  the  Treasurer's  Aee«)unU  of  1502-3  mention  is  ir 
struction   of   *a  new    hall/  tlie  construction  of   'the  l 
windoes/  and  tlie  'turatis  of  the  for-yet,'  which  'turati 
to   James  Fifth's  Towers,  hut   to  the  gateway  at  th- 
pahice  yanl.     Then  wt*  have  note  of  *the  Queen's  •. 
*the   King's  Oratory,'   and  of    *the  Queen's  Oral-  , 

nothing  to  bring  us  nearer  to  the  three  Towers.*     In  ^ 

"Sanrfiv  Crwis  it  is  stat^sd  : — "After  his  treaty  of         ^^ 
Henry  Seventh  for  the  youthful  TtnW,  he  hv\  ^^  J 

higging  of  a  jwlace  besidr  iln^i  Al)bt*y  of  thi"  11  ■! 

After  Floilden,  .John,  l>itki*  of  A  Units y,  wn    i 
in  1515  took  up  iiis  resideni-e  in  Uijlynw-ni    ■ 
James  Fourth  which  hail  lit-en  carried  im  Lil)  ^^ 

here  noted  that  a  certain  MaiaUir  l^igy  i- 
receiving   payment  for  ^*  fading   smd   %*'] 
**  completing  of  the  *toui'e-  ia  Italyrudi 
years  a  grant  of  £40  ymrly  is  m»^  Iti 
*  higging'  of  the  pahice  fe^itlc  tht*  AM. 

With  the  exception  of  iho  faint  ti  ■ 
completing  *  the  toure,'  tkifr^  k  Uiih    ? 
4uestion — Were  the  Towers  whiiih  ir** 

*  Account  of  John   Youiij^^r^   Siuiinnti^t   H^ 
Iit:laiid'.s  O'llcctanen^  vol.  iv.  \k  2K1J, 

-'  Treasurer's  Accounts.     Jfi»l&ry  t*/  Ijt^- 
'-'  Dr  1).  Wilson's  EtHnhuiffh,  vol  i.  \\ 

*  Dr  WilBon's  RHuhuruh,  \k  4^     ^r. 
]).  1*25. 

■'  (iraiil,  v«.l.  ii.   p.    60.     lh^f*rjf 
III    all    likeliliodd    this   may    hrivt> 
Dr  D.niitl  Wils«in   says: — **TIilh 
wliit'li  ;:ive  •videuce  of  tlje  |sii>^^tv«M 
at  tlii.s  linu'  in  tlie  Castle,  uuilei  llml 







Lt   ^^' 







'''      Castle^ 


ol  ^^"^^„ 







YsJftce ' 









tYvei"**-  _^ou\d>»« 




Proas,  ^®  ^  v^o  Vuwft  ^  <  i\v 



0 1'*^""""  ^!'^ 





V>vvvviv^  • 





•:  Vft^'^''* 


Hamilton  of  Crage,^  and  altlioiigh  we  have  no  special  mention  of  exten- 
sive operations  or  additions  to  Holyrood  after  his  ap{)ointment  in  1543, 
it  is  (]uite  certain  that  both  repairs  and  extensions  must  liave  gone  on, 
as  the  palace  was  twice  damaged  hy  the  English,  viz. : — in  1543  by  tlie 
P^rl  of  llortfoitl,  and  again  in  1547. 

In  1579  Sir  Rol>ert  Drummond  of  the  Tlawthomden  family  8uccee<iecl 
namilt(»n,2  and  in  1592  William,  a  distinguished  builder  and 
favourite  of  Queen  Anne,  took  office.  These  tliree  Masters  of  Works 
apimrently  w^ere  in  office  during  the  lifetime  l>oth  of  ^lary  and  James 
Sixth,  when  Holyrood  assumed  tlie  shape  and  dimensions  which  we  find 
depicted  in  Hollar  and  Cxordon. 

A  close  inspection  of  Hollar's  view  will  sliow  an  entire  change  from 
that  of  the  invasion  map  of  1543.  The  north  side  exhibits  the  hitherto 
open  space  between  the  Towers  of  James  and  the  south  Towers  of  the 
Ab})ey  to  Ikj  filled  with  a  range  of  Iniildings  forming  one  side  of  a  court 
or  quadrangle  as  at  pre^sent ;  but  it  also  shows  that  the  builder  had  still 
left  an  open  space  lietween  the  Abbey  and  the  old  Towers,  as  it  was  in 
the  Hertford  plan,  by  keeping  his  erections  further  south.  This  pleasing 
feature  cannot  be  fnHowcil  in  the  i)lan  by  (lordon  of  Kothiemay  (fig.  3), 
but  we  have  no  trace  of  the  Tower  which  in  Hollar  united  the  fa^iide  of 
the  palace  with  the  Towers  at  the  north-west.  The  bird's-eye  view 
fortunately  lays  before  us  the  elevation  of  this  north  side,  looking  south 
into  the  ctnirt,  showing  it  to  be  a  building  with  dormer  windows  similar 
to  those  now  existing,  and  an  arched  doorway  in  the  centre. 

Another  change  in  connection  with  the  Towers  appears  in  this  view. 
A  l)uilding  called  Regent  Moray's  house  is  seen  clinging  like  a  swallow's 
nest  to  the  nortliern  side,  with  an  apparently  spacious  roadway  in  front, 
separated  from  the  court-yard  of  the  palace  })y  a  wall,  and  having  a  door 
into  the  soutli  royal  gardens.  If  this  be  the  siime  building  drawn  by 
lUore  (an«l  published  in  1826),  it  was  there  up  till  \vell  into  the  second 
quarter  of  this  century ;  the  marks  of  its  junction  with  the  Towers  are 

*  ProceoHngs,  vol.  xxx.  p.  51. 
-  IhUK 

234  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   SOCIETY,   FEBRUARY   12,   1900. 

quite  visible  on  the  masonr}'  of  tlie  walls.  If  they  were  Moray's  apart- 
ments in  Holyrood,  it  is  fair  to  infer  that  he  had  entry  into  the  private 
stair  leading  up  to  his  sister's  rooms.  The  wall  separating  the  Towers 
from  this  building  where  the  round  of  the  stair  bulges  out  is  only  5 
inclies  in  thickness,  and  at  the  tiking  down  of  the  old  house,  had  to  l>e 
renewed  at  the  i^oinU  of  contact.  In  the  same  sketch  we  see  the 
turretftd  gateway  lemiing  to  the  house,  and  the  south  wall  which  separates 
it  from  th(i  palace  yard,  as  in  Rothiemay.  To  the  north-east  of  this 
house  Rothiemay  gives  us  another  first  view  of  Croft-an-Righ,  with  its 
turreted  mansion  also  called  after  Regent  Moray,  which,  having  lieen 
purcliased  from  ^Fr  Hector  Ciavin,  was  in  1859  fitted  up  as  dwellings 
for  gardeners,  keepers,  etc. 

The  Towers,  with  their  enormous  walls  from  6  to  7J  feet  thick, 
appear  to  have  bravtily  weathered  every  attack,  and  up  to  this  day  pre- 
serve their  fair  ijrojwrtions  almost  intact.  In  the  other  portions  of  the 
large  straggling  palace  great  industry  must  have  been  displayed  in  their 
reconstruction,  for  on  Brantome's  arrival  with  Queen  Mary  in  1561,  he 
spoke  in  liigli  terms  of  the  palace  as  being  "  a  handsome  Imilding,  and 
not  like  anything  else  in  the  country."  This  interval  of  fourteen  years, 
there  is  little  doubt,  had  initiated  the  great  change,  in  the  northern 
elevation  at  least,  which  we  see  so  well  displayed  in  Hollar.  The 
Master  of  Works  was  John  Hamilton  of  Cnige,  dating  from  1543,  and 
no  change  is  noted  till  1579,  when  Sir  Rol^ert  Drummond  took  office. 

During  that  time  tlie  palace  had  taken  its  present  form  of  a  great 
ceutml  court,  but  with  other  detaclied  courts  which  are  now  gone.  In 
lK)th  views  of  Hollar  and  Gordon,  we  see  the  gradual  creeping  uj)  of  the 
palace  from  the  north-west  Towers  to  the  south  Tower  of  the  A})bey, 
which  it  appears  to  have  ultimately  engulphed.  It  seems  impossible  to 
come  nearer  to  the  precise  periml  of  this  reconstruction.  Thus,  we  find 
in  the  work  on  Fjcdesia^tical  Architect iire  by  M*(libbon  and  Ross,  that 
the  change  is  disposed  of  in  one  sliort  sentence: — "The  north-west 
Tower  (Abbey)  is  still  preserved,  but  its  companion  Tower,  which 
formerly  stood  at  the  south-west  angle,  was  demolished  when  the  palace 


vas  rebuilt  in  the  17th  centur}'" — that  is,  the  present  erections  designed 
)y  Sir  William  Bruce  in  1671,  and  finished  in  1679. 

From  ( rordon's  full  front  view  of  the  palace  taken  before  the  advent 
)f  Cromwell,  we  may  form  a  jierfect  idea  of  the  building  as  it  was  in 
lie  time  of  James  Sixth  and  Charles  First,  and  probably  in  that  of 
lie  unfortunate  (^ueen  of  Scots  (fig.  4). 

The  palace  at  that  period  consisted  of  five  courts,  and  the  buildings 
vere  of  a  decidedly  straggling  nature,  showing  the  want  of  an  original 
lettled  plan,  except  the  front  elevation  flanked  by  the  north- wes^. 
[(►wers.  Whether  these  Towers  were  the  last  erection  of  the  west  front 
nd  an  afterthought  is  an  open  question,  but  we  know  that  the  design 
'f  Sir  William  Bruce  followed  on  the  same  lines,  as  proved  by  his 
ddition  of  the  south-west  Towei-s  in  complete  harmony  with  the  other 
da — in  fact,  adapting  the  whole  of  the  present  fa9ade  to  harmonise  with 
le  ancient  Towers  on  the  north. 

In  the  final  view,  published  by  Blore  in  1826  (fig.  5),  we  have  the 
ilace  of  Sir  William  Bruce  as  now  existing,  showing  the  so-called 
egent  Moray's  house — now  gone. 

With  the  exception  of  the  first  floor  and  the  pinnacles  of  the  three 
rrets,  the  views  presented  to  us  from  1543  till  just  before  the  Crom- 
tillian  burning  in  1650,  show  little  signs  of  structural  change.  The 
est  front  with  its  two  empty  panels,  which,  it  is  believed,  had  at  one 
me  been  filled  with  the  royal  arms  of  Scotland,  gives  a  rather  curious 
iistration  of  the  first  floor  reported  as  Lord  Darnley's  from  what  it 

now.  Small  prison-like  windows  are  represented,  more  like  those  of 
^mrd-house ;  but  those  of  Queen  Mary  show  as  in  their  present  posi- 
Dn.  We  have  clear  proof  that  the  famous  historical  rooms  of  the 
ir  but  unfortunate  Stuart  are  clearly  traceable,  both  in  their  external 
pect  and  internal  arrangement,  to  the  earliest  time  of  the  Towers.  Both 
I  ternally  and  internally  the  first  floor  has  undergone  some  change.  The 
xmnd  floor  is,  in  its  western  front,  a  strongly  vaulted  ajmrtment  built 
«e  a  fortress,  with  arch,  pier,  and  })uttre8s,  and  has  long  been  used  as  a 
Lne  cellar.     Here  ])egan  the  private  stair  leading  up  to  Darnley  and 



PR<D<JEEDiyGS   OF  THU   SO^ZTTTY,   FTCBHUABY   12,   1900. 

\>uoeu  Mary's  nj<im.4  (fi^.  6),  ami  then;  is  no  trace  of  windows  saificient 
tn  lo4i«l  to  tliH  l">elief  that  it  ever  wa«  a  resilience  of  Heniy  Damlej.  It 
•loesi  nut  iie»Hi  much  penetratirm  t*:)  notice  where  the  existing  windows  of 
l>ain ley's  nM>ms  have  been  reconstmcteiL  thua  at:connting  for  the  differ- 
ence l)etweeri  tlie  present  Jiapect  ami  that  ol  Bothiemays  large  front 

^oAo  4f>«  9*r>^  i^iHOtfH,*  Btf. 

Fi;j:.  6.   Private  Stair,  HolyrcKxi  Palace. 

>»t^\v    (li-.    U.      Hi<  i<H)ni.s  w»fre  In'Iow  of  the  Queen,  ami  on 
lii.:i  lloMi,  ;iiul  an  iiK^poction  «•£  tho  iu;iS4»nry  sliow.s  wlicro  they  have 

It  iii«»i|illr«l. 

ri»\i..n-.    l.»  llh'  fi.nflM.uniti.'ii   "f   1»>.")0,   tlio   i>iim;iplps   .if   the   tuc 
„i  I.    (m».lir»l  with  faiicifiil  <l^vi.-.-^  lik»'  iiiiiMTJal  (.'itiwn-,  n.»\v  replacei- 
|.i»Mi   :|.»i  il  Irrmiiiiil  inp>.     T!;»    r""f  \v;i-  high  ami   |M>int»:»jl  with  a 
M      »».  :i  ii..Mi,  wliiiv  n-'w  il  i^  i!  iL  ,111''        Mameutcd.     At  the  f..K_~ 


w     rref. 
^\  hy 


the  left  empty  panel  may  be  seen  the  shelf-like  strip  on  which  Wilson 
tells  lis  the  words  "  Jacobus  Y.  Rex  Scotorum  "  were  inscribed ;  and  clear 
traces  of  the  filled-up  sockets  where  the  iron  bars  of  the  windows  were 
eml)edded  are  quite  visilJe.  The  first  floor  appeared  to  be  barred  on 
the  inner  side  of  the  lintels  close  to  the  ghuss,  but  the  two  upi>er  floors — 
viz.,  Queen  Mary's  rooms  and  the  jail — were  protected  by  iron  gratings 
fixed,  prison-like,  on  the  outer  face  of  the  walls,  a  striking  commentary 
on  the  state  of  society  and  value  of  human  life  even  in  a  royal  palace  at 
that  time. 

At  the  foot  of  the  west  front  of   the   Towers  the  ground  has  been 

lowered   about   3   feet,  particularly  at  the  north-west  corner.     At   the 

north  side  may  be  easily  seen  the  new  masonry  filled  in  when  taking 

ilown  the  building  called  "  Regent  Moray's  house  "  (fig.  5).     None  of 

the  historians  take  the  slightest  notice  of  this  building ;  even  our  local 

writers,  Arnot  and  Maitland,  completely  ignore  it,  though  it  was  there 

(iiiring   their   lifetime.     It  may  have  been  the  house  of  Lord  Robert, 

however,  if  we  bear  in  mind  that  Regent  Moray's  mansion  was  said  to 

^  in  Croft-an-Righ,  and  also  if  we  give  any  weight  to  the  following 

Extract   from   the   DiumcU   of  Oc4*un'ents : — "Tlie    next   day   Lennox 

^«-Hle  in  state  to  the  Abbey  of  Holyrood,  and  entered  the  lodging  which 

^iad  been  honourably  prepared  for  him  in  the  house  of  Mary's  brother, 

^l^ie  Lord  Robert,  Commendator  of  Holyrood,  hesidf.  the  said  Abbey." 

On  the  flat  north  wall  of  the  Towers,  the  air-slots  wliich  were  left  in 
^iie  elevation  (whence,  in  the  middle  of  this  century,  the  so-called 
i^egent  Moray's  was  removed)  are  plainly  seen,  and  guide  us  to  the 
i  Position  of  the  private  stair  which  is  built,  not  in  the  Tower  as  is  gener- 
'>-lly  thought,  but  entirely  within  the  wall,  which  at  this  spot  is  7^  feet 
^  liick.  At  the  bottom  of  the  wall  no  trace  of  a  doorway  is  to  be  seen, 
1  trading  us  to  the  belief  that  the  exit  was  inside  the  ground  floor  of  the 
^  -fcalacc,  thence  along  to  the  Abbey. 

Higher  up,  near  the  jail  windows,  we  see  the  single  slot  which  lights 
^%-ud  airs  a  secret  stiiir  of  singular  width  and  construction  leading  into 
tlie  prison.      This  wall  joins   on    to    the    largest  of  the  three  Towers 

240  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE  SOCIETY,   FEBRUARY   12,   1900. 

which  coiituins  the  stiiir  leading  up  U)  Queen  Mary*s  rooms,  the  jail, 
some  store-rooms,  and  the  roof.  On  tlie  ground  floor  of  this  north-cast 
Tower  another  private  stair  ends ;  hut  on  tlie  walls  outside  there  are 
no  signs  of  exit,  which  must  have  also  heen  through  the  hiisement. 
And  in  Queen  Mary's  audience  chamlmr,  near  the  entrance  door  where 
Kizzio  was  flung  to  die,  is  another  private  stair  huilt  inside  the  wall,  and 
lending  up  to  opposite  the  jail  door. 

These  Towers,  at  all  events,  whoever  was  their  original  founder,  show 
a  width  and  strength  explanator}"^  of  their  heing  the  sole  survivors  of  the 
original  Palace  of  Holyrood.  If  we  take  the  west  front,  we  find  a 
thickness  of  7  J  feet,  and  at  the  turrets  4  feet.  The  east  face,  which 
Wius  originally  clear  of  all  huildings  towards  the  Ahl)ey,  is  of  the  same 
thickness,  viz.,  7i  feet.  The  north  and  south  walls  are  fully  6  feet,  and 
the  wall  dividing  the  Towers  from  the  more  modem  palace  of  Charles 
Second  is  over  5  feet.  The  external  changes,  from  1543  till  Cromwell's 
time,  may  be  summed  \i\)  briefly :  — alterations  on  Lord  Darnley's  floor, 
on  the  panels,  on  the  roof  and  turret  tops,  and  on  the  north  side.  The 
roof,  in  particular,  is  first  shown  with  flat-topped  turrets,  then  with  high 
l)itchcd  roof  and  pointed  turrets  as  at  present,  then  with  the  crown- 
topped  pinnacles  and  high  roof,  and  finally  the  present  elevation. 

Tli<^  power  given  by  Charles  Second  to  Sir  William  Bruce  to  punish 
tln»  refractory  operatives  at  the  relmilding  of  Holyrood  in  1671-9,  is,  in 
the  light  of  niodern  Trades  l^nionism,  so  very  curious  in  its  phraseology, 
an<l  points  s<j  clearly  to  our  *'auld  toure  prison,"  that  a  quotiition  may  be 
panloned  : — "With  power  also  to  the  said  Sir  William  Bruce,  during 
llie  space  aforesaid,  to  do  all  other  things  necessary  and  requisite  as  to 
liiiii  shall  seem  expedient,  an<l  to  i>uuish,  mulct,  incarcerate,  and  amerce 
dclincpients  and  transgressors  at  the  sai<l  works  and  courts,  by  himself 
or  his  (h»puU's  (;is  (»fl  as  need  shall  br),  for  this  purpose,  within  the  Siiid 
]»ala('es,  houses,  ami  prceinrts  thereof  to  us  ])ertaining.''  ^ 

Then'  is  little  to  a<ld  wliieh  l»ears  sullicient  int(»rest,  as  we  are  now 
nearing  the  top  of  th<',  old  Towers.  Half  a  flight  up  the  i)rincipid  stiiir, 
'   Procc'idiixjSj  vol.  vi.,  Third  Series,  ])[k  60-61. 


and  immediately  under  the  flat  lead-covered  roof,  are  some  store-rooms 
whicli  must  have  been  frequently  subjected  to  harsh  usage  and  much 
change.  A  few  8tei)s  more  and  the  roof  is  reached,  round  the  battle- 
ments of  which  there  is  the  usual  nanow  way.  The  turret  toi)S  have 
entrance  from  this  path.  The  leaden  capes  and  the  three  upper  courses 
of  masonry  towards  the  front  are  quite  of  recent  date,  and  evidently  the 
result  of  kindly  watchfulness  over  the  grand  old  Towers,  which,  for  nigh 
four  centuries,  have  weathered  every  storm,  and  proudly  borne  the  name 
of  the  gaUant  Fifth  James. 


By  WILLIAM  W.  IRELAND,  M.D.,  F.S.A.  Soot. 

Though  it  was  a  source  of  gi-atifi cation  to  me  that  so  distinguished  an 
archaeologist  as  Mr  Joseph  Bain  should  have  taken  the  trouble  to  add 
filling-in  to  the  sketch  which  I  essayed  of  the  Scottish  de  Quencys  of 
Tranent  and  Leuchars,^  it  lessened  tlie  plejisure  when  he  indicated  a 
number  of  errors  which  he  thought  I  had  committed.  As  most  of  these 
corrections  were  on  points  of  minute  detail,  1  was  unable,  after  hearing 
his  paper  read  at  a  meeting  of  the  Society  on  the  11th  December,  to  do 
more  than  make  a  general  defence.  Having  now  had  time  to  go  back  to 
my  authorities,  I  ask  an  opportunity  of  showing  how  some  of  these 
corrections  cannot  ])e  sustained. 

Mr  Bain  began  by  saying  that  it  was  to  be  regretted  I  had  not  con- 
sulted some  works,  which  he  named,  in  addition  to  those  wliich  I  referred 
to.  My  essay  was  almost  wholly  written  from  original  documents,  hence 
I  did  not  think  it  needful  to  quote  compilations  like  Burke's  Dictionary 
of  Extinct  Peerages^  of  which,  nevertlieless,  I  had  made  some  use.  And 
as  for  not  consulting  t'he  Cartulary  of  St  Andrews,  I  referred  to  it  in  a 
note  (see  p.  277  of  my  paper  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 

>  See  antea,  p.  124  ;  and  vol.  xxxii.  p.  275. 


fiuariesj  vol.  xxxii.).  I  unwittingly  passed  over  the  four  volumes  of  the 
CcUewlar  of  Scottish  Documents^  edited  by  Mr  Bain  himself,  which  he 
mentions  at  the  end  of  his  list.  In  these  volumes  there  are  several  notes 
about  the  de  Quencys,  which,  if  I  had  lighted  upon  them  before,  would 
have  saved  me  much  trouble  and  some  errors  of  detail.  Mr  Bain  tells 
us  that  "  tliere  is  no  evidence  that  the  de  Quencys  came  from  Normandy 
with  William.  The  Roll  of  Battle  Abbey  is  well  known  to  be  of  little, 
if  any,  authority,  and  it  has  been  thought  by  some,  the  late  Mr  John 
Gough  Nichols  for  one,  that  they  came  from  Gascony — their  arms, 
mascles,  representing  a  kind  of  flint  found  there.  The  first  who  appears 
in  the  English  pipe-rolls  is  Saher  de  Quency,  in  11 57,  in  Northampton- 
shire, where  he  was  remitted  on  his  land."  I  camiot  here  discuss  the 
trustworthiness  of  the  Roll  of  Battle  Abbey.  Those  who  are  curious  on 
this  question  should  consult  the  books  which  have  been  written  about  it^ 
especially  that  by  John  Bernard  Burke,  ^  and  the  three  quarto  volumes 
contributed  by  the  Duchess  of  Cleveland. - 

After  relating  the  foundation  of  this  abbey  by  William  the  Conqueror, 
Sir  Francis  Palgrave  ^  tells  us  that  "  Iiere  the  monks  enrolled  before  a 
Dcgville  or  a  Darcy,  a  Pigot  or  a  Percy,  a  Ikuce  or  a  Despencer,"  or 
other  Normans,  "the  roll  containing  the  honoured  names  of  the  com- 
panions of  the  Conqueror  from  whom  they  deduced  their  lineage  and 
their  names."  The  objection  to  this  document  is  that,  in  later  times,  the 
monks  allowed  name«  to  be  iidded  to  the  roll  to  please  people  who  wished 
to  claim  descent  from  tlie  first  Norman  conquerors.  The  document,  at 
all  events,  has  always  been  held  in  high  estimation  by  the  old  chroniclers. 
There  are  several  independent  copies  of  it,  and  the  name  of  Quincy  is  in 
tlieni  all.  We  liave  thus  to  consider  the  probability  of  this  name  being 
fraudulently  added  before  the  death  of  Roger  de  Quency  in  1264,  for 
after  that  time  no  one  would  have  an  interest  in  such  a  transaction. 

^  TheEoIl  of  Battle  Abbey,  annotated  by  John  Bernard  Burke,  Esq. ;  London,  1848. 

'^  The  Battle  Abbey  Jioll,  with  some  account  of  the  Norman  Lineages,  by  the  Duchess 
of  Cleveland,  vol.  iii.  p.  27  ;  London,  1889. 

^  The  History  of  Korvuitidy  and  of  England,  by  Sir  Francis  Palgrave,  K.H.,  the 
Deputy  KeeiMirof  H.M.S.  Tublic  Records,  vol.  iii.  p.  407  ;  London,  1864. 


The  Duchess  of  Cleveland  says  (I  know  not  on  what  authority)  that 
Seyr  was  descended  from  Richard  de  Qucncy,  the  companion  in  anns  of 
the  Conqueror.  Xishet,  in  his  lx)ok  on  Heraldry,^  also  states  that  the 
first  de  Quency  came  over  with  William  the  Conqueror.  Moreover,  in  an 
undated  charter  published  in  Dugdale's  Monasticon^^  there  is  a  grant  of 
ten  solidi  to  the  Priory  of  Dunmow  Little  from  Saher  de  Qumci  for  the 
salvation  of  his  soul  and  that  of  his  son  Saher,  from  his  lands  in  Braden- 
liam  in  Suffolk.  Assuming  that  the  son  was  the  same  Saher  who  got  the 
manor  of  Bushby  in  Northamptonshire  in  1157,  and  attested  the  treaty 
of  Falaise  in  1173,^  we  can  thus  trace  the  de  Quencys  back  to  the  l^e- 

ginning  of  the  12th  century. 

As  for  Mr  Gough  Xichols  whom  Mr  Ikiin  thinks  worthy  to  Imj  quoted, 

api)arently  to  raise  a  presumption  Jigainst  my  view,  he  is  clearly  unaware 

that  the  arms  of  Seyr  de  (Juency,  Earl  of  Winchester,  were  not  mascles, 

for  he  and  his  son  Roger  bore  dilferont  arms. 
There  are  engravings  of  the  arms  of  this  family  in  Burton's  Lfdcester- 

shirey  p.  37.     The  coat  of  arms  of  Seyr  de  Qucncy  (fig.  1)  was  :  or,  a  fesso 


Fig.  1.  Arms  of  Seyr  de  Quency. 

Fig.  2.  Arms  of  Roger  de  Quency. 

gules,  a  file  of  eleven  jyoints  azure.     That  of  his  son  Roger  (fig.  2)  was  ; 
gules,  seven  mascles  or,  three,  three,  and  one. 

>  A  System  of  Heraldry,  by  Alexander  Nisbot,  vol.  i.  p.  208  ;  Edinburgh,  1816. 

•-*  Vol.  vi.  p.  148. 

'  See  Dictionary  of  National  Bioffraphy^  art.  de  Quinci. 

244  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,   FEBRUARY  12,   1900. 

In  Hewitt's  Ancient  Armour^  there  is  a  fine  engraving  of  the  seal  of 
Roger  de  Quency,  Earl  of  Winchester,  in  which  the  lieraldic  devices  of 
the  mascles  are  given  on  the  housings  of  his  charger. 

Mr  P.  Macgregor  Chalmers,  a  Fellow  of  this  Society,  informs  me  by 
letter  that  he  has  discovered  the  fragments  of  a  tomb  in  Culross  Abbey 
"  on  the  arch  to  the  south  side  of  the  choir,  and  opening  into  the  aisle  of 
the  south  transept.  The  de  Quency  arms  are  carved  on  a  shield  at  the 
point  of  the  arch.  The  shield  and  the  arms  are  in  perfect  preservation."  ^ 
The  arms  are  seven  mascles,  three,  three,  and  one.  "  On  the  north  side 
a  tomb,  built  as  a  sarcophagus,  occupies  the  lower  part  of  the  arch,  and 
the  arch  is  recognised  as  part  of  tlie  tomb.  The  effigy  of  a  lady 
fastened  upright  to  the  wall  close  to  this  tomb  doubtless  lay 
originally  on  the  top  of  the  sarcophagus.  This  portion  of  the  abbey 
was  built  early  in  the  thirteenth  century."  This  may  be  the  tomb  of 
Roger  de  Quency.  Matthew  Paris  tells  us  that  the  second  wife  of  Roger 
de  Quency  was  buried  at  Brackele  in  England  in  1252,  and  that  another 
wife  of  the  same  earl  wjis  laid  there.  C)n  this  account  the  earl  chose  to 
be  himself  buried  in  tlie  same  ])lace.  "  Et  propter  has  causas  multiplices, 
sibi  sepulturam  ibidem  elegit  comes  memoratus."  ^latthew  of  Paris 
simply  records  tlie  desire  of  the  earl  to  be  laid  at  Brackele,  for  this  pas- 
sage was  written  during  his  life.  IMattliew  died  in  1259,  and  Roger. de 
Quency  five  years  later.  If  he  died  in  Scotland,  it  might  have  been  in- 
convenient at  the  time  to  carry  out  his  wishcis  and  convey  the  body  to 

^fr  Bain  tells  us  that  the  wife  of  Robert  de  Quency  wjus  not  called 
Eva,  but  (^)rabilis.  Yet  in  the  charter  in  the  muniments  of  Melrose,  as 
cited  by  me,  this  lady,  quondam  uxor  Roherti  de  Quinri,  in  a  grant  for 
the  good  of  the  soul  of  her  father  and  mother,  her  husband  and  others, 
did  call  herself  Eva.     It  is  true  that  she  is  styled  Orabilis  in  some  of  the 

*  Ancient  Armour  and  Weapons  in  Europe^  by  John  He\vitt ;  Oxford,  1855, 
p.  345. 

2  Since  writing  this  I  have  visited  Culross  Abbey  and  had  no  difficulty  in  finding 
the  stone  shield  as  indicated  by  Mr  Chalmers. 


charters  of  the  Priory  of  St  Andrews  (Orabilis  filia  et  heres  domine 
Nesi)  aiid  in  one  by  Seyr  de  Quency  (Orabilis  matris  mee).  I  took  this 
title  for  an  adjective,  a  translation  of  some  Gaelic  word  meaning  worship- 
fiU  or  gracious.  At  any  rate,  in  the  only  known  document  issued  by  this 
lady  she  calls  herself  Eva.  Mr  Bain  somewhat  arbitrarily  says  that  this 
Eva  was  the  wife  of  Robert,  a  younger  brother  of  Seyr  de  Quency,  wlio, 
we  may  recall,  had  also  an  older  brother  called  Robert.  The  lady,  lie 
tells  us,  was  also  called  Hawyse  or  Hawise,  "  which  name  is  easily  read 
Evii."  Those  who  think  the  matter  worthy  of  further  contention  may 
discuss  whether  her  correct  title  was  Eva  Orabilis  or  Ombilis  Eva,  or 
Eva  Hawise,  or  whether  Orabilis  also  can  be  easily  read  Eva.  Apparently 
he  sees  no  difficulty  in  believing  that  Orabilis  was  the  widow  of  the  Earl 
of  Mar  before  she  was  married  to  Robert  de  Quency,  and  in  one  charter 
the  daughter  of  Ness  is  styled  "Comitissa  de  Mar."  The  name  of 
Gilchrist,  Earl  of  Mar,  is  given  as  a  witness  in  some  of  these  parcliments. 
This  Gilchrist^  is  said  to  have  superseded  Morgund  as  Earl  of  Mar, 
and  his  name  appears  in  chartei*s  between  1170-80,  and  1204-11.  In 
that  case,  how  could  this  lady  have  been  a  widow  while  both  her  reputed 
husbands  were  living,  and,  in<lee(l,  P^arl  (lilchrist  must  have  survived 
Robert  De  Quency  ?  The  Rev.  William  Hunt,  in  an  article  on  Seyr  de 
Quency  in  the  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,  as  well  as  Dr  George 
Burnett  in  the  Genealogist,^  have  both  confessed  the  difficulty  of  this 
question.  Perhaps  the  filia  Orabilis  of  Ness  wiis  an  elder  sister,  the 
one  named  Christina  in  the  charter  granted  by  P>a,  the  wife  of  Robert 
de  Quency,  who  may  have  been  married  or  betrothed  to  the  Earl  of  Mar, 
and  died  young. 

'  See  The  Earld<ytn  of  Mar,  by  Alexander,  Earl  of  Crawford  and  Balcarres  ;  Edin- 
burgh. 1882,  vol.  i.  p.  167. 

2  The  Earhj  Eiirls  of  Mar,  by  George  Burnett,  LL.D.,  Lyon  King-at-Arnm,  vol. 
iv.  new  scries,  p.  177.  After  considering  a  number  of  dates  in  an  elaborate  note, 
Dr  Burnett  comes  to  the  conclusion  that  Orabilis  could  not  have  been  the  widow  of 
Gilchrist,  but  "might  conceivably  have  been  the  widow  of  Morgund,  or  it  is  pos- 
sible that  she  might  have  been  the  divorced  wife  of  Gilchrist.**  Morgund,  however, 
is  known  to  have  had  a  wife  called  Agnes,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  Churtuldry  of  St 
Andrews,  p.  246. 


In  the  charters  extending  and  confirming  the  grants  to  the  Abbey  of 
Newbotle,  Seyr  de  Quency  is  styled  Earl  of  Winchester  (Comes 
Wintonise).  Amongst  the  witnesses  to  these  grants  was  Jocelin,  Bishop 
of  Glasgow,  who  is  known  to  have  died  on  the  26th  of  April  1199.  Now 
Seyr  de  Quency  was  not  made  Earl  of  Winchester  till  about  eight  years 
after.  As  the  Bishop  could  not  liave  been  witness  to  a  charter  after  he 
was  dead,  I  asked  to  see  the  documents  in  the  Advocates*  Library.  These 
are  not  the  original  charters,  but  a  parchment  volume  of  unknown 
antiquity  containing  copies  of  the  Newbotle  charters.  The  name  of 
Joceline,  Bishop  of  Glasgow,  is  there  sure  enough,  and  thus  the  words, 
*  Comes  WintonisB,'  must  have  been  either  added  as  a  gloss  when  copying 
the  original,  or  the  charters  must  have  been  later  fabrications  of  the 
Cistercians.  T\n\  name  of  Seyr,  hereditary  in  the  de  Quency  family, 
shows  tluiir  Scandinavian  origin.  It  is  still  in  use  as  a  name  in  Denmark 
and  Norway.  The  name  of  Quincy  is  French.  It  is  still  lx)rne  by 
persons  in  Normandy,  and  there  is  a  Commune  called  Quincy  in  tlie 
department  of  Seine  et  Marne. 

Witli  regard  to  the  treatment  of  the  Countess  of  Mar  and  the  sisters 
of  Robert  Bruce  who  fell  into  the  hands  of  Edward  I.,  Mr  Bain  tries  to 
show,  from  a  contemporary  warrant  for  the  similar  imprisonment  of  a 
Welshman  of  note  in  Bristol,  that  the  cage  was  merely  a  wooden  struc- 
ture inside  the  castle,  in  which  the  prisoner  was  shut  up  at  night  for 
greater  security  against  escape.  Apparently  cages  were  not  uncommon 
in  those  times  wlien  the  confinement  was  meant  to  be  rigorous ;  but  it  is 
too  much  to  assume  that  a  cage  made  for  the  night  custody  of  a  Welsh- 
man ^  in  a  liouse  at  Bristol  Castle  must  have  been  of  the  same  pattern 
as  a  cage  in  a  turret  at  Berwick  especiiUly  designed  by  the  greatest  of  the 

^  The  extract  on  which  Mr  Haiu  has  founded  his  argument  is  given  in  the  Calendar 
of  Documents  relating  to  Scotland^  vol.  iii.  p.  4  :  Fiat  for  allocate  to  Nicholas 
Feriubaiid,  late  constable  of  Bristol  Castle,  etc.,  for  £14,  Os.  8Jd.  expended  in  cutting 
oaks,  cariHjnters*  and  others*  wages,  iron,  lime,  etc.,  to  repair  a  house  in  the  castle, 
and  making  a  wooden  cage  bound  with  iron  in  said  house  for  the  straiter  custody  of 
Owen,  son  of  David  Griffith,  a  prisoner  shut  therein  at  night  (dated  1807,  Michael* 
mas  Term). 


Plantagenets  to  torment  a  lady  who  would  not  submit  to  his  usurpation 
of  the  Scottish  crown.  It  must  embarrass  the  admirers  of  the  English 
King  that  the  minute  directions  for  the  treatment  of  these  ladies  so 
jealously  laid  down  by  the  vindictive  Plantagenet  still  remain.  They 
may  be  found  in  Rymer's  Fcvdera  and  in  Grose's  Military  Antvpii- 
ties,  the  original  French  l)cing  given  in  the  Appendix.^  I  prefer  giving 
my  own  translation : — 

"  It  is  ordered  and  commanded  by  letters  of  the  Privy  Seal  to  the  Chamber- 
lain of  Scotland  or  to  his  Lieutenant  at  Berwick-on-Tweed,  that  in  one  of  the 
towers  within  the  castle  of  this  place,  in  a  situation  which  he  sees  to  be  most 
convenient,  he  should  cause  to  be  made  a  cage  of  strong  wooden  spars,  with  posts 
and  bars  and  well  strengthened  with  iron,  in  which  he  should  put  the  Countess 
of  Buchan,  and  that  he  make  it  so  well  and  render  the  cage  so  secure  that  she 
cannot  get  out  in  anv  manner  ;  that  he  should  assign  a  woman  or  two  of  the 
same  toTiTi  of  Berwick,  who  should  be  English  and  exposed  to  no  suspicion,  to 
attend  on  the  said  Countess,  to  eat  and  drink  and  other  thin^  to  be  done  in 
this  abode,  and  that  he  keeps  her  so  well  and  strictly  guarded  in  the  cage  that 
she  should  not  speak  to  anyone,  either  man  or  woman,  who  may  be  of  Scottish 
nation,  and  that  no  other  should  get  access  to  her  save  only  the  woman  or 
women  who  will  be  assigned  to  her,  and  those  wlio  will  have  her  in  their  keep- 
ing ;  and  that  the  cage  should  be  so  made  that  the  Countess  should  have  the 
convenience  of  a  privy,  but  that  it  should  be  well  and  surely  ordered  that  no 
danger  should  be  incurred  in  the  security  of  the  keeping  of  the  said  Countess." 

In  the  same  writ  it  is  ordered  that  Mary,  the  sister  of  Robert  Bruce, 
formerly  Count  of  Carrick,  should  l)e  sent  to  Roxburgh  to  be  kept  there 
in  a  cage  within  the  castle.  If  Mr  Bain  had  looked  up  the  authorities 
cited  at  the  foot  of  the  page  whose  correctness  he  questions,  he  might 
have  saved  himself  from  the  vain  attempt  of  oversetting  the  narrative  as 
given  by  our  best  Scottish  historians.     To  quote  Burton  2 :  "  Though  we 

'  See  Kymer*8  Fcedera,  vol.  ii.  pp.  1013,  1014 ;  and  Military  Antiquities  respecting 
a  History  0/ the  English  Army,  by  Francis  Grose,  Esq.,  F.A.S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  348. 

^  Burton  adds  his  authorities  in  a  note :  ^*  In  domuncula  quadam  lignea  super 
mamm  costri  Berevici  posita  est,  ut  posseut  earn  conspicero  transeuntes. "  Rishanger, 

"Sub  dio  forinsecus  suspondatur,  ut  sit  data,  in  vita  et  post  mortem,  speculum 
viatoribos  et  opprobrium  sempiternnm."  Mat.  Westm.  455.  Burton  adds : — "It  is 
not  in  the  instruction  that  the  cage  shall  be  in  the  open  air  and  visible  to  the 
passers-by,  and  therefore  the  chroniclers  may  be  mistaken.  A  cage  made  secure  in 
itself— and  the  instructions  are  to  make  this  absolutely  so— is  rather  anomalous 


are  not  told  so  in  the  minute  instructions  for  the  making  of  the  cage,  the 
English  chroniclers  tell  us  that  the  cage  was  so  hung  that  she  could  be 
seen  by  passers-by ;  and  the  object  of  restraining  her  in  this  form  seems 
to  have  been  that  she  might  be  a  common  spectacle,  and  an  example  of 
the  fate  in  store  for  those  who  thwarted  the  will  of  Edward." 

Mr  Bain  is  at  some  pains  to  show  that  these  ladies  were  not  hung  up 
in  a  cage  on  a  wall  like  canaries,  which,  indeed,  we  are  not  called  upon  to 
l)elieve.  Nevertheless,  it  comes  somewhat  near  it.  As  Tytler  ^  remarks  : 
"  Any  one  who  has  observed  the  turrets  of  the  ancient  Scottish  castles, 
which  hung  like  cages  on  the  outside  of  the  walls,  and  within  one  of 
which  the  countesses  cage  was  to  be  constructed,  will  be  at  no  loss  to 
understand  the  tyrannical  directions  of  Edward,  and  the  passage  of 
Matthew  Westminster." 

We  are  told  by  Hemingford  that  the  wife  of  Robert  Bruce  was  tre^ited 
with  less  cruelty  than  liis  sister  because  she  was  the  daughter  of  the  Earl 
of  Ulster,  two  of  whose  sons  were  serving  with  Edward,  and  she  could 
plead  that  at  the  coronation  she  had  said  that  she  feared  it  was  no  Ixjtter 
than  being  a  queen  at  a  play.  Slie  and  her  stepdaughter,  Marjorie,  were 
put  in  sejiarate  places  of  confinement.  The  brothers  of  tlie  Scottish 
King,  Thomas,  Alexander  and  Nigel,  and  his  brother-in-law  Sir 
Cliristopher  Seton,  wlio  also  fell  int^)  P]<hvard's  hands,  were  all  put  to 
death  with  that  attention  to  grisly  details  and  studied  indignity  which 
were  characteristic  of  the  greatest  of  the  l^lautagenets.  The  common 
prisoners  taken  fighting  on  the  Bruce's  side  were  hanged.^  Surely  it  is 
reading  wrong  the  lessons  of  history  that  so  many  English  chroniclers 

within  the  tower  of  a  castle,  and  seems  a  work  of  sui)ererogation."  History  of  Scot- 
laml,  Eilinburgh,  1874,  vol.  ii.  chap.  xxii.  p.  242. 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  cite  in  addition  the  words  of  Hemingford  -.^Rcxjuimteam 
yoni  supra  murum  atstri  <fe  Bereinjk  in  ti-istega  ligneajixa^  ut  sic  a  traiiscuntibits 
viikri  jjosscl  et  cogiiosci ;  iimnsitquc  sic  clatisa  multis  diebiui,  et  in  arcta  diclii. 
Chronicon  dc  Gc^tU  Jictjutn  Amjliac,  vol.  ii.  p.  247  ;  Londini,  1849. 

1  lliMory  of  Scotland,  by  Patrick  Fraser  Tytler  ;  Edinburgh,  1829,  vol.  i.  p.  213, 
and  note,  p.  391. 

'^  Calendar,  vol.  ii.     1811. 


should  seek  to  palliate  such  cruelties  for  which  neither  the  morals  of  the 
period  nor  the  spirit  of  the  age  offer  an  excuse. 

Mr  Bain  tells  us  that  the  lady  whom  Sir  William  Douglas  carried  ofif 

at  Tranent  was  not  Margaret  de  Quency,  the   widow  of   William  do 

Ferrers,  seventh  Earl  of  Derby,  but  her  daughter-in-law,  Eleanor  I-K)vaine, 

the  widow  of  her  second  son  William  de  Ferrers,  I^ron  of  Groby,  and  in 

8upi>ort  of  this  statement  IMr  l^iin  cites  lUirke's  Extinct  Peerafjes^  one 

of  the  books  which  he  regrets  1  did  not  consult.     Now  Burke  says  that 

this  William  de  Ferrers,  who  obtained  the  Manor  of  Groby  as  a  gift  of 

liis  mother,  and  assumed  the  arms  of  the  de  Quencys,  married  Joane  le 

Despencer,  that  he  died  in  1287,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  William. 

Burke  says  nothing  about  his  having  a  second  wife.     From  the  several 

references  in  the  calendar  of  Scottish  History  it  is  clear  that  the  lady 

carried  off  by  Sir  William  Douglas  the  Hardie  was  not  Margaret  de 

Quency,  Countess  of  Derby.     Hume  of  Godscroft,  in  his  IIi»tory  af  tlie 

House  of  Douglas,^  says  that  Sir  William  Douglas  the  Hardie  had  for 

his  second  wife  an  English  lady  called  Ferrar.     The  same  old  historian 

tells  us,  **  there  are  that  say  that  Sir  William  was  sent  to  Berwick  to 

Newcastle  and  from  thence  carried  to  York  in  the  castle  thereof  he  died 

and  was  buried  in  a  little  chapel  at  the  end  of  the  bridge  which  is  now 

altogether  decayed."     It  is  clear  from  references  in  the  calendar  edited 

by  Mr  Bain  that  Sir  William  was  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower  of  London, 

and  that  he  died  about  the  end  of  the  year  1297. 

It  seems  likely  that  the  de  Quencys,  when  living  at  their  estates  in 
East  Lothian,  resided  at  Fawside,  which  is  by  far  the  best  military  situa- 
tion in  the  neighbourhood,  though  there  are  no  traces  of  an  earthwork 
upon  it.  Speaking  of  the  ruins  remaining,  Macgibbon  and  Ross,  in  their 
valuable  work  on  the  Castellated  Architecture  of  Scotland,^  observe : 
**  There  seems  to  be  no  evidence  of  the  date  of  erection  of  this  keep,  and 
from  its  style  we  cannot  ascril>e  to  it  an  earlier  date  than  the  latter  half 

*  The  History  of  the  House  of  Douglas  ami  AiigiuSy  by  David  Hume  of  Godscroft ; 
Edinburgh,  1644,  p.  16. 

'^  Edinburgh,  1887,  vol.  i.  p.  409, 


of  the  14th  or  the  15th  century."  These  authors  say  notliing  of  the 
de  Quencys.  The  Normans  who  settled  in  Scotland  were  not  so 
busy  at  building  castles  in  the  first  century  of  their  coming  to  Scotland  as 
they  were  in  England,  and  most  of  the  fortresses  which  they  did  erect 
were  remodelled  in  after  times.  Nevertheless,  it  would  be  difficult 
to  distinguish  a  keep  of  the  12th  century  from  one  of  the  14th 
century ;  and  it  is  at  least  possible  tliat  the  square  keep  may  have  been 
the  donjon  of  the  wustle  of  tliese  almost  forgotten  Norman  lords. 

In  the  Bull  of  Pope  Alexander  III.  confirming  the  monastery  of  Inch- 
colme,  dated  on  the  11th  day  of  March  1178,  there  are  mentioned  among 
the  possessions  of  the  church  of  St  Colmc^s  Inch  a  thousand  eels  out  of 
Strathenry,  the  gift  of  Robert  de  Qucncy.  Strathenry  is  in  the  parish  of 
Leslie  by  the  river  Leven.  The  Rev.  William  Ross  adds  further  infor- 
mation.^ Later  statements  tell  us  that  "along  with  the  thousand  eels, 
the  convent  had  a  right  to  two  swine  and  a  cow,  yearly,  out  of  the  lands 
of  Stmthenry.  This  curious  annual  rent  was  the  gift  of  Robert  de 
Quency,  whose  name  I  find  ivs  a  witness  in  many  cliarters  of  the  time  of 
William  tlie  Lion."  The  monks  did  not  let  slip  their  thousand  eels,  and 
as  Dr  Ross  tells  us,  innumerable  quarrels  arosci  regarding  this  annual 
tribute,  until  it  was  at  length  agreed  that  the  payment  should  be  com- 
muted, and  tliat  instead  of  a  thousand  eels,  two  swine,  and  a  cow,  the 
proprietor  of  Stratlienry  should  give  the  convent  a  yearly  sum  of  38 
shillings  sterling,  payment  to  be  made  at  the  i)arish  church  of  Fithkil,  as 
Leslie  was  of  old  called.  This  papnent  was  not  regularly  made,  and 
was  the  subject  of  compromise  between  the  Abbot  and  Walter  of  Strath- 
enry on  the  6tli  day  of  Octol)er  1354 — forty  years  after  the  battle  of 

It  is  also  recorded  that  Seyr  de  Quency  made  a  gmnt  of  the  lands  of 
Dunikeir  to  the  monks  of  Dunfermline. ^ 

Before  parting  with  ^Ir  Bain  I  ouglit  to  thank  him  for  the  additional 

*  Abci'dour  and  JhcJicoIttic,  by  the  Rev.  "William  Ross,  LL.D. ;  Edinburgh,  1885, 
pp.  64  and  121. 
2  Register,  Dunfermline,  N.  155. 


light  which  he  has  thrown  upon  an  obscure  field  of  research.  It  is  to  be 
hoi>ed  that  he  may  yet  find  time  and  opportunity  to  read  the  200 
charters  relating  to  the  de  Quencys  preserved  in  Magdalen  College.  An 
examination  by  so  competent  an  archaeologist  would  not  fail  to  elicit 
facts  of  imi)ortance  in  illustrating  the  historj'  both  of  Scotland  and  of 

[My  friend,  Mr  Christopher  Aitchison,  has,  during  the  summer  of  1900, 
examined  these  charters  at  Magdalen  College,  Oxford.  They  are  de- 
8cril)ed  in  the  manuscript  calendar  of  the  College.  Mr  Aitchison  has 
sent  to  me  some  extracts  from  these  documents.  The  charters  are 
princijmlly  grants  to  the  hospitiil  of  St  John  and  St  James  at  Brack eley 
in  Northamptonsliire,  for  the  maintenance  of  chaplains,  and  the  burning 
of  candles  at  the  altar  for  the  souls  of  Seyr  and  Roger  de  Quency  and 
their  wives  and  children.  Amongst  these  are  grants  from  the  demesne 
of  (Jask  in  Perthshire,  and  other  proofs  of  the  extensive  jKwsessions  of 
this  family.  There  are  two  grants  (dated  1240  and  1256),  in  which 
Xloger  de  C^uency  provided  for  the  burial  of  his  body  at  Brackeley  ;  but 
IK)  record  was  found  of  his  actual  burial.  If  Roger  de  Quency  died  in 
Scotland,  it  would  have  l)een  in  accordance  with  the  custom  of  those 
t^imes  that  his  heart  alone  should  l>e  sent  to  Brackeley.] 





About  a  quarter  of  a  mile  west  of  tlie  Eatablishe<l  Cliurch  at  8tmthy, 
Hufcherlatiilsljire,  resting  iu  the  moi^rland  beside  the  old  march  dyke, 
there  hiisj  lain  fur  centui'ies,  negh^cted  and  uituoticed,  a  rude  stone  slab 
{tig.  1}  l>earin^^  an  incised  crosi^  of  a  type  which,  if  not  aJtogether  mre,  is 

Fig.  L  Rude  Stone  Cross  at  Stratliy. 

yet  absolutely  unique  among  Scottish  crossef?.  The  alah,  a  rough,  un- 
dressed sandstone^of  the  same  kind  sia  exists  iti  the  neighlxairhooil — is 
broken  at  certain  points,  but  the   central   surface  is  intact.     It  is  54 


inches  in  length,  8  inches  in  thickness,  and  the  broadest  part,  from  arm 
to  arm  of  the  cross,  is  21  inches.  In  appearance  it  is  somewhat  coffin- 
shaped  ;  but  this  resemblance  is  clearly  accidental — the  result  of  recent 
breakage — and  not  intended  in  the  original  design. 

The  cross  from  summit  to  base  is  34  inches,  and  from  arm  to  arm  18 J 

The  summit  and  the  base,  as  well  as  the  two  arms,  end  in  circles 
formed  by  the  outer  lines  of  the  cross — the  lines  lacing  2  inches  broad 
and  nearly  1  inch  in  depth.  Inside  these  again  are  hollows  or  cups  ;  the 
one  at  the  bottom  slightly  oval,  the  rest  more  or  less  round.  The  circles 
and  cups  at  the  top  and  foot  are  of  the  same  dimensions — the  circles  6 
inches  and  the  cups  3  inches  in  diameter.  Those  in  the  arms  are  J  inch 
less  than  these.  In  the  centre  of  the  cross  are  traces  of  a  small  and 
almost  obliterated  cup.  On  the  vacant  spaces  in  the  cross — on  the  shaft, 
arms  and  summit — are  slight  lines  as  indicated  in  the  drawing. 

As  to  the  origin  and  age  of  this  curious  cross,  tradition  and  topography 
are  alike  silent.  All  that  we  have  therefore  to  guide  us  in  this  direction 
is  the  cross  itself  and  its  distinctive  features.  At  first  sight  the  work 
would  seem,  from  the  rudeness  of  its  art,  and  the  depth  and  clearness  of 
the  incised  lines,  to  be  of  mediaeval  or  late  Christian  date.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  cups  and  rings  at  tlie  four  extremities,  and  the  central  cup, 
evidently  point  to  a  much  earlier  period.  Cup-marked  stones  have 
occasionally  been  found  in  connection  with  early  Christian  burials,  and  a 
cross,  though  not  unquestionably  the  cross  of  Christianity,  appears  in  con- 
junction with  these  symbols  in  the  Lough  Crew  group  of  stones,  and 
occasionally  in  Norway  on  the  rock  surfaces — both  of  which  are  usually 
assigned  to  the  Bronze  Age.  If,  then,  the  circles  and  hollows  on  the 
Strathy  Cross  could  be  supposed  to  have  been  intended  to  represent  the 
*  cups  and  rings  *  of  pagan  times,  we  might,  perhaps,  be  justified  in 
assigning  to  it  a  very  early  age — an  age  of  transition  between  Christianity 
and  paganism — when  the  old  forms  were  still  current  and  exercised  an 
influence  on  the  rude  art  of  the  time.  In  any  case,  whether  it  be  old 
or  comparatively  recent,  whether  it  belongs  to  the  7  th  century  or  to  the 


13th,  the  cross  is  of  much  archaeological  interest  as  indicating  in  the 
Christian  period  the  existence  and  use  of  a  type  of  art  that  is  i)eculiarly 
associated  with  paganism. 


PEEBLESSHIRE.  By  WILLIAM  BUCHAN,  Town  Clerk,  Peebles, 
F.S.A.  Scot. 

The  object  to  which  this  note  refers  was  found  in  the  month  of  June 
1899,  on  the  farm  of  Glencotho  in  Holms  Water,  Peeblesshire,  by  Mr 
Walter  Smail,  shepherd.  He  states  that  one  showery  day  in  the  end 
of  June  he  was  passing  an  oi)en  gnissy  space  amongst  the  surrounding 
heather  near   the   liead  of   Glencotho   Burn,  when   he   saw  something 

Fig.  1.  Bronze  Chape  of  Scabbard  for  a  Sword  of  the  late  CeUic  iHjriod. 

{^littering  in  tlie  sun  on  tlie  top  of  a  newly  throwTi-up  molehill,  about 
fifty  yards  from  the  burnside.  He  picked  up  the  object  here  shown 
(fig  1.),  which  is  the  bronze  chape  or  tip  of  a  scabbard  for  a  sword  of 


the  Late-Celtic  period.  It  weighs  a  little  over  two  and  a  half  ounces 
and  is  fonned  of  two  curved  pieces  of  bronze,  separate  at  the  top  and 
joined  at  the  foot,  but  it  is  possible  that  it  may  have  been  cast 
in  a  single  piece.  It  is  three  inches  in  length,  each  ann  is  on  an 
average  half  an  inch  wide  by  three-eightlis  of  an  inch  deep.  At  the  top 
the  arms  converge  to  within  half  an  inch  of  each  other,  then  open  out  to 
a  width  of  seven-eighths  of  an  inch  and  gradually  converge  towards  the 
foot  where  they  join.  The  outer  sides  of  the  arms  are  rounded,  and  the 
inner  sides  are  deeply  grooved  or  hollowed  out  from  top  to  bottom.  On 
the  outside  of  the  inner  edges  of  each  arm,  back  and  front,  there  is  a 
narrow  moulding  which  at  the  top  of  each  arm  swells  out  into  two 
lip-like  mouldings  with  a  well  marked  groove  between  them  and 
smaller  mouldings  at  the  edges  of  the  lips.  At  the  foot  the  narrow 
lateral  moulding  swells  out  into  another  lip  which  curves  outwards  and 
backwards  upon  itself.  There  is  a  deep  groove  between  the  mouldings 
where  the  arms  join.  On  wliat  may  be  called  the  front  of  the  chape 
the  lower  of  the  two  lip  mouldings  at  tlie  top  runs  downwards  for  about 
half  the  length  of  each  arm,  and  curves  outwards,  ending  on  each  arm  in 
an  ornament  like  a  leaf  or  bird's  head,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  a  small 
hollow  circle  with  the  ring  in  relief.  The  outer  surface  of  the  chape  is 
polished  except  where  eroded.  The  right  arm  looking  at  the  front  htis 
a  small  nail  or  rivet  hole  near  the  top  running  from  the  outside  of  the 
arm  through  to  the  inner  groove. 

Mr  Smail  says  that  the  locality  of  the  find,  although  on  a  hillside,  is 
not  on  steep  ground.  He  saw  no  trace  of  a  camp  or  fort,  but  states  that 
in  the  grassy  area  there  are  a  number  of  small  knolls  like  large  mole- 
hills grown  over  with  grass.  The  place  is  about  1200  feet  above  sea 

Glencotho  is  about  two  miles  from  the  watershed  between  the  Tweed 
and  the  Clyde.  About  two  miles  to  the  east  as  the  crow  flies  is  the 
farm  of  Stanho|>e  on  Tweedside,  where  in  1876  a  Late-Celtic  bronze 
armlet,  a  Roman  patella  and  two  small  bronze  ornaments  were  found — 
these  are  numbers  F.A.  25-28  of  the  Museum  Catalogue. 


I  have  much  pleasure  in  announcing  that  since  this  paper  was  road, 
the  bronze  scabbard-tip  has  been  presented  to  the  National  Museum  by 
Rev.  Andrew  Baird,  B.D.,  minister  of  Broughton,  to  whom  it  had  been 
given  by  the  finder. 

Monday,  I2th  March  1900. 
The  Hon.  JOHN  ABEECROMBY,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

A  Ballot  having  been  taken,  W.  D.  Graham-Mbnzies  of  Hallyburton 
was  duly  elected  a  Fellow,  and  Mungo  Buchanan,  Falkirk,  a  Corre- 
sponding Member  of  the  Society. 

The  following  donations  to  the  Museum  and  Library  were  laid  on  the 
table  and  thanks  voted  to  the  Donors  : — 

(1)  By  tlie  Excavation  Committee,  with  consent  of  Mr  Forbes  of 

Callander,  the  Proprietor. 

Large  collection  of  Pottc^ry  ;  bronze  objects,  chiefly  Harness-mountings 
and  Fibulae,  sonic  beautifully  enamelled  ;  iron  implements  and  objects 
of  l)Oue  and  stone,  obtained  by  the  Society  from  the  excavation 
of  the  Roman  site  of  Camelon,  near  Falkirk.  [See  the  subsequent 
account  of  the  excavation  of  Camelon.] 

(2)  By  Mr  James  Russel  of  Blackbraes,  through  Mr  James  Curle. 

Roman  .Utar  (fig.  1)  dedicated  by  an  Ofticer  in  the  Tungrian  Cavalry 
to  the  Magusan  Hercules,  found  in  1841  near  the  Bridge  of  Brightons, 
to  the  south-east  of  Falkirk.  The  altar  is  2  feet  9  inches  in  height  by 
1  foot  wide,  and  bears  on  the  front  the  following  inscription  : — Hbrculi 
Magu8an[o]  sacrum.  Valerius  Nigrinus  dupli[carius]  alae  Tung- 
RORUM.     It  is  No.  1090  of  Hubner's  "  Inscriptiones  Britanniee  Latinae" 



in  the  seventh  volume  of  the  Carpus  Inscriptionum  Latinarum^ 
iterlin,  1873,  and  is  described  and  figured  in  Stuart's  Caledonia 
Jiomana^  p.  359  and  plate  xv. 






Fig.  1.  Roman  Altar  found  near  Bridge  of  Brightons  in  1841. 

(3)  By  R  F.  Buchanan,  19  Rodney  Street. 

Perforated  Hammer  of  porphyritic  stone  from  Orkney. 

rrr.  march  12,  1900. 

•■-.   tlirough  James  Palgarso. 

Iviitrtli,    f«ninil  on   the   farm  "f 

•     ■'    II..  tjin'on  Anne,  and  ("leni>:e  II. 

..  i:.\  '-.D..  Minister  of  r»rou.L'ht«»n. 

-/  I::    tvjM',  foinnl  in  a  m.»Iehill  ..n  OKii- 
.  -»-/  r* .     [S.M-  tin-  previi'us  ConimuuiiMii-ii 

\.  9  Mt-nt-au*  T'-rraoi-. 
■f'.v-s  m-l  I 'III-  inirri«.«r  view  of  the  Iinn 
i-r  vh  «.•£  Cli'krniin,  S^hetlanvl  :  i«fst«'i  :  an-l  "f  a  ShrtLuul  nui-rn. 


L  ^♦^ 

:':^:-:»;;    a  >     f  ::.v  C  u-.-ii,   1559 

-      :•  <  ■^  .    A  :^     :   ::.v  Privy  C-^ 
-       :  -:.:     r.-    >.  S:v;:.:<L  15S7-16 

"    '."LTV 

■^1  vil. 

v^iinrE  ..  r  :;■.:-:  I'MYrK-iTY  LiPKAiixr- 


There  were  also  Exhibited : — 

(1)  By  Rev.  J.  D.  Anderson,  Manse  of  Hoy,  Orkney. 

Silver  Bracelet,  with  jointed  opening,  said  to  have  been  found  in  a 
moss  near  Alford,  Aberdeenshire. 

(2)  By  Alexander  Gray,  New  Deer,  Aberdeenshire. 

Seventeen    Borers   of    flint,   and    three   notched    imj)lements,    from 

(3)  By  Mrs  M'Intosh,  Dick  Place,  Edinlmrgh. 

Large  Spear-head  of  bronze,  witli  crossbar,  found  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Meerut,  India. 

The  following  Communications  were  read  : — 



[The  papers  composing  the  account  of  these  excavations  liave  been 
poBtponed  in  order  to  give  time  for  the  preparation  of  the  plans  and  other 

260  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MARCH   12,   1900. 


ARMITAGE.     Communicated  by  Profbssor  BALDWIN  BROWN,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

I  am  not  aware  that  any  serious  attempt  has  ever  yet  been  made  to 
ascertain  what  the  nature  of  an  Anglo-Saxon  fortification  was.  One  of 
our  best  archaeologists  observes  that  "  whatever  amount  of  difficulty  may 
attend  our  inquiry  respecting  the  domestic  buildings  of  the  Saxons,  the 
character  of  their  military  edifices  is  involved  in  far  greater  obscurity."  ^ 
It  is  possible  that  this  ignorance  is  mainly  due  to  not  making  use  of  the 
materials  which  exist  in  a  scattered  and  fragmentary  condition,  and 
which  have  never  been  pieced  together.  But  it  cannot  be  denied  that 
the  general  absence  of  interest  in  questions  of  English  archaeology  has 
led  to  a  complete  lack  of  accumulated  observations  on  the  subject ;  and 
the  difficulty  of  getting  information,  even  about  existing  remains,  can 
only  be  appreciated  by  those  who  have  attempted  an  inquiry  of  the 

What  is  worse  is  that  this  lack  of  interest  has  left  the  ground  open  to 
assumptions,  which  are  accepted  as  facts,  because  no  one  cares  to  dis- 
pute them.  It  seems  strange  that  in  the  nineteenth  century  any 
arclireologist  of  reputation  should  still  follow  the  method  of  the  archae- 
ologists of  a  hundi'cd  or  two  hundred  years  ago,  who  first  guessed  at 
things,  and  then  said  they  were  so.  Yet  this  is  certainly  the  method 
followed  l)y  the  late  ^fr  (I.  T.  Clark  in  his  otherwise  valuable  work  on 
MediiBval  and  MilUanj  Architecture.  Finding  that  in  several  places 
where  the  Anglo-Saxon  records  tell  of  hurlis  or  strongholds  erected  by 
our  forefatliers,  there  are  still  existing  round  hillocks  of  earth,  sur- 
roimded  with  ditches,  he  jumped  to  the  conclusion  that  a  hurh  was  a 
moated  hillock,  and  then  proceeded  to  assert  that  it  was  so,  without  any 
further  inquiry  into  the  literary  history  of  the  word.  The  evidence 
wliich  he  adduced  in  support  of  his  assumption  was  chiefly  this : — 1st, 

*  Hudson  Turner,  History  of  Domestic  Architecture  in  England^  vol.  i.  |>.  18. 


^^  the  fifty  hurha  mentioned  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  there 

^enty-two  still  existing  where  moated  mounds  of  the  kind  in  ques- 

^^e  to  be  found  ;  2n(l,  many  of  these  works  are  known  to  have  l)ecn 

.    ^^^tre  or  caput  of  great  estates  in  Saxon  times.^     Strange  to  say, 

"^ery  scanty  and  disputable   evidence  has  been  accepted  witliout 

^ion  even  ])y  such  writers  as  Freeman  and  Green,  and  is  adopted 

^^^fit  of  the  antiquarian  lx)oks  and  papers  written  during  the  last 

>^^^^  years. 

^  ^ith  the  theory  that  these  moated   hillocks   mark   the  centre  of  a 

^'^te  estate  in  Saxon  times,  this  paper  will  not  attempt  to  deal,  as  it 

y^  ^  ^  left  in  the  far  more  competent  hands  of  Mr  J.  11.  Round,  who 

^^  clearly  expressed  liis  dissent  from  it.^     The  philological  and  historical 

Mence,  and  the  evidence  drawn  from  the  actual  remains,  will  be  sufli- 

*^^iit  for  the  purpose  of  this  paper.     What  first  led  the  writer  to  doubt 

^^«  truth  of  Mr  Clark's  contention  tliat  a  hurh  was  a  conical  earthwork, 

^''^  that  on  looking  through  the  illustrated  Anglo-Saxon  MSS.  in  the 

^•^n'tish  Museum  to  find  a  picture  of  a  Imrh,  it  was  seen  that  the  Anglo- 

^axon  idea  of  a  hurh^  as  represented  by  those  })ictures,  was  an  enclosure 

^Vith  walls  and  towers  of  stone — in  other  words,  a  walled  town.*     Not 

^tDng  afterwards,  an  article  on  P^nglish  ctistles  in  the   Quarterly  Revieio 

^or  July  1894,  now  known  to  have  been  written  by  Mr  J.  H.  Round,  led 

to  the  conviction  that  Mr  Clark's  theory  of  buHis  was  simply  an  archaB- 

V>logical  delusion.     Mr   Round's  words  are :  "  We  hold  it  proved  that 

*  Mediccml  and  Military  Architecture,  pp.  22,  23. 

*-*  Essex  Archccologi4:al  Society  h  Traiisactians,  vol.  iii.  part  ii.  "Tlie  more  deeply 
1  have  studied  the  theories  of  '  Castle  Clark,'  the  more  reason  have  I  seen  to  doubt 
liis  view  that  these  strongholds  were  intended  for  the  centre  and  defence  of  a  private 
estate,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  lord  and  liis  household,  and  for  the  dwelling  of 
the  English  lord  who  succeeded  the  Roman  provincial."  In  his  Feudal  Emfland, 
Mr  Round  shows  that  most  of  the  Norman  fiefs  were  wholly  new  creations,  con- 
structed from  scattered  fragments  of  Anglo-Saxon  estates,  p.  260. 

'  On  p.  29  of  the  MS.  of  Pnidcntius  (Cleopatra  C.  viii.)  there  is  an  excellent 
drawing  of  a  four-sided  enclosure,  with  towers  at  the  angles,  and  haUlemented.  walls 
of  masonry.  The  title  of  the  picture  is  **Virtutes  urbem  ingrediuntur  *' ;  and 
urhem  is  rendered  in  the  A.S.  gloss  as  hurh. 


these  fortified  mottes  were,  at  least  in  some  cases,  erected  in  the  Con- 
queror's days,  and  if  this  is  proved  of  some,  it  becomes  probable  of 
many.  Indeed,  so  far  as  what  we  may  term  private  castles  are  con- 
cerned, there  is  actually,  we  think,  a  presumption  in  favour  of  this  late 
origin."  It  is  proposed  in  this  paper  to  carry  this  contention  even 
further,  and  to  maintain  that  while  the  hurha  of  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle  are  almost  always  walled  towns,  the  moated  hillocks  scattered 
so  thickly  over  England  and  south-western  Scotland  are  the  remains  of 
castles  built  by  Normans, 

The  philological  evidence  is  of  considerable  importance  in  this  con- 
tention. There  is  not  the  smallest  reason  to  suppose  that  the  word  hurh 
ever  meant  a  hillock,  for  tlie  history  of  the  word  can  be  clearly  traced. 
Mr  Clark  had  not  the  advantage  of  consulting  the  New  English 
Dictionary^  which  had  not  appeared  when  he  wrote,  but  had  he  looked 
into  SchmiiVa  Gesetze  der  Angehachsen,  he  would  have  learned  that  a 
burh,  which  is  derived  from  the  same  root  as  the  verb  hergian^  to 
shelter,  meant  originally  a  wall  of  some  kind,  whether  of  earth,  wood  or 
stone,  built  for  protection.  As  in  the  case  of  the  words  tun^  yard  or 
garth,  and  icorth  or  ward,  the  sense  of  the  word  became  extended  from 
the  protecting  bulwark  to  the  thing  protected.  In  this  sense  of  a  forti- 
fied enclosure,  the  word  was  naturally  applied  by  the  Anglo-Saxons  to 
the  prehistoric  and  British  "  camps  "  which  they  found  in  Britain,  such 
as  Cissbury,  or  to  similar  forts  which  they  constructed  themselves,  such 
as  Bebbanburh  (Baml)orough).  Sometimes  the  burh  was  probably 
nothing  more  than  a  palisade  or  hedge  round  a  great  man's  house,  if  we 
may  judge  from  the  innumerable  places  whose  names  end  in  bury  or 
borough,^  from  which  every  vestige  of  bulwark  has  totally  disappeared. 

Tlic  laws  of  Ethelbert  of  Kent,  Ine  of  Wessex,  and  Alfred,  speak  re- 
spectively of  the  king's  and  earl's  tun,  huse,  and  JieaUa,  and  special 

*  The  dative  form  byrig  is  the  origin  of  the  names  ending  in  bury.  "  To  say 
nothing  of  hamlets,  we  have  full  260  parishes  whose  names  end  in  burgh,  bury,  or 
borougli,  and  in  many  cases  we  sec  no  sign  in  them  of  an  ancient  camp  or  of  an  ex- 
ceptionally dense  population."    Maitlaud,  Domesday  Book  and  Beyond,  p.  184. 


^    .     ^^^^>^ent8  are  ordained  for  crimes  committed  within  their  precincts.^ 
i  ^^^si\)le  that  in  two  instances  in  the  later  laws,  the  Tdng^a  burh  is 
^^   the  same  sense.-     But  from  the  time  of  the  laws  of  Athelstan 
^    ^^irii   burh  far  more  commonly  means  a  city  or  town.     Thus  he 
^**«-r\^  .that  there  shall  be  a  mint  in  every  hurhJ    And  it  appears  that 
^^V  the  town  has  its  gemot  or  meeting."*     In  the  laws  of  Edgar's 
^^d  later,  the  hurh  has  not  only  its  btirhrgemot^  but  its  burh-gere/a 
^"^ix-reeve,  and  its  Imrh-waru  or  townsmen.^     Burh  is  contrasted  with 
«>^T\take  as  town  with  country.^     And  in  this  sense  it  has  descended 
.        ^^  own  day  as  a  borough,  though  because  the  word  borough  has  so 
^^R  meant  a  chartered  town  or  a  town  with  parliamentary  representa- 
^>  we  have  forgotten  its  older  meaning  of  a  fortified  town. 
*^f  we   turn   to   Anglo-Saxon   literature,    we   get   the   same   answer. 
"Alfred  in  his  Orosius  translates  city  by  burhJ     The  Anglo-Saxon  trans- 
action of  the  Gospels  (circa  a.d.   1000)  uses  the  same  word   for  the 
^vitateni  of   the   Latin   version.®     In  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  the 
^ords  getoeorc  or  faesten  are  generally  used  for  a  fortress  hastily  thrown 
Up,  and  burh  is  reserved  for  fortified  towns.     The  word  burh,  indeed,  is 
seldom  used  in  the  Chronicle  until  we  come  to  the  time  of  Edward  the 
Elder.     It  is  conclusive  as  to  the  general  meaning  of  the  word  that 

*  V.  Schraid's  OesUze  der  Angtlsachsen,  Ethelbert,  5,  Ine.  p.  22,  Alfred,  p.  74. 

'^  Thus  Eklmund  (ii.  2)  speaks  of  mine  hurh  as  an  asylum,  the  violation  of  which 
brings  its  special  punishment  (Schmid,  p.  176),  and  Ethelred  (iii.  4)  ordains  that 
every  compurgation  and  every  ordeal  shall  take  place  on  thae^t  kyninges  byrig, 
(Schmid,  p.  214).  A  charter  of  Alfred's  time  speaks  of  the  hedge  of  the  king's 
burh.  Birch's  Cartularium^  ii.  305.  The  word  burh  does  not  occur  in  the  laws  of 
Edward  the  Elder. 

3  Athelstan,  ii.  2.     Schmid,  p.  140. 

^  Professor  Maitland  says :  '*  In  Athelstan's  day  it  seems  to  be  supposed  by  the 
legislator  that  a  moot  will  usually  be  held  in  a  hurh.  If  a  man  neglect  three  sum- 
monses to  a  moot,  the  oldest  men  of  the  hurh  are  to  nde  to  his  place  and  seize  his 
goods."    Domesday  Book  and  Beyond ,  p.  185. 

*  Edgar,  iii.  5.  Ethelred,  ii,  6.  Athelstan  speaks  of  the  reeves  of  every  hurh, 
I.  Preface. 

*  OCSe  on  burge,  ©"Site  on  wsepengetacce,  Edgar,  iv.  2. 
'  New  English  Dictionary ^  Borough. 

■  lb.  Matt.  xxi.  17. 

264  PROCtifiDINGS   OF  TltE   SOCIETY,   MAKCll   12,  1900. 

Florence  of  Worcester,  one  of  the  most  accurate  of  our  early  annalists,  in 
his  account  of  Edward's  reign,  regularly  translates  the  burh  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  by  urbs.^ 

But  though  we  may  now  feel  certain  that  the  general  sense  of  the 
word  Imrh  was  a  town,  its  more  special  sense  as  an  enclosing  bulwark 
does  not  api)ear  to  have  been  forgotten  in  Anglo-Saxon  times.  Thus 
Athelstan  orders  that  all  burhs  shall  be  repaired  fourteen  days  after 
Rogations ;  ^  and  Cnut,  when  making  a  similar  provision,  expressly 
defines  it  as  civitatum  emendatio,^  Here  the  word  for  toMTi  is  used  for 
the  town  wall.  The  same  sense  appears  as  late  as  the  reign  of  William 
Rufus,  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  (1092) ;  when  relating  the  restora- 
tion of  Carlisle  by  that  King,  it  says  : — "  He  repaired  the  burJiy  and 
ordered  the  ccutell  to  be  built."*  And  finally,  a  remarkable  charter  of 
Ethelred  of  Mercia  and  Ethelfleda  his  wife  states  that  they  have  com- 
manded the  burh  at  Worcester  to  be  built  as  a  protection  to  all  the 
people.'*  Ethelred  and  his  wife  were  not  building  a  n6w  to^vn,  for 
Worcester  already  had  its  churclies  and  its  bishop,  and  possibly  the 
remains  of  its  Roman  walls,  but  they  were  building  or  rebuilding  a  town 
wall  or  embankment  to  protect  the  city  from  tlie  Danes. 

It  is  equally  clear  that  a  burh  was  not  a  castle,  in  the  sense  in  which 
we  commonly  use  that  word.  The  word  castdhim  is  occasionally  used 
in  Anglo-Saxon  charters,  but  when  it  is  used  it  clearly  means  a  town.^ 

^  Florence  of  Worcester  lived  at  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century  and  beginning  of 
the  twelfth,  when  Anglo-Saxon  was  still  a  livhig  language. 

2  Athelstan,  ii.  13.     Schmid,  p.  138. 

3  Cnut,  ii.  10.     Schmid,  p.  276. 

*  A  passage,  by  the  way,  which  is  fattil  to  Mr  Clark's  theory  that  a  burh  meant 
a  moated  hillock,  for  there  is  no  such  hillock  at  Carlisle. 

*  Hehtan  bewyrcean  tha  burh  at  Weogernaceastrc  eallum  tham  folce  to  gebeorge. 
Birch's  Cartularium^  ii.  222. 

^  Thus  a  charter  of  Egbert  of  Kent,  765,  says  :  **  Trado  terram  intra  castelli  moenia 
supranominati,  id  est  Hrofescestri,  unum  viculum  cum  duobus  jugeribus,  adjacentem 
plateae  quie  terminus  a  meridie  hujus  terrse,"  etc.  Codex  DiplomcUicus^  i.  138.  In 
two  charters  of  Ethel wulf,  Hroji  castellum  is  used  as  an  equivalent  for  Hrofecestre  or 
Rochester.  Birch's  Cartulurium^  ii.  48  and  86.  In  this  sense,  no  doubt,  we  must 
interpret  Asser's  **  castellum  quod  dicitur  Werham."     Vita  Elfredi,  478. 


It  has  been  necessary,  at  the  risk  of  tediousness,  to  spend  some  time 
on  the  history  of  the  word  hurh,  because  it  is  the  key  to  the  historical 
and  archaeological  evidence,  to  which  we  must  now  turn.  We  must  first 
inquire  what  models  the  Anglo-Saxons  were  likely  to  follow  in  fortress- 
building.  From  the  first  days  of  their  coming  to  Britain,  they  had  before 
their  eyes  the  remains  of  the  cities  and  camps  fortified  by  the  Romans. 
The  numerous  terminations  of  place  names  in  Chester,  caster,  and  cautery 
show  how  plentifully  the  island  was  furnished  with  Roman  toAvns,  each 
with  its  four-sided  bulwark  of  stone  or  earth. ^  It  has  been  maintained 
that  the  Saxons,  after  laying  the  Roman  towns  in  ruins,  avoided  rebuild- 
ing them  from  superstition  or  some  other  feeling,  and  made  their  own 
settlements  on  other  sites.  This  was  certainly  true  in  some  cases,  as,  for 
example,  when  the  Saxon  town  of  Rotherham  arose  at  the  distance  of 
about  a  mile  from  the  Roman  station  of  Templeborough.  But  the  great 
Roman  to^vn8,  such  as  Canterbury,  London,  Winchester,  and  York,  were 
evidently  occupied  by  the  English  from  the  first,  and  probably  they  kept 
the  walls  in  repair.  And  it  may  have  been  tlie  invasion  of  the  Danes 
which  led  Alfred  to  repair  and  occupy  many  chesters,  as  the  Saxons 
called  them,  which  had  until  then  ])een  unoccupied  and  ruinous.-  In 
886  the  Chri^niclo  tells  us  that  Alfred  repaired  "  Londonburh,"  and  com- 
mitted it  to  the  keej)ing  of  Kthelred  the  e^ildorman,  the  same  Ethelnid 
who  restored,  as  we  have  already  seen,  the  burh  of  Worchester.  William 
of  iMalmesbury  tells  us  that  the  city  of  Shaftesbury  was  built  by  Alfred  ; 
and  it  is  evident  that  the  old  Roman  castruni  at  L^Time  was  being 
rei)aircd  by  Alfrtnl's  orders,  when  the  workmen  who  were  repairing  it 
were  atUicked  by  the  Danes. "^     The  repair  of  the  city  of  Chester — the 

The  d<[uaro  or  parallel o;;ruTii  was  certainly  the  Roman  ideal,  but  the  nature  of 
the  grountl  often  led  them  to  vary  this  form,  so  that  many  Roman  towns  are  poly- 
fjonal.     See  the  plan  of  Compie^ne  in  Cohausen's  BefestUjuiujcn  der  Vorzcit  (fig.  99). 

-  Dr  Christison  thinks  the  Saxons  sometimes  gave  the  name  of  chesUr  to  their  own 
fortifications,  even  when  they  liad  no  Roman  origin.  Early  Fortifiaitions  in  Scot- 
land, p.  105.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  whether  Roman  remains  have  been 
found  at  all  the  ehestcrs  in  Britain. 

y  A, a,  ChrouicU,  893. 


"  waste  Chester  in  Wirrall " — after  it  had  been  possessed  and  ruined  by 
the  Danes,  was  another  of  the  good  works  of  Ethelred  of  ^lercia,  in 
Alfred's  reign.  ^  A  cliarter  of  Edward  the  Elder's  reign  shows  that  he 
secured  the  old  Roman  city  of  Porchester,  by  exchanging  some  other 
lands  for  it  with  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  to  whom  it  ]>elonged.  We 
cannot  doubt  that  he  did  this  in  order  to  make  it  one  of  the  defences  of 
his  kingdom.- 

What  was  done  at  Porchester  was  doubtless  done  at  many  other 
places.  Sometimes  the  fortification  to  be  restored  or  the  new  one  to  l>e 
raised  would  be  a  stone  wall ;  sometimes  it  would  be  an  earthen  bank 
with  a  stockade  or  he<lge  or  wattle-work  fence  on  top,  such  as  Ida  reared 
at  Bamborough ;  sometimes  it  would  l)e  a  Thelwall  or  timber  palisade 
such  as  Edwanl  put  up  on  the  shores  of  the  Mersey.^  No  nation  is 
unacquainted  with  these  simpler  fonns  of  fortification ;  but  if  we  are  to 
judge  froni  the  Uluminated  manuscripts,  the  Anglo-Saxon  ideal  of  fortifi- 
cation was  formed  from  Roman  mod(ds,  just  as  their  oth(;r  architi»cture 
was,  and  the  solid  stone  wall  with  towers  and  battlements,  forming  either 
a  polygonal  or  a  square  enclosure,  was  what  they  preferred  when  time 
and  money  permitted. 

But  of  whatever  material  the  Saxon  tjefccorc  or  biirh  of  the  9th  and 
10th  centuries  was  constructed,  we  may  l)e  sure  of  one  thing :  that  Wie 
burh  enclosed  a  much  larger  area  than  the  ordinary  Norman  castle. 
The  works  construfcted  by  Alfred  and  Edward  and  Ethelfleda  were  not 

^  A.S.  Chronicle,  907. 

^  The  charter  of  Edward  speaks  only  of  some  cassati  of  land  at  Porchester,  but  a 
later  charter  of  Edgar,  which  recounts  this  transfer  of  land,  says  expressly  that  it 
was  the  appidum  of  Porchester  which  Edward  acquired  by  this  exchange.  It  is 
interesting  to  find  that  Mr  Clark  and  Mr  Smirke  both  remark  that  the  masonry  at 
Porchester  does  not  at  a  first  glance  suggest  Roman  work.  Possibly  an  expert  might 
be  able  to  separate  the  repairs  of  Edward  the  Elder  from  the  original  Roman  work 
in  the  outer  walls  of  Porchester,  as  well  as  from  the  later  additions  of  the  Norman 
and  Plantagenet  kings. 

'  Camden  was  the  first  to  point  out  this  etymology,  which  he  professes  to  quote 
from  Florence  of  Worchoster ;  but  it  is  not  to  be  found  in  Florence.  Britannia, 


castles,  built  for  the  personal  defence  of  some  great  man  and  his  family  ; 
they  were  not  forts,  intended  to  be  held  by  a  choice  body  of  troops,  for 
there  was  no  standing  army  from  which  to  draw  such  a  force ;  ^  they 
were  boroughs^  that  is,  towns,  hi  which  people  were  expected  to  live  and 
do  their  daily  work,  as  well  as  to  repair  and  defend  their  town  walls, 
while  at  the  same  time  these  walls  were  to  be  ample  enough  to  serve  as 
a  place  of  refuge  for  the  whole  country  side  at  the  time  of  a  Danish 
inroad.  The  people  of  England  would  no  longer  be  at  the  mercy  of  their 
barbarian  foe  if  they  could  take  refuge  behind  stout  bulwarks  while  the 
Dane  harried  the  country.  And  perhaps  from  these  bulwarks  they  could 
sally  forth  to  cut  off  his  retreat,  even  if  they  had  not  hail  the  courage  to 
oppose  his  advance.  But  as  Professor  Maitland  has  observed,  the  origin 
of  the  boroughs  was  largely  military,  and  in  all  probability  the  burghers 
were,  of  all  men  in  the  realm,  the  most  professionally  warlike.^ 

Before  we  turn  to  the  existing  remains  of  the  hurha  or  boroughs 
founded  in  the  9th  and  lOth  century,  it  may  l>e  well  to  say  a  few  words 
on  the  type  of  castle  which  Mr  Clark  supposed  to  be  iKJCuliarly  Anglo- 
Saxon,  or,  as  he  sometimes  more  vaguely  expressed  it,  Northern,  in  its 
origin.  The  type  is  a  very  marked  one,  and  consists  of  a  round  or  oval 
hillock  (there  are  a  few  cases  in  which  the  hillock  is  square),  truncated 
at  the  top  so  as  to  form  a  platform,  which  is  sometimes  large  enough  to 
sustain  extensive  buildings,  as  at  Tumworth,  sometimes  so  small  that  it 
cannot  have  carried  anything  larger  than  a  watch-tower,  as  at  Bradfiehl 
and  ^lexborough,  Yorkshire.  This  hillock  is  generally  surrounded  by  a 
ditch  with  a  bank  on  the  counterscarp,  and  ha^  attached  to  it  a  court- 
yard which  is  also  ditched,  and  has  evidently  had  banks  both  on  the 
scarp  and  counterscarp.  The  courtyard  is  usually  higher  than  the 
surrounding  land. 

^  I  will  not  ^o  so  far  as  to  assert  that  they  never  constructed  anything  small  enougli 
to  be  called  a  fort.  But  if  it  were  intendetl  for  permanent  occupation,  it  must  have 
been  maint^iined  on  the  same  system  as  the  boroughs  were  :  by  laying  on  the  magnates 
of  the  shire  the  duty  of  keeping  hawa  in  the  borough,  and  burgesses  in  those  haws. 
See  Maitland,  J)omcsday  Book  and  Bct/oiuf,  p.  189. 

'^  Domesday  Book  and  Bei/ond,  p.  190. 


In  very  many  cases,  the  ground  plan  of  these  earthworks  resembles 
a  figure  of  8,  in  which  the  upper  limb  is  very  much  smaller  than  the  lower. 
But  though  the  court  is  frequently  circular  or  semilunar  in  form,  this  is 
by  no  means  invariably  the  case;  and  it  will  be  seen  from  the  table 
given  in  this  paper  (p.  279)  that  rectangular  forms  predominate  in  the 
castles  built  by  William  the  Conqueror.  The  banks  of  these  courts 
were,  of  course,  crowned  l)y  stout  palisades,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  these  enclosures  contained  the  stables,  kitchens,  workshops,  and 
other  necessary  appurtenances  of  a  castle.  The  hillock  carried  on  its 
summit  the  lord^s  residence,  a  wooden  tower,  which  served  as  a  citadel 
in  the  last  resort,  as  well  as  a  look-out  station  from  which  to  watch  the 
foe.  The  hillock  is  generally  artificial,  though,  as  might  be  expected,  in 
cases  where  a  natural  hill  or  rock  offered  itself,  it  has  been  utilised  to 
form  the  base  or  even  the  entire  citadel.  But  the  situation  of  these 
fortresses  differs  entirely  from  that  of  the  more  ancient  prehistoric 
camps,  where  natural  strongholds  were  chosen  by  preference.  The 
moated  hillocks  are  almost  always  found  in  towns  or  villages,  on  the 
level  of  the  arable  country. 

The  wooilen  castles  which  crowned  these  hillocks  had  a  special  name 
in  Norman  French ;  they  were  called  Itretasckes}  The  hillock  also  had 
its  name  in  the  same  language ;  it  was  called  a  mottCi  Latinised  as  mota. 
The  courtyard  was  known  as  the  haijle  or  bailey^  in  Low  Latin  ballium. 
As  these  are  the  proper  Norman  names,  and  there  are  no  others,  I  shall 
henceforth  speak  of  this  type  of  castle  as  the  motte-and-bailey  type.  The 
word  motte  is,  of  course,  the  same  as  the  mote  which  we  so  frequently 
find  in  the  south-west  of  Scotland,  and  in  other  parts  of  Great  Britain, 
and  which  is  also  found  in  some  old  English  records,  with  the  sense  of 
an  artificial  hill.  Thus  a  document  of  the  year  1585,  cited  by  Grose, 
says  that  Prudhoe  Castle  is  built  "on  a  high  nioate  of  earth." ^  d^ 
Christison,  in  his  Early  Fortifications  of  Scotland^  remarks  that  there  is 
the  same  confusion  between  moat  in  the  sense  of  a  ditch,  and  mote  or 

*  See  Dacange,  Bretaschia,  Mota,  and  Ballium. 
^  Grose's  AntiquitieSf  iv.  p.  5  of  Addenda. 

268  PfiOCSKBINOS  OF  TRK  SOCmir,  MAftCfi  IS 

castles,  built  for  the  personal  defence  of  wnn.*  gr«at  p 
they  were  not  forts,  intended  to  be  held  by  a  ehoi*  * 
there  was  no  standing  army  from  which  Ui  draw 
were  boroughs^  that  is,  t*>\vn*s  in  which  p(*oph>  wpt^ 
do  their  daily  work,  us?  woll  an  t^:*  repair  aiid  dftf 
while  at  the  same  timo  thesis  walk  wc^rc  t<j  Tie  mM) 
a  pUice  of  refuge  for  the  whole  country  «iik  lU 
inroad.     The  people  of  England  would  no  lon^i 
barbarian  foe  if  they  could  take  refuge  l^ehisiii 
Dane  harried  the  couritryi     AxmX  perliaxw)  {mm 
sally  forth  to  cut  off  hin  retreat,  even  if  thev  ! 
oppose  his  advance.     But  »is  Profassor  Mai  tin 
of  the  boroughs  was  largely  military,  and 
were,  of  all  men  in  tlie  rMlmj  the  mo^X  1 1 

Before  we  turn  to   the  existing  ivr. 
founded  in  the  9th  and  10th  century,  U  i% 
on  the  tyi)e  of  castle  whith  Mr  Clar^      ' 
Saxon,  or,  as  he  sometimes  more  vaf^u  ' 
origin.     The  type  is  a  very  marked  i«ir*. 
hillock  (there  are  a  few  ismm  in  ^vl 
at  the  top  so  as  to  form  a  ]jkitfon3u 
sustain  extensive  bui Mings,  tls  jiI    1  ' 
cannot  have  carried  anything  larg'  t 
and  Mexborough,  Yoikshire *     T1  n - 
ditch  with  a  bank  on  the  tounli  r 
yard  which  is  also  diU-liml,  and  ^ 
scarp  and  counterscarp,     71  ii 
surrounding  land 

*  I  will  not  pfo  80  far  an  to  v^hMn\  t 
to  Ikj  called  a  fort.     But  rf  U  w^e  i 
been  maintained  on  the  haniv  Fvtf  n 
of  the  shire  the  duty  of  k^^*  j^hk  ^  • 
Sec  Maitland,  Domesday  Mtml- 

'^  Domcaday  Book  and  B*:ij<i><^\,  i 



Monk's  Kirby  on  the  borders  of  WarAvickshire.  In  only  ten  of  these 
twenty-six  places  is  a  motte  to  be  found,  and  in  every  case  there  is 
evidence  tending  to  show  that  the  motte  was  connected  with  a 
subsequent  Norman  castle.^ 

BuRHS  OF  Ethelflbda. 

Worcester,  873-899. 

Chester,  907. 

Bremeeburh,  911. 

Scacrgate,  913. 

Bridgenorth,  913. 

Tamworth,  914. 

Stafford,  N.  of  Sowe,  914. 

Eddisbury,  915. 

Warwick,  915. 
Cyricbyrig  (Monk's  Kirby),  916. 

Weardbyrig,  916. 

Kuncom,  916. 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 



No  motte,  but  a  Norman  stone  keep. 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 


No  motte  ;  a  medueval  castle  (?). 

BuRus  OF  Edward  tub  Elder. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

A  motte  and  bailey. 


A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

No  motte,  but  an  early  Norman  keep. 


No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

A  motte  and  a  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

No  motte  ;  a  mediaeval  castle. 

No  motte  and  no  Norman  castle. 

A  motte  and  bailey  at  Bakcwell. 

Out  of  this  list,  fourteen  are  ancient  boroughs,  that  is  to  say  more  than 
half  the  names  in  the  list,  which  must  be  reduced  to  twenty-seven  if  the 

^  See  Appendix  A. 

'  Possibly  Cley  in  Norfolk.     If  so,  this  is  another  case  where  there  is  no  motte 
and  no  Korman  castle. 

Hertford,  N.  of  Lea, 


Hertford,  S.  of  Lea, 




Buckingham,  S.  of  Ouse, 


Buckingham,  N.  of  Ouse, 
Bedford,  S.  of  Ouse, 















Stamford,  S.  of  Welland, 

Nottmgham,  N.  of  Trent, 




Nottingham,  S.  of  Trent, 


Bakewell,  (near  to) 


272  PROCKBDINGS  OF  THB  SOCIETY,   MARCH   12,  1900. 

burhs  on  both  sides  of  the  river  at  Hertford,  Buckingham,  and  Nottingham 
are  counted  as  one.  I  have  counted  them  as  two  in  my  list,  because  the 
very  precise  indications  given  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  show  that 
each  burh  was  a  separate  construction.  If,  therefore,  a  burh  was  the 
same  thing  as  a  motte,  we  ought  to  find  mottes  on  each  side  the  river 
at  Hertford,  Buckingham,  and  Nottingham.  But  as  a  matter  of  fact, 
in  all  these  three  cases  we  only  find  mottes  on  that  side  of  the  river 
where  a  Norman  castle  was  subsequently  built,  and  they  always  form 
part  of  the  works  of  these  castles. 

Regarding  it,  then,  as  proved  that  a  burh  is  a  wholly  different  thing 
from  a  motte,  and  that  it  meant  generally  the  vallum  or  wall  of  an 
Anglo-Saxon  town,  we  must  now  consider  the  evidence  which  exists  to 
prove  that  the  mottes  were  the  work  of  the  Normans.  A  priori^  we 
can  see  that  such  castles  would  bo  extremely  advantageous  to  the 
Normans  in  England,  because  they  could  be  so  quickly  built.  They 
were  exactly  the  castles  which  were  needed  by  an  invader  who  was 
intending  to  settle  among  the  people  whom  he  was  conquering.  He  needed 
not  only  an  intrenchment  which  could  be  thrown  up  quickly,  but  he 
needed  one  which  could  be  defended  by  a  small  force,  for  he  had  only 
a  few  men  with  him  whom  lie  could  trust.  ^  He  needed  also  a  look-out 
station  from  which  his  sentinels  could  watch  the  disaffected  town  or  village 
which  had  fallen  to  his  share.  It  was  said  of  Roger  de  Montgomeri's 
castle  at  Shrewsbury  (which  was  originally  a  motte  and  bailey)  that 
not  a  l)ird  could  fly  in  the  streets  of  Shrewsbury  without  being 
observed  from  it.- 

But  we  arc  not  confined  to  arguing  that  the  Normans  would  be 
likely  to  build  castles  of  this  type;  we  can  show  by  i)ositive  evidence 
that  they  did  build  such  castles.  We  can  point  to  the  innumerable  mottes 
which  still  exist  in  Normandy,  some  in  their  primitive  condition  of 
simple  earthworks,  having  lost  their  wooden  stockades  and  bretasches ; 
others  transformed  into  mediaeval  castles  by  the  addition  of  walls  and 

^  See  article  on  English  Castles  in  Quarterly  Review  for  July  1894. 
•-  Leland's  Itinerary, 

274  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MARCH   12,  1900. 

single  exception  of  Dover  Castle,  which  was  built  by  Harold,^  and 
perhaps  Arundel,  which  Domeaday  Book  speaks  of  as  a  castrum  in  the 
reign  of  Edward  the  Confessor. 

The  motte-and-bailey  castles  are  scattered  very  thickly  over  Eng- 
land, though  as  no  complete  list  has  ever  been  made  of  them,  it  is  im- 
possible to  say  what  their  numbers  are.  But  their  distribution  in  Wales, 
Scotland,  and  Ireland  is  one  of  the  most  important  links  in  the  chain  of 
argument  for  their  Nonnan  origin.  In  South  Wales  it  is  impossible  to 
claim  these  mottes  as  the  work  of  a  former  English  proprietor ;  and  they 
certainly  were  not  the  native  Welsh  fashion  of  fortification,  for  the 
Welsh  were  still  in  the  tribal  stage,  and  the  goers  which  they  built 
were  intended  to  accommodate  large  numlKjrs  of  people.  Harold  hail  a 
great  campaign  in  Wales,  but  it  is  plain  that  the  only  jmrt  wliich  he 
retained  as  a  conquest  was  the  vale  of  Clwyd,  Radnor,  and  that  part  of 
Monmouthshire  which  lies  between  Wye  and  Usk.*^  But  the  Normans 
before  the  end  of  the  11th  century  liad  conquered  the  whole  of  South 
Wales,  and  the  building  of  castles  is  expressly  recorded  as  the  method 
by  wliich  they  fixed  their  hold  on  the  land.^  The  sites  of  these  castles 
still  remain,  as  well  as  the  tradition  of  their  Norman  founders,  and  though 
it  has  been  impossible  to  obtain  particulars  of  all  of  them,  at  least  30  can 
l)e  enumerated  where  mottes  are  yet  to  be  seen.  Several  of  these  castles 
are  mentioned  as  Norman  castles  in  the  Biut  y  Tyicysogion.  Grose  ex- 
presses his  surprise  that  the  castles  in  the  marches  of  Wales  are  so  often 
said  to  have  been  burnt  to  the  ground,  and  six  months  afterwards  are 
mentioned  as  standing  and  making  a  defence.  But  this  is  easily 
explained  if  we  suppose  them  to  be  wooden  castles  on  earthworks,  the 
earthworks  remaining  when  the  wooden  walls  and  buildings  were  de- 

In  Scotland,  also,  these  mottes  are  to  l>e  found,  and  they  have  been 

*  William  of  J umK'ges. 

-  See  Freeman's  Norman  Conquditj  vol.  ii. 

'^  "About  the  Calends  of  July,  the  French  came  into  Dyfcd  and  Coridigion, 
which  they  have  still  retained,  and  fortified  castles,  and  seized  upon  all  the  land  of 
the  Britons."     Brut  y  Tywyaoijion,  1091. 

276  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   SOCIETY,  MARCH   12,  1900. 

the     earthworks    themselves    correspond    precisely    to    the    Norman 

From  Ireland  we  obtain  evidence  of  the  same  kind.  The  motte-and- 
bailey  castle  is  to  be  found  in  Ireland,  but  only  in  the  English  pale,  that 
is,  in  the  part  of  the  country  conquered  by  the  Normans  in  the  12th 
century. 2  The  era  of  stone  keeps  had  then  begun  in  England,  but  the 
existence  of  these  castles  in  Ireland  shows  that  where  the  same  circum- 
stances prevailed  as  at  the  time  of  William's  conquest  of  England — need 
of  haste  and  limitation  of  men  and  resources — the  old  type  of  castle  was 
resorted  to.^  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  Normans  were  the  builders 
of  mottes  in  Ireland,  for  in  the  Anglo-Norman  poem  on  the  Conquest 
of  Ireland,  edited  by  Michel  and  Wright,  the  erection  of  mottes  by  the 
Norman  conquerors  is  mentioned  more  than  once.*  Richard  Fleming,  on 
receiving  the  Barony  of  Slane, 

Un  mot  fit  jeter 

Pur  068  ennemis  graver. 

And  when  Tirel  was  forced  to  abandon  the  castle  he  had  raised  at  Trim, 

the  Irish 

La  mot  firent  tut  de  geter, 
Desque  a  la  terre  tut  verser, 

^  Dr  Christison  states  that  there  are  many  mottes  which  have  no  vestige  of  bailey. 
But  it  is  much  easier  to  fill  up  a  ditch  with  its  own  vallum  than  to  level  a  motte  ; 
and  the  farmers  of  the  Lowlands  are  notoriously  industrious. 

'^  See  Wright's  Louthiava^  where  plans  are  given  of  many  of  these  mottes.  The 
small  size  of  the  area  they  enclose  is  remarkable  ;  it  i^oints  to  the  smallness  of  the 
force  at  the  disposal  of  the  builder.  Two  of  them  which  have  square  baileys 
(Castletown  and  Mount  Killaney)  do  not  cover  as  much  as  an  acre. 

^  Mottes  with  wooden  bretasches  were  undoubtedly  built  in  the  12th  century  in 
Plngland,  when  circumstances  compelled.  Very  probably  Ralph  Flambard*s  original 
castle  at  Norham  was  of  this  character,  as  the  ground  plan  is  certainly  that  of  the 
motte  and  bailey,  and  the  earthworks  and  general  treatment  of  the  position  are  what 
Mr  Clark  calls  *'  thoroughly  English  "  ;  so  of  course  he  introduces  a  previous  Saxon 
occupation,  though  Simeon  of  Durham  exf)ressly  states  that  there  had  been  no 
fortress  there  before,  to  resist  the  incursions  of  the  Scots.     (Simeon,  1072.) 

**  Quoted  by  Mr  Round  in  the  article  on  English  Castles,  QtuirUrly  Rcinew  for 
July  1894,  already  referred  to.  Mr  Round  remarks  that  the  description  of  the 
levelling  of  the  motte  after  burning  the  buildings  is  conclusive  as  to  the  character 
of  the  fortress. 


after  they  had  set  fire  to  the  wooden  buildings  which  stood  on 

I  have  already  remarked  that  the  word  mote  is  used  for  these  fortresses 
in  Scotland.  In  Ireland  also,  as  we  are  informed  by  Dr  Joyce,  large  high 
mounds  are  often  called  mota,^  Wales  also  retains  the  same  Norman 
word  in  at  least  one  district.  "  Moat  in  the  Englishry  of  Pembroke," 
says  Fenton,2  "  is  often  used  for  castle,  when  there  is  one  of  the  flat- 
headed  tumuli  with  a  ditch  roimd  it."  The  word  mota  is  of  course  the 
Low  Latin  for  motle,  and  it  was  in  common  use  in  early  mediaeval  times 
for  castles  of  this  construction.  Thus  the  iigreement  between  Henry  II. 
and  Stephen  speaks  of  the  Mota  of  Windsor  and  the  Mota  of  Oxford;^ 
at  both  places  there  are  mottes.  And  one  of  the  Close  Rolls  of  Henry 
IIL's  reign  orders  all  those  who  have  mottes  (motas)  in  the  valley  of 
Montgomery  to  strengthen  their  mottes  with  gooil  bretasches  without 

We  will  now  turn  to  the  evidence  which  we  get  from  the  castles 
which  are  known  from  our  early  records  to  have  been  built  in  the  reign 
of  William  I.  or  William  Rufus.  And  as,  in  drawing  an  inference  from  a 
multitude  of  facts,  there  is  no  method  so  clear  as  that  of  tabulating 
them,  a  list  is  subjoined  of  all  the  castles  which  good  contemporary 
authority  states  to  have  l)een  built  in  the  perioil  indicated,  that  is,  before 
the  close  of  the  11  th  century.^  The  iirst  table  (p.  271)  has  already  shown 
that  the  motte  is  not  found  on  the  sites  of  the  burhs  of  Edward  and 
Ethelflcda,  except  in  cases  where  a  Norman  castle  has  been  built  there 

1  Quoted  by  Dr  Christison,  p.  11. 

'  HUtorieal  Tour  in  Pembrokeshire,  1811. 

^  Rymer's  Foedera,  vol.  i. 

*  "  Precipimus  tibi  quod  ex  parte  nostra  finniter  preci2)ias  omnibus  illis  qni  motas 
habent  in  valle  de  Muntgumery  quod  sine  dilatione  motas  suas  bonis  bretaschiis 
firmari  faciant  ad  securitatem  et  dcfensionem  suam  et  partium  illarum." — Rot.  Glaus. 
9,  Henry  III.,  quoted  by  Clark,  i.  106. 

*  William  of  Malmesbury  and  Ordericus  Vitalis,  whose  authority  I  take  in  one  or 
two  cases,  may  not  be  strictly  called  contemporary,  but  they  were  both  bom  before 
the  end  of  the  11th  century,  and  their  authority  is  so  good  that  they  arc  among  our 
best  sources  for  the  history  of  that  period. 


in  the  midst  of  the  townsmen  with  whom  they  had  to  live.  This  fact 
alone  speaks  strongly  against  the  theory  of  a  Saxon  origin  for  these 
castles.  In  not  one  single  case  is  the  keep  now  on  the  mottc  of  early 
Nonnan  date ;  a  circumstance  which  certainly  supports  the  assumption 
that  the  early  Norman  castles  were  usually  of  timber.  There  is  no  masonry 
to  be  found  on  mottes  which  is  earlier  than  the  reign  of  Henry  I. 

It  is  quite  impossible  that  the  clearance  of  houses  in  towns  mentioned 
in  Domesday  Book  as  done  for  the  site  of  a  castle,  can  refer  to  the  add- 
ing of  a  bailey-court  to  an  already  existing  motte.  To  suppose  that 
mottes  existed  without  baileys  is  to  misunderstand  the  type  of  fortifica- 
tion under  consideration.  The  motte  and  bailey  formed  a  unit,  and  of 
its  two  parts  the  bailey  was  the  more  essential,  for  the  great  man  for 
whom  the  fortress  was  built  could  not  do  without  lodgings  for  his 
followers,  stables,  storehouses,  and  all  the  various  buildings  necessary  to 
a  castle,  whicli  we  must  remember  was  a  self-sufficing  establishment, 
carrying  on  a  number  of  arts  and  crafts  besides  those  relating  to  >var. 
The  motte  was  chiefly  necessary  because  the  lord  was  obliged  to  keep  a 
sharp  eye  on  liis  townsfolk  or  villagers.  I  do  not  believe  that  there  is  a 
single  instance  of  a  motte  erected  for  defence  which  can  be  proved  never 
to  have  had  a  bailey  attiiched  to  it,  unless  it  were  some  advanced  outpost 
in  a  frontier  district.  But  a  few  such  exceptions  would  not  invalidate 
the  general  statement  that  a  motte  with  its  bretasche  was  in  fact  the 
keep  of  a  castle,  and  was  ivs  little  likely  to  l)e  without  a  bailey  as  a  stone 
keep.  In  fact,  one  of  the  names  commonly  given  to  the  motte  in  old 
records  is  the  dungeon  hill,  and  the  word  dungeon  or  donjon  (which 
Skeat  derives  from  the  low  Latin  domnium)  means  the  lord's  residence. 

The  eminent  Danish  antiquary,  Dr  Soplius  Miiller,  in  treating  of  some 
speciiuens  of  the  niotte-and-bailey  which  are  found  in  Denmark,  makes 
the  luminous  remark  that  these  are  evidently  personal  fortifications, 
built  not  for  the  shelter  of  a  tribe  or  a  clan,  but  for  some  one  great  man 
and  his  immediate  following.^  They  are  in  fact  the  fortifications  of 
feudalism,  and  they  cannot  have  arisen  before  the  age  of  feudalism. 
^   For  OlcUid,  chap.  xii. 







Shape  of  Bailey. 

Bnit  y  I'ywy&ogion 





About  1  acre 


/  Domesday  \ 
1  Onlericus  j 



/  Domesday                 ) 
\  William  of  Poitiers  f 


8  acres 




U  acres 

/Oblong,  comers i 
\       rounded        / 

Brut  y  Tywysogion 


/Original  ward  \ 


Anglo-Saxou  Clironiclc 

Stone  Keep 

8  acres 



Motte-and-bailey  plan 

3  acres 




/Original  ward  V 
\      2  acres?     / 




\  rectangular  f 

Simeon  of  Durham 




2  acres? 




5  acres? 



Motte— destroyed 

Bayeux  Tapestry           ) 

-  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  J- 

Chron.  De  Bello            ) 


3  acres 


(  Domesday  \ 
1  Ordericus  / 


6  acres 

/  Siiuare,  comers  \ 
\       rounded       / 

/  Domesday                       \ 


G  or  7  acres 

Roughly  square 

\  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  / 


Motte  of  natural  rook 



Motte  of  natural  rock 

2  acres? 

Simeon  of  Durham 

Motte -destroyed 

( Donie8<lay                > 
^William of  Poitiers'^ 
(Ordericus                 ) 


(Original  ward  I 
{  about  3  acres  / 

A  half-moon 

/  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  \ 
\  Ordericua                      / 

Motte-and-bailey  plan 

3  acres? 

A  half -moou 



3  acres? 

Follows  ground 

(Wilfiamof  Jumltgea) 
-^<'uy  Mf  Amiens 
(MnltrfcitB                       ) 


li  acre 








r  Original  ward^ 
i    2  or  3  acres    / 




3|  acres 




(  Domesday  \ 
\  Ordericus  / 




/  Inner  ward  ) 
(about  3  acres/ 

William  of  Poitiers 

Stone  keep 

Rudely  square 

/  Domesday                 ) 
\  William  of  Poitiers  f 


( Original  ward  \ 
t       8  acres       / 

Roughly  oblong 



/  Domesiiay  \ 
\  Ordericus  ( 






About  1  acre 


■Hk  WMnton            \ 
^■^r  of  Henry  I.  / 


]   ing  ditches    V 
(    and  banks    ) 


^^■fen  History 



^^^^^«»  Malmesburv 

Motte— destroyed 



About  4  acres 

A  quadrant 


2  acres? 


282  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,  MARCH   12,  1900. 

basis  for  the  assumption  that  the  motte-and-bailey  first  appeared  on  the 
continent  in  the  11th  century. 

But  when  did  it  cross  the  Cliannel  into  England?  That,  speaking 
generally,  it  came  with  William  the  Norman,  can  hardly  be  doubted. 
But  it  is  very  likely  that  under  the  half-Norman  Edward  the  Confessor, 
some  of  his  Norman  favourites  may  have  brought  this  new  thing,  the 
Norman  castle,  into  England,  and  that  Richard's  castle,  Robert's  castle, 
and  Pentecost's  castle,^  may  have  been  earthen  mottes  and  baileys  like 
those  of  Normandy.  Richard's  castle,  near  Ludlow,  built  by  Richard 
Scrob,  one  of  these  Normans,  still  exists,  and  is  a  line  specimen  of  the 
■  motte-and-bailey  type ;  its  scanty  remains  of  masonry  belong,  according 
to  Mr  Clark,  to  a  later  date  than  the  early  Norman,  so  we  may  infer 
that  it  was  at  first  a  wooden  castle  resting  on  earthworks. 

The  point  on  which  I  wish  to  insist,  that  these  castles  were  essentially 
the  fortifications  of  feudalism,  is  one  of  special  importance  in  the  light  of 
recent  studies.  The  researches  of  Mr  Round  and  Professor  Maitland 
and  others  arc  tending  to  the  conclusion  that  while  a  state  of  things  pre- 
vailed under  the  Confessor  which  had  many  of  the  outward  aspects  of 
feudalism,  the  rigidity  and  definitencss  which  were  the  essence  of 
feudalism  did  not  exist  in  England ;  and  that  thus  the  statement  of  our 
older  historians,  that  William  the  Conqueror  introduced  the  feudal 
system  into  England,  is  not  so  wide  of  the  mark  as  it  is  assumed  to  l>e 
by  the  school  of  ^Ir  Freeman.*-  But  if,  as  Mr  Round  supposes,  William 
the  Conqueror  gi'anted  out  lands  in  England  just  as  Henry  II.  is  known 
to  have  granted  out  lands  in  Ireland,  to  be  held  as  fiefs  by  the  service  of 
a  round  num])cr  of  knights,  what  is  more  likely  than  that  these  peculiarly 
feudal  fortifications,  the  mottes  and  baileys  which  we  find  scattered  all 
over  England,  were  the  castles  by  which  these  military  tenants  defended 
their  new  acquisitions  ?     Not  that  we  are  to  suppose  that  these  castles 

^  Angh-Saxoi  Chronicle^  1052. 

-  Mr  Round  holds  that  "the  military  service  of  the  Anglo-Norman  tenant-in- 
chief  was  in  no  way  derived  or  developed  from  that  of  the  Anglo-Saxons,  but  was 
arbitrarily  fixed  by  the  king,  from  whom  he  received  his  fief,  irrespectively  both  of 
its  size  and  of  all  pre-existing  arrangements."     Feudal  England^  p.  261. 

.,  *«Vvaveter*"    „«  lUeoiV ^*^-      .ve natural 7^_^v^lo«P***  v 

(Venctal^^     T\^e  V^*  ,     „Y,\ecte i°^''*     „t  eatliet  ^^^ ^  .    the*' 

doi  -ti^s-''^-^' ^r  ^^^^^1  i^^^^^^  ::rt^  ».- 


at  Penwortham  in  Lancashire,  which  was  excavated  in  1856,  surpassed 
all  others  in  interest,  inasmuch  as  it  contained  the  foundations  and  what 
we  may  perhaps  call  the  cellar  of  the  original  Norman  hretasche}  An  iron 
prick  spur,  found  in  the  ruins,  is  evidently  Norman,  being  of  exactly  the 
same  type  as  the  one  on  the  effigy  of  Geoflfrey  de  Mandeville  in  the 
Temple  Church.^  The  top  of  the  motte  had  been  defended  by  an  outer 
wall  of  wattles.  The  hretasche  appears  to  have  been  round,  the  broken 
stumps  of  uprights  taking  that  form.  A  motte  at  Hallaton  in  Leicester- 
shire, and  the  motte  at  Almondbury,  near  Huddersfield,  have  also 
yielded  objects  which  point  to  the  Norman  period. 

These  are  the  only  cases  that  I  know  of  in  which  the  excavation  of 
mottes  has  produced  any  results  worth  mentioning.  I  need  not  say  that 
the  mere  finding  of  Roman  or  Saxon  coins  in  an  excavated  motte  is  no 
evidence  that  it  was  thrown  up  in  Roman  or  Saxon  times,  for  these 
objects  may  have  been  lying  in  the  soil  out  of  which  the  motte  was  dug. 
Ancient  barrows  have  probably  sometimes  been  utilised  to  form  the 
nucleus  of  mottes,  as  cases  are  recorded  in  both  England  and  France  in 
Avhich  burials  have  been  found  in  the  heart  of  these  mounds.  But  this 
very  circumstance  points  to  a  late  origin  for  the  mottes,  as  a  grave  would 
never  have  been  utilised  for  a  castle  except  by  a  generation  which  had 
forgotten  the  use  of  these  tumuli. 

To  sum  up :  There  is  no  evidence  that  the  Anglo-Saxons  built  mottes  ; 
there  is  strong  evidence  that  the  hurlis  they  built  during  the  Danish  wars 
were  large  enclosures,  generally  town  walls  or  banks ;  there  is  certain 
evidence  that  the  Normans  built  mottes  both  in  Normandy,  England, 
Wales,  and  Ireland  ;  the  name  of  the  motte  is  Norman  ;  the  type  belongs 
to  the  age  of  feudalism,  and  answers  precisely  to  the  needs  of  the  Nor- 
mans during  the  first  period  of  their  conquests;  mottes  are  found  in 
connection  with   almost   all   English   castles  known  to  be  of  Norman 

^  Transactions  of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Historic  Society ,  vol.  ix.,  1856-7. 
ITn fortunately  the  article  is  so  loosely  written  that  many  important  questions  are 

-  Saxon  spurs  were  much  shorter. 

286  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,  MARCH   12,  1900. 

origin ;  and  the  evidence  of  excavations,  scanty  as  it  is,  supports  the 
theory  that  they  are  Norman  work.  If  we  weigh  these  facts  carefully, 
we  can  liardly  avoid  the  conclusion  that  these  mottes  and  baileys  so 
thickly  scattered  over  England  are  the  footprints  of  the  Norman  Con- 
queror, and  an  important  part  of  the  organisation  by  which  he  held 
England  down.  Alfred  and  his  House,  on  the  other  hand,  did  not  build 
little  castles  of  wood  and  earth  for  their  own  personal  defence  :  they 
saved  England  by  defending,  and  thus  developing,  the  English  town. 


The  fortification  of  Worcester  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle^ 
but  only  in  the  very  interesting  charter  already  referred  to  in  the  text.  (Birch, 
Gartularium^  ii.  222.)  Chester  is  not  called  a  hurh  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Glironicle,  but  is  spoken  of  under  the  year  894  as  "  a  waste  cheater  in  WirraL" 
Stafford  has  a  motte  which  was  once  crowned  by  a  Norman  castle,  but  as  it  is 
on  the  South  bank  of  the  Sowe,  it  is  clearlv  not  the  work  of  Ethelfleda.  Run- 
cm^  at  the  beginning  of  this  century  had  still  the  remains  of  an  earthwork 
enclosing  the  headland  known  as  the  Castle  Rock,  but  its  very  small  area  makes 
it  improbable  that  it  can  have  been  the  hurh  spoken  of  by  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle  ;  more  likely  it  was  a  small  castle  erected  by  the  Norman  baron  of 
Hal  ton  to  protect  the  ferry  which  started  from  that  point.  Ethelfleda's  hurh 
would  certainly  have  included  the  church,  which  she  b  traditionally  said  to 
have  founded.  At  Bedford  the  motte  which  was  the  site  of  the  Norman  Castle 
is  on  the  N.  side  of  the  Ouse,  whereas  Edward's  burh  was  on  the  S.  side. 
Stamford  is  a  precisely  similar  case.  JVorcester,  CIieMer,  Colchester,  and  Man- 
cJiester  were,  of  course,  Roman  castra,  which  were  only  rebuilt  by  Edward  or 
his  sister ;  Tartuvorth  also  had  been  fortified  before  Ethelfleda's  restoration 
(Florence  says  urhem  restauramt),  as  it  was  the  ancient  seat  of  the  Mercian 
Kings,  At  Maldoii,  JFitham.  and  Eddishury  there  are  still  remains  of  the 
ancient  earthworks  which  enclosed  the  Saxon  burh  ;  the  area  of  which  in  these 
three  cases  is  from  22  to  25  acres.  Eddishury  is  extremely  interesting,  as  it  is 
ahuost  in  its  original  condition,  except  for  the  building  of  a  hunting  lodge,  now 
in  ruins,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III. 

There  are  two  cases  in  the  list  where  the  evidence  for  the  existence  of  a 
Norman  castle  may  not  be  thought  conclusive :  Towcester  and  Bakewell.  I 
have  not  hitherto  been  able  to  find  any  evidence  of  the  existence  of  a  castle  at 
Towcester  except  the  fact  that  there  was  a  lord's  oven  in  or  near  the  precincts  of 
the  present  intrenchments,  to  which  the  citizens  owed  soke,  as  they  commonly 
did  to  the  ovens  of  castles.  King  John  stayed  in  the  town  in  1207,  and  there 
must  have  been  some  residence  nt  to  receive  him.  But  Towcester  is  a  case  in 
which  there  can  be  no  doubt  wliatever  what  the  work  of  Edward  was,  as  the 
Anglo-Sajcon  Chronicle  teih  us  expressly  that  "he  wrought  the  burh  at  Tow- 
cester with  a  stone  wall."    At  Bakewell  we  have  not  only  the  name  Castle  Hill, 


but  such  names  as  Castle  Field,  Warden  Field,  and  Court  Yard  testify  to  the 
existence  of  a  castle.  It  was  the  seat  of  jurisdiction  for  the  High  Peak  Hundred 
in  mediaeval  times.  The  Chronicle  says  that  Edward  "  commanded  a  burh  to 
be  built  and  manned  in  Hie  neighbourhood  of  BakewelL"  I  am  tempted  to  look 
for  this  burh  on  the  top  of  Carlton  Hill,  where  the  first  Ordnance  Survey 
marks  an  intrenchment    But  no  intrenchment  can  be  seen  there  now. 


In  eleven  of  the  cases  mentioned  in  the  li^t,  Domesday  records  the  clearance 
of  houses  to  make  room  for  the  site  of  the  Castle.  (Cambridge,  Gloucester, 
Huntingdon,  Lincoln,  Norwich,  Shrewsbury,  Stamford,  Wallingford,  Warwick, 
Winchester,  York.)  The  Castles  of  Clifford^  Rockingham,  and  IVignwre  are 
expressly  said  to  have  been  built  on  waste  or  uninhabited  ground.  Wigmore 
has  been  absurdly  identified  with  the  hurh  of  Wigingamere  built  by  Edward  the 
Elder,  but  a  careful  study  of  Edward's  campaigns  will  show  what  a  mistake 
this  is.  At  Chepgtoic  and  Nottinaham  it  can  he  seen  at  a  glance  that  the  original 
castle  has  been  on  the  motte-and-bailey  plan,  though  in  neither  case  is  there  an 
artificial  motte  at  present  At  Montgomery  and  Montacute  the  motte  is  of 
natural  rock.  HoMxngs  is  particularly  interesting  as  the  only  case  in  which  we 
have  actual  documentary  evidence,  in  the  Bayeux  tapestry,  that  the  motte  was 
built  by  the  Normans.  Feveri^y  was  a  Roman  castrum  which  the  Normans 
utilised  by  putting  a  motte  and  bailev  in  one  comer  of  it,  just  as  they  did  at 
Porchester  and  Burgh  Castle,  and  at  the  probably  Saxon  burns  of  Wareham  and 
Waliingford,  At  Cambridge,  Carlisle,  Chepstow,  Durham,  Hastings,  Montacute- 
Rochester,  Stafford,  London,  Oxford,  Winchester,  York,  and  probably  at  Canter- 
bury, the  Norman  castle  was  placed  outside  the  town.  There  can  be  no  doubt 
that  the  Dane  John  at  Canterbury  was  the  motte  of  the  original  Norman  castle, 
as  the  name  Dane  Jolm  can  be  proved  to  be  only  a  corruption  of  Dungeoa 
(See  Somner's  Antiquities  of  Canterbury^  p.  144.)  And  if  the  theory  of  this 
paper  be  correct,  there  can  be  equally  little  doubt  that  the  Boley  Hill  was  the 
motte  of  the  original  Norman  castle  of  Rochester,  the  present  castle  belonging  to 
two  later  periods.  At  Canterbury^  Rochester,  Montacute,  IVardiam,  and  Jvin- 
Chester,  Domesday  records  that  the  site  of  the  castles  was  obtained  from  the 
church  by  an  exchange  of  lands,  a  clear  proof  that  no  castle  existed  there  before, 
as  we  never  hear  of  »axon  prelates  thus  entrenching  themselves,  though  Norman 
bishops  frequently  did.  Stafford  is  a  case  of  peculiar  difficulty,  owing  to  the 
apparent  evidence  for  the  existence  of  two  castles,  one  in  the  town,  the  other  on 
the  motte  which  still  exists  about  a  mile  south-west  of  the  town.  Yet  after 
carefully  studying  the  arcuments  in  the  8th  volume  of  the  Salt  Archaeological 
Society,  I  cannot  help  tliinking  that  the  existence  of  a  castle  in  the  town 
is  due  to  the  fancy  of  antiquaries  of  the  17th  century,  (1)  because  all  the 
evidence  adduced  turns  on  the  interpretation  of  the  word  villa,  which  appears 
to  me  to  be  used  not  of  the  town  itself,  which  was  properly  called  a  burgns,  but 
of  its  liberty  or  banlieu  ;  (2)  in  the  long  series  of  records  concerning  the  castle 
outside  the  town,  it  is  invariably  call^  the  Castle  of  Stafford,  without  any 
expression  to  distinguish  it  from  any  cattle  in  the  town.  I  believe,  therefore, 
that  the  motte  outside  the  town  was  the  site  of  a  wooden  castle  built  by  William 
I.,  and  was  the  same  of  which  Domesday  says  "  Ad  hoc  manerium  (Chebsey) 

288  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,  MARCH  12,   1900. 

Sertlnet  terra  de  Stadford  in  ana  rex  precepit  fieri  castellum  quod  modo  est 
estructum"  ;  and  that  thia  castle  was  restored  by  his  son  Henry  1. 
The  figures  ^vcn  of  the  acreage  of  these  castles  must  only  be  regarded  as 
approximate ;  m  many  cases  it  has  been  impossible  to  find  out  whether  the 
authorities  were  speaking  of  the  whole  area  of  the  castle,  motte,  ditches,  banks 
and  bailey  included,  or  of  the  bailey  court  alone.  But  the  repeated  recurrence 
of  low  figures  shows  that  the  original  area  of  Norman  castles  was  generaUy  very 
small ;  and  that  when  we  meet  with  such  large  areas  as  12  or  20  acres,  we  most 
ascribe  it  to  the  addition  of  other  courts  in  later  times. 


WRITS  OF  THEIR  APPOINTMENTS.  By  the  Rkv.  R.  S.  MYLNE,  M.A., 
B.C.L.  Oxox. 

The  King's  Master  Wright  was  a  personage  of  less  importance  than 
the  King's  Master  Mason  or  the  King's  Master  of  Work.  Still,  the 
history  of  his  office  resembles  in  many  respects  that  of  the  two  last- 
named  officials,  and  we  find  him  and  his  assistants  mentioned  from 
time  to  time  in  the  early  records  of  Scotland.  The  number  of  wrights 
in  the  royal  employment  seems  to  have  varied  considerably,  according  to 
the  various  exigencies  of  the  Crown ;  and  these  wrights  could  readily 
turn  their  hands  to  boat-building,  the  construction  of  instruments  for 
military  warfare,  or  the  internal  fittings  of  the  Royal  Palace. 

Some  notices  of  the  wrights  and  carpenters  employed  by  the  Kings  of 
Scotland  in  early  times  may  be  found  in  the  Exclbequer  Rolls,  Thus,  in  1 290 
Alexander,  the  Carpcjutcr,  receives  pay  for  his  work  executed  in  Stirling 
Castle  by  the  King's  command.  In  1361  Malcolm,  the  Wright,  receives 
£10  from  the  fermes  of  Aberdeen,  and  this  payment  is  repeated  in  later 
years.  Between  the  yeai*s  1362  and  1370  Sir  William  Dishington  acted 
as  Master  of  Work  to  the  Church  of  8t  Monan's  in  Fife,  and  received  from 
King  David  II.  the  sum  of  £013,  7s.  Od.  The  King  also  paid  for 
carpenter's  work  at  this  church  £6,  13s.  4d.  In  1377  David  Bell,  Arch- 
deacon of  Dunblane,  receives  money  from  the  King  for  expenses  incurred 
in  connection  with  the  building  of  Edinburgh  Castle.     John  of  Preston 


and  Roger  Hog  were  also  connected  with  these  works.  In  1 380  Duncan 
Wright,  Carpenter  of  Edinburgh  Castle,  receives  £10  for  his  year's  fee, 
and  again  in  1381  and  subsequent  years.  In  1383  Dedericus  (or  Theo- 
doricus),  the  Carpenter,  is  paid  £20  for  making  a  great  *  machine '  for 
warfare.  In  1426  Martin  Wright  receives  262  boards  for  the  King's  work 
at  Eilinburgh  Castle,  which  cost  £6,  18s.  5d.,  besides  £4,  ISs.  9d.  for 
carriage,  etc.  from  Leith.  In  1429-30  John  Wright  receives  £6,  10s.  Od. 
by  command  of  the  King 

The  account  of  John  Weir  for  works  at  Linlithgow  Palace,  rendered 
in  the  year  1451,  includes  wright's  work  amongst  other  particulars.  In 
1454  Friar  Andrew,  the  Wright,  "servitor  domini  regis,"  receives  for  his 
yearly  fee  £10,  and  also  £1,  12s.  Od.  for  iron  for  the  siege  of  Blackness 
Castle.  In  the  same  year  William,  the  heir  of  (Jilbert  Wright,  receives 
£5  from  the  fermes  of  Aberdeen.  This  old  payment  keeps  recurring 
from  time  to  time,  and  seems  to  be  liereditary. 

In  1457  the  French  Smith  receives  a  cottage  free  for  life.  In  1460 
Friar  Andrew,  the  Wright,  receives  £7,  2s.  Od.  for  the  carriage  of  the 
King's  artillery  from  Perth  to  tlie  port  of  Leitli,  and  thence  to  Edinburgli 
Ciistle.  In  the  same  year  David  Wright,  the  King's  Smith,  receives  £3, 
6.S.  8d.  in  part  payment  of  his  fee.  In  1462  he  receives  £16,  and  in 
1467  receives  10s.  for  visiting  and  removing  lx)mbards  in  Dunbar. 
FViar  Andrew  (Lisouris),  a  lay  brother  of  Cupar,  is  now  the  King's 
Carpenter,  buys  joists  for  Ravenscraig,  and  timber  for  Edinburgh  Castle, 
repairs  the  Royal  Chapel  at  Stirling,  prepares  timber  for  roofs  in  Darna- 
way  Forest,  and  sends  timber  from  Moray  for  the  works  at  Linlithgow. 

In  1476  Robert  Lourison  became  King's  Carpenter.  In  1474  David 
Wright  receives  the  bniss  for  the  artillery,  and  a  grjint  of  £4  fi*om  the 
lands  of  Drumtennand.  He  dies  in  1477,  when  £3,  6s.  8d.  is  i)aid  to 
his  widow  Janet  by  the  King's  grace,  and  is  repeated  in  1478  and  1479. 

In  1494  James  IV.  employed  a  nunil)er  of  wriglits  in  the  construction 
of  a  large  barge  at  Dumbarton,  and  he  took  liis  wrights  witli  him  to  the 
raid  of  Ellem  and  the  raid  of  Norham.  In  1497  he  had  wrights  at  work 
on  the  roof  of  the  "  Hannis  toure  "  of  Dunbtir. 


290  PROCEKDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,   MARCH  12,  1900. 

In  Edinburgh,  as  elsewliere,  the  wriglits  were  closely  connected  with 
the  masons,  and  in  the  renowned  capital  of  Scotland  were  incorporated 
into  one  society  by  charter  in  the  year  1475,  having  the  aisle  and  altar  of 
St  John  the  Evangelist  in  the  Collegiate  Church  of  St  Giles  allotted  for 
their  special  use,  with  the  privilege  of  duly  maintaining  the  same.  Some 
of  the  rules  and  regulations  comiected  witli  this  charter  are  curious  ;  as, 
for  instance,  that  the  "  twa  craftismen  shall  caus  and  have  thair  placis 
and  roomes  in  all  generale  processions  lyk  thai  haf  in  the  towne  of  Bruges, 
or  siclyk  gud  townes  "  :  and  anotlier  regulation  was  that  each  apprentice, 
in  case  of  disobedience,  should  pay  for  liis  first  fault  one  pound  of  wax  to 
the  altar  of  St  John. 

In  the  early  accounts — a.d.  1513-4 — for  building  the  bridge  of  Dun- 
keld,  by  Bishop  Tliomas  Brown,  there  is  mention  of  wrights.  Thus, 
Thomas  Wrycht,  carpenter,  was  hired  at  Martinmas  1511  at  forty  marks 
yearly,  and  received,  "in  complete  payment  of  his  wage,"  in  money 
£37,  6s.  8d.  He  seems  also  to  have  had  a  ehalder  of  meal  and  eight  boUs 
of  barley  from  tlie  keeper  of  tlie  granary.  ^lalcolm  and  Donald  Sawar 
were  working  with  him,  and  besides  wages,  dined  with  the  Bishop  when 
he  was  at  home,  or  received  a  penny  for  dinner  when  he  was  absent. 
Other  wriglits,  cari)enters,  and  sawyers  were  also  employed  on  the 

In  1508  John  Drummond,  the  King's  Carpenter,  receives  a  grant  under 
the  ( Treat  Seal  of  £10  a  year  in  consideration  of  his  services  to  the 
Crown.  On  23rd  July  1547  John  Drummond  receives  confirmation  of 
the  lands  of  Ballincreif  and  Milnab  under  the  Great  Seal.  Is  this  the 
same  person  as  the  King's  Carpenter  ? 

On  22nd  October  1561  John  ^lyhie  was  made  Wright  in  Edinburgh 

Thomas  Bi*own  was  Master  Smith  in  1G26-7,  and  rendered  accounts 
for  work  at  Holyrood,  etc.  Amongst  othcT  smiths,  etc.  mentioned,  and 
apparently  working  under  his  direction,  arc  : — Abraham  Hamilton,  James 
^lurray  (wright),  William  Storii'  (wriglit)  and  his  son,  Thomas  Bcnnct 
and  John  He  id. 


William  Wallace,  whose  name  is  so  closely  associated  with  Heriot's 
Hospital,  is  frequently  designated  the  Carver  in  the  royal  accounts, 
almost  as  if  this  were  an  office  under  the  Crown. 

In  1643  Thomas  Storie,  wright,  is  found  amongst  the  list  of  burgesses 
of  the  Canongate.  In  1648  John  Scott,  wright,  is  employed  by  the 
Corporation  of  Edinburgh  on  8t  Giles'  steeple,  togetlier  with  John 
Mylne,  Master  Miison. 

In  February  1668  James  Bain,  "His  Majestie's  Wright,"  iigrees  with 
the  Earl  of  Panmure  for  the  execution  of  the  whole  of  the  wright  work 
in  the  erection  of  Panmure  House  for  4500  merks.  He  also  stipulated 
for  a  suitable  lodging  with  fire  and  candle,  and  the  Earl  agreed  to  pro- 
vide timber  and  iron,  requiring  the  "  great  staircase  to  be  made  up  after 
the  order  of  the  staircase  at  I)onyl)ryssel,  and  what  better  Bain  pleases 

During  tlie  building  <»f  Holy  rood  Palace,  various  wriglits  were  at  work 
under  the  direction  of  James  Bain,  His  Majesty's  Principal  Master 
Wright,  whose  name  frequently  occurs  in  tlie  accounts ;  as,  for  instance, 
on  4th  March  1674,  when  lie  receives  £5667,  12s.  Od.  Scots  for  various 
kinds  of  timber.  On  13th  ^lay  1675  his  assistants  received  £2850, 
158.  Od.  Scots  as  wages. 

On  23rd  January  1677  Thomas  Oliphant,  wright,  receives  a  special 
payment  "for  furnishing  of  timber,  and  making  of  moulds  thereof 
to  be  patems  of  certain  of  the  meason  work,"  £14,  2s.  Od.  Scots. 
On  2nd  March  1678  James  Porteous,  wright,  receives  £24  for  making 
"  a  moddell  of  the  Cupuloe  of  the  Gate  of  the  said  Pallace,  with  the 
moddell  of  the  Pedestall  and  Biillasterers." 

On  22nd  February  Jan  Vansantvoort,  the  Carver,  received  £408  for 
**  cutting,  carving,  and  upfuitting  of  several  jnccos  of  carved  work  ui)on 
the  chinmey  and  door-pieces  of  His  Majestie's  appartement  in  the  East 
quarter  "  ;  and  Alexander  Eizatt,  wright,  £1360,  19s.  Od.  for  "  upputting 
of  severall  lyneings  of  windowes,  doors,"  etc.,  etc. 

Sir  William  Binning  of  Waliefoord  supplied  twenty-nine  dozen  great 
joists  for  £2212,  16s.  Od. 

292  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,   MARCH   12,   1900. 

John  Callender  was  employed  as  smitli,  and  Jacob  De  Wett — the 
Dutchman — executed  tlie  principal  paintings. 

James  Ikin  is  also  found .  at  work  at  Edinburgh  Castle,  Stirling,  and 
the  Bass;  and  in  1681  his  name  occui*s  amongst  the  list  of  royal 
officials  who  claim  and  obtain  exemption  from  taxiiticm. 

In  1696  a  house,  in  what  is  now  known  as  the  Writers'  Court,  was 
purchased  and  fitted  up  for  the  use  of  the  Writers  to  the  Signet ;  and 
from  the  Writers'  Minutes  it  appears  Deacon  Paterson,  wright,  was  paid 
£1088  Scots  for  his  work  on  the  same,  and  one  dollar  of  drink  money 
was  allowed  to  the  wrights  .employed  in  finishing  this  lodging.  Of 
course,  the  Society  of  Writers  now  meets  in  the  Signet  Library. 

In  the  earliest  records  it  is  often  difficult  to  say  whether  the  title 
** Wright"  applies  to  the  man  or  his  office,  and  in  the  case  of  Friar 
iVndrew,  who  was  a  lay  brother  of  Cupar,  the  real  surname  was 

The  office  of  King's  Master  Wright  is  often  held  with  some  other 
office — as  gunner,  carpenter,  or  plasterer — iis  will  be  seen  by  some  of  the 
Privy  Seal  Writs  given  below. 

We  append  a  list  of  the  Miister  Wrights  to  the  Crown  apjxjinted  by  \vrit 
under  the  Privy  Seal  of  Scotland  : — 

1  January      1551         John  Crawfurd. 
James  Murray. 
4  May  1601        James  Murray,  younger. 

James  Cokbume. 
13  February  1636        John  Scott. 

He  was  apjwinted  Master  Wright  of  Edinburgh,  1 
February  1637. 
1668?      James  Bain. 

He  was  King's  Master  Wright  during  the  building  of 
Holy  rood  Palace.     Thu  writ  of  ai)pointuient  cannot 
be  found. 
19  May  1703         Andrew  Paterson. 

He  was  appointed  on  the  reconmiendation  of  James 
Scott  ol  L(^ie,  Master  of  Work. 
4  March         1715         Ro!)ert  Mowbrav. 
31  March       1748         George  Canii)l)oll. 
24  May  1762        Charles  Howison. 

29  October    1779        William  Butler. 


We  now  give  by  way  of  example,  and  arranged  in  chronological 
order,  the  particulars  of  twelve  writs  of  the  Privy  Seal  appointing 
^faster  Wrights  and  ordinary  wrights,  chiefly  taken  from  the  earlier 
portion  of  the  record,  and  one  writ  of  confirmation  of  appointment. 

It  may  here  l>e  noted  that  Sir  Alexander  Janline,  knight,  of  Apple- 
garth,  was  appointed  chief  gunner,  3rd  July  1526.  His  name  was 
imfortunately  omitted  in  the  notices  of  the  Master  Gunners. 

Grant  by  Queen  Mary  to  John  liousitomu 
Ane  lettre  maid  to  Jlione  Boastoun  inakand  him  ane  of  our  soverane  ladyis  Reglaterof  Privy 
smythis  ordinar  for  all  the  day  is  of  his  life  and  to  have  monethlie  thairfore  for  ^\\q^^'  ***• 
all  the  dayift  of  his  life  the  soume  of  iij'"*  x"  of  the  reddyest  of  our  soverane  ladyis 
casualiteis  to  l>e  i»ayit  to  him  l>e  the  thesaurare  now  present  and  being  for  the 
tyme  Be^'nuand  the  first  payment  at  the  first  day  of  Marche  nixt  eftir  the  dait 
heirof  with  command  in  the  samyn  to  our  said  thesaurare  to  ansuer  the  said 
Jhone  of  the  said  sowme,  etc.     Providing  that  he  wark  daylie  heirfore,  etc.     At 
Edinburgh  the  xiiij.  day  of  Februar  the  yere  foirsaid — 1547. 

Per  signaturam. 

tiraiiJt  by  Qtie^i  Mary  to  James  Hectour. 

Ane  lettre  maid  to  James  Hectour  makand  him  ane  of  our  soverane  ladyis 
wrychtis  and  gunnaris  ordinar.  And  to  have  monethlie  tliairfore  for  all  the 
dayis  of  his  life  the  soume  of  iij"*^  xv»  usuale  money  of  Scotland  of  the  reddyest 
of  our  soverane  ladyis  casualiteis  l>e  the  thesaurare  now  present  and  being  for 
the  tvme  Begynnand  the  first  payment  at  the  first  day  of  Marche  nixt  eftir  the 
dait  heirof  with  a)mmand  in  thesamin  to  our  said  thesaurare  to  ansuer  the  said 
James  of  the  said  soume,  etc.  Providing  that  the  said  James  daylie  wark  bayth 
of  wrycht  craft  ^nnar  melting  and  castmg  of  gunnis  and  all  utheris  laul)Ouris 
he  can  do.  And  als  that  he  scdbe  Teddy  to  pas  to  the  feildis  as  ane  cannoner  or 
to  sege  or  to  reinane  in  ony  pairt  quhair  he  salbe  command  it  be  our  soverane 
lady  or  ony  uther  in  hir  name  etc.  At  Edinburgh  the  xiiij  day  of  Februar  the 
yere  foirsaid — 1547. 

Per  signaturam, 

Grant  by  Qmen  Mary  to  Thonuis  Petteyrew, 
Ane  lettre  maid  to  Thomas  Pettecrew  gunnar  and  smyth  makand  him  ane  of  vol.  xxiv.  foi.  i. 
oiir  soverane  ladyis  ordinaris  and  gevand  to  him  the  soume  of  four  puudis 
monethlie  in  his  wage  during  his  lifetyme  etc.     At  Edinburgh  the  first  day  of 
Aprile  the  yeir  foirsaid — 1550. 

Per  signaturam. 

(Jrant  by  Queen  Mary  to  John  Crauford, 

Ane  lettre  maid  to  Johne  Craufurd  makand  him  maister  wiycht  and  gunnar  Fol.  48. 
to  OUT  Boverane  lady  and  gevand  to  him  the  office  thairof  for  all  the  dayis  of  his 

294  PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   SOCIETY,   MARCH   12,   1900. 

life  for  using  and  exercing  of  the  qiihilk  office  our  soveraue  lady  gevia  to  him 
monethlie  during  his  lifetyme  the  soume  of  viij"**  vj'  viij**  money  of  this  realme 
etc.     At  Edinburgh  the  first  day  of  Januar  the  yeir  foirsaid. — 1551. 

Per  signaturani. 

Grant  by  Queen  Mary  to  Adnm  Uamilton, 

Vol.  XXV.  fol.  54.  Ane  lettre  maid  to  Adame  Haniiltoun  makand  liim  ane  of  oure  aoveranc  Ladyis 
smythifl  and  ^nnaris  and  to  have  monethlie  for  his  wagis  during  all  the  dayis 
of  his  life  iiij"^  money  of  this  realme  to  be  payit  to  him  be  the  thesaurar  now 
present  and  1)eing  for  the  tyme  of  the  reddyest  of  our  said  soverane  ladyis 
casualiteis  and  cofferis,  etc.  At  Lynlythqw  the  first  day  of  Aprile  the  yeir  of 
Gtod  j™  v*'  liij  yeris. 

Per  signaturam. 

Confirmation  of  Grant  to  T,  Pettegrew, 

Vol.  xxvi.  Ane  lettre  maid  to  Tliomas  Pettegrew  maikand  constitutand  and  ordinand 

'^*-  ^^-  him  ane  of  oure  soverane  ladyis  smvthis  and  gunnaris  ordinar  for  all  Uie  dayis 

of  his  lyfe  and  for  gude  trew  and  thankf ull  service  done  and  to  l)e  done  to  nir 
grace,  and  to  my  lord  governour  in  the  said  office  be  him  oure  soverane  lady 
gevis  and  grantis  to  the  said  Tliomas  the  soume  of  fy ve  pundis  usuale  money  of 
this  realme  in  his  fe  to  be  payit  monethlie  for  all  the  dayis  of  his  lyfe  Off  the 
reddicst  of  hir  graceis  casualiteis  be  hir  hiencs  thesaurare  now  present  and 
l)eing  for  the  tyme  Begynand  the  first  payment  thairof  the  first  day  of  Januar 
nixtocum.  And  tlmt  the  said  lettir  be  extendit  in  the  best  forme  with  all  claiisis 
neidfull,  with  conmiand  in  the  eamvn  etc.  At  Edinburgh  the  viij  day  of 
December  the  yeir  of  God  j™v*^  fiftie-t^re  yeris. 

Per  signaturani. 

Grant  by  Queen  Mary  to  Andrew  Littlejohn. 

Vol.  xxvll.  fol.  5.  Ane  lettre  maid  to  Andro  Litiljohne  maikand  him  ane  of  our  soverane  ladyis 
gunnaris  ordinar  and  wrycht  for  all  the  dayis  of  his  lyfe  And  for  his  gude  trew 
and  thankfull  service  done  and  to  l)e  done  to  hir  grace  And  to  my  lord  gover- 
nour in  the  said  ottice  Gevand  and  granUuid  to  the  said  Andro  the  soume  of 
four"  usuale  money  of  this  realme  in  his  f e  to  be  payit  to  him  monethlie  for  all 
the  dayis  of  liLs  lyfe  of  the  reddiest  of  hir  casualiteis  be  hir  thesaurar  now 
present  and  l>eiug  for  the  tyme  Begj-nnand  the  first  payment  at  the  first  day  of 
Januar  nixttocum  to  be  had  the  said  office  of  gunnarie  with  the  said  soume  of 
four"  of  f e  to  be  payit  [to]  the  said  Andro  in  maner  foirsaid  for  all  the  dayis  of 
his  lyfe  frelie  ([uietlie  etc.  At  Edinburgh  the  xij  day  of  Februar  the  yeir  of 
God  i™v*^liij  yeris. 

Per  signaturam. 

Grant  by  Queen  Mary  to  John  DicJcerton, 

Vol.  xxviij.  Ane  lettre  maid  to  Johnne  Bickertoun  makand  him  ane  of  oure  soverane 

fol.  85  ladies  gunnaris  and  sniythis  ordinare  and  gevand  to  him  the  offices  thairof  ffor 


all  the  dayis  of  hb  lyfe  and  for  using  and  exerceing  of  the  samvn  offices  (as  heir- 
eftir  he  salbe  requirit  and  in  sic  places  or  partis  upoun  the  feildis  or  uthirwayis 
as  hir  grace  sail  command  and  think  gnde)  hir  hiones  gevis  and  grantis  to  him 
the  sowme  of  fyve  pundis  usuale  money  of  hir  realme  to  be  pay  it  to  him 
monethlie  in  his  feis  and  waigis  for  all  the  dayis  of  his  lyfe  be  hir  Uiesaurar  now 
present  and  Ijeing  for  the  tyme  Off  the  reddiest  of  hir  hienes  casualiteis  and 
dewiteis  the  first  payment  begynnand  at  the  day  of  the  dait  heirof  and  that 
the  said  lettre,  etc.,  with  command  to  the  said  thesaurare  to  mak  thankful! 
payment,  etc.    At  Newbotle  the  first  daye  of  August  1557. 

Per  signaturam. 

Orant  by  King  James  VI,  to  John  Leischman. 

Ane  lettre  maid  to  Johne  Leisclunan  Smyth  at  the  Calsayheid  makand  him  Vol.  xivi.  fol.  35. 
oure  soverane  lordis  smith  for  schoing  of  his  majesteis  horss  and  ^evand  to  him 
the  office  thairof  for  all  the  dayis  of  his  lyfe  with  all  feis  and  dewiteis  l)e]anginff 
and  pertenyng  thairto  with  power  to  the  said  Johune  to  use  and  exerce  the  said 
office  in  tyme  cuming  siclyk  as  ony  utheris  hes  servit  in  the  said  office  in  tyme 
bygane  With  all  feis  and  dewiteis  usit  and  wount^,  etc.,  with  command  thairin  to 
his  majesteis  comptrollar  present  and  being  for  the  tyme  and  utheris  appointit  or 
to  be  appointit  for  payment  of  feallis  To  answer  and  mak  payment  to  the  said 
Johnne  Leischman  of  all  feis  and  dewiteis  usit  and  wount  perteining  to  the 
office  foirsaid  during  his  lyftyme  etc.  At  Striviling  Castell  the  xxvij.  day  of 
Auguf^t  the  yeir  of  God  j"™v*^  tnrescoir  nynetene  yeiris. 

Per  signaturam. 

Grant  hj  King  James  VI.  to  James  M array ^  Elder. 

Letter  to  James  Murray,  elder,  present  principal  master  gunner  to  his  majesty,  ^jr  s^t  vol. 
ordaininff  him  overseer  and  attender  on  all  his  majesty's  works  of  reparations,        '       ^^* 
eta,  for  life,  and  in  succession  to  the  late  Sir  William  M'Dougall.    Fee  £10 
monthly,  with  stand  of  clothing  yearly.     Dalkeith,  4th  May  1601. 

Grant  by  King  James  VI,  to  James  Murray^  Younger. 

Letter  to  James  Murray,  younger,  making  him  principal  master  wright  and 
gunner  ordinary  in  the  Castle  of  Edinburgh,  and  in  all  other  castles,  etc.  On 
dimission  of  the  office  by  James  Murray,  elder,  his  father,  his  majesty's  present 
wright  and  master  gunner,  with  all  rights  and  privileges  "  as  the  said  James 
Murray  elder  or  umquhile  Thomas  Craufurd  "  or  other  master  wrights  enjoyed. 
Fee  £10  montlily,  and  stand  of  clothes  yearly.    Dalkeith,  4th  May  1601. 

Grant  by  King  James  VI.  to  John  Sc4)tt. 

Letter  to  John  Scot,  wright,  apix)inting  liim  his  majestv's  master  wheel-  vol.  cvii.  fol.  94. 
wright  in  Edinburgh  Castle,  and  in  all  others  of  his  majesty^  castles,  etc — the 
office  being  vacant  oy  the  death  of  James  Cokbunie,  last  jjoseessor  thereof.    Fee, 


£8  monthly.    Preaented  for  the  office  by  Sir  Anthony  Alexander,  H.M.  Maste? 
of  Work,  and  Snn'eyor-Qeneral.    At  Edinburgh,  13th  February  1636. 

Gift  by  King  George  III.  to  George  Campbell  to  he  His  Majedi^s  Howe 
Carpenter  and  Plaisterer  in  Scotland.     Given  at  S,  Jamts^  31  March  1748. 

George,  etc. 
Whereas  we  Considering  tliat  our  Royal  Predecessors  have  been  in  use  to  finrant 
commissions  to  such  tradesmen  as  ^'ere  thought  fit  for  their  service  in  Scotland^ 
and  we  being  well  informed  of  the  sufficiency  and  ability  of  Qeorge  Camplxilly 
House  Caq^enter  and  Plaisterer  there. 

Tlierefore  ^-it  ye  us  to  have  nominated,  constituted,  and  appointed,  Likeas 
we  by  these  presents  nominate,  constitute,  and  appoint  the  said  George  Campljell 
to  be  our  House  Carpenter  and  Plaisterer  to  all  our  Buildings^  Palaces,  Houses, 
Forts,  works  and  artillery,  etc.,  within  that  part  of  our  said  Kingdom,  and  tliat 
during  our  pleasure  only,  and  give  and  grant  to  the  said  G^rge  Campltell 
during  the  space  aforesaid  the  aforesaid  office  with  all  the  freedoms,  privi- 
leges, fees,  and  immunities  Wlonging  thereto,  with  power  to  him  to  exerce  iind 
enjoy  the  said  office  of  master  carpenter,  artillery  carpenter  and  plaisterer  by 
himself  and  his  servants  employed  by  him  for  whom  he  shall  be  answerable,  as 
fully  and  freely  as  any  others  his  predecessors  in  the  said  office  exerced,  brooked, 
and  enjoyed  the  same  office  before,  and  to  enjoy  all  privileges  and  immunities 
that  are  competent  by  law  to  Tradesmen  having  commissions  from  us  :  and  ]iar- 
ticularly  freedom  and  immunity  from  watching  or  warding  within  burgh. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  S.  James,  and  under  our  Privy  Seal  of  Scot&nd,  the 
26th  day  of  March  1748  years,  in  the  twenty -first  year  of  our  reign. 
Per  signaturam  manu  S.D.N. 

Regis  suprascriptam. 



MAGGIORE.  Bv  the  Rioiit  Rev.  G.  F.  BROWNE,  D.D.,  Bishop  of 
Bristol,  F. S.A.Scot. 

This  is  a  micaceous  Ixjulder  on  the  moor  near  Gignese,  1800  feet  alx^ve 
Stresa,  at  the  soutli  eml  of  I-ago  Maggiore.  The  top  of  the  l30ulder  is 
alx>ut  5J  feet  from  the  ground  ;  but  the  ground  slopes  rapidly,  witli  the 
result  that  the  cup-markings  on  the  stone  cover  an  area  12  feet  from 
top  to  lx)ttom  witli  a  breadth  of  alK)ut  6  feet.  There  are  about  150 
complete  cups,  isolated  and  independent  of  one  another,  and  a  large 
number  of  l)roken  cups,  groovtjs,  ovals,  and  cups  joined  by  channels. 
The  largest  cup  is  about  5  inches  across,  the  majority  from  31  to  2 
inches  ;  the  smallest  is  only  1  inch.  They  are  mostly  bowl-shai)ed,  but 
the  largest  is  more  like  a  funnel.  1  show  a  rubbing  of  the  whole  cup- 
marked  surface,  taken  with  leaves  of  the  Spanish  chestnut  on  nine  sheets 
of  the  Daily  Telegraph ;  a  cast  of  the  largest  hole,  taken  with  linen 
blotting-paper ;  and  casts  of  twelve  smaller  holes,  an  oval,  and  a 
channel,  taken  with  sheets  of  the  Gtiardian  softened  with  fluid  flour 
|Muste,  and  left  on  the  stone  to  dry.  I  had  no  proper  materials  with  me. 
I  show  also  a  photograph  of  the  stone  (fig.  1)  enlarged  from  a  snap-shot. 

The  name  of  the  stone  in  Italian  patois,  Saj  di  Oorone,  means  the 
stone  of  the  heel.  The  peasant  girl  who  told  me  this  pointed  out  by  her 
gestures  that  a  heel  would  fit  into  the  holes.  This  is  curiously  true  of 
the  broken  holes,  where  the  weathering  of  the  stone  has  worn  away 
some  of  the  lower  half  of  the  rim  and  left  the  appearance  of  half  an 

It  is  rather  startling  to  find  this  same  idea  of  a  heel  associated  with  a 
flat  slab  of  mica  schist  10  feet  by  7  J,  and  about  2 J  feet  thick,  lying  not 
far  from  Zmutt,  in  the  Zermatt  valley  (Proceedings  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  LoTuloUy  8th  December  1898).     That  stone  is  called  the 


Heidenplatte,  "the  flat  stone  of  the  heatheu!"  It  has  about  100 
circular  hollows  on  its  surface,  from  8  inches  to  2  inches  across,  and 
from  3  inches  to  ^  an  inch  deep.  The  tradition  in  Valais  is  that  the 
Heidenplatte  was  the  stone  on  which  the  ^mgan  orators  stood  to  address 
the  assembly  gathered  round  them,  and  that  the  rotation  of  the  orator's 
heel  produced  in  the  course  of  time  these  hollows  I  In  this  case  there  is 
no  appearance  of  the  half  amphitheatre,  for  the  surface  is  horizontal,  and 
the  weathering  affects  all  parts  alike. 

Julius  Caesar  was  much  harassed  by  a  Gaulish  tribe,  the  Salassi,  which 

occupied  the  Great  and  Little  St  Bernard.     They  or  some  neighbouring 

tribe  of  Gauls  occupied  the  Thc^odule  Pass,  on  which  many  Roman  coins 

have  been  found,  and  the  valleys  on  either  side  of  the  Monte  Moro 

Pass.     The  Monte  Moro  Pass  leads  down  to  Stresa,  and  the  Th^odule 

Pass  is  connected  at  its  southern  end  by  a  very  easy  way  with  Alagna 

und  the  Val  Sesia ;  thus   the  geographical   connection   of  the   Saj   di 

Oorone  and  the  Heidenplatte  is  closer  than  at  first  sight  would  appear. 

^nd  it  is  evident  that  there  may  well  be  a  close  connection  between  the 

j>a^n  rites  of  the  Gaulish  tribes  occupying  the  Alps  in  the  north  of 

Itioly  and  the  pagan  rites  of  our  Celtic  ancestors  or  predecessors  who 

[xi^tde  the   cup-markings   so   frequently  found   in  Scotland.     Thus  this 

ouicident  tradition  about  the  connection  of  a  heel  with  cup-marking  is 

'-^ll    worth  thinking  over  carefully;  though  it  is  not  improbable  that 

ft  ^    ^«vhole  subject  belongs  to  the  pre-Celtic  period,  and  that  the  tradition 

o£  modem  invention. 

11^  "wiU  be  seen  from  the  rubbing  that  there  are  not  rings  round  any  of 
3  C5iip8.  It  may  be  added  that  I  could  not  find  any  sign  of  tool 
x-k^.  The  cup-marked  surface  of  the  rock  looked  weather-worn  to  a 
:Mr^^  -which  indicated  great  antiquity;  but  if  any  sharp  tool  had  been 
d,  tliere  would  have  been  marks  in  some  of  the  cups.  They  were, 
cioTibt,  produced  by  the  rapid  rotation  of  some  blunt  instrument,  of 
3.^    ^yx'  even  of  hard  wood,  with  the  assistance  of  sharp  sand. 

300  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,   MARCH  12,  1900. 

KIRKWOOD  HEWAT,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Prestwick. 

My  attention  having  l>een  called  some  time  ago  to  a  peculiarly  shaped 
stone  cross  found  on  the  farm  of  Cairn  in  Upper  Nithsdalc,  I  took  the 
opportunity,  while  at  Sanquhar  recently,  to  pay  a  visit  to  the  farm,  which 
is  situated  some  9  miles  from  that  town.  The  farm  of  Cairn,  or,  as  it  is 
sometimes  called,  The  Cairn,  is  in  the  parish  of  New  Cumnock,  some 

3  miles  from  the  village  of  that  name  which  lies  to  the  north,  and  some 

4  miles  distant  from  the  village  of  Kirkconnel  which  lies  to  the  south. 
The  farndiouse  stands  high  and  overlooks  the  River  Nith.  At  a  dis- 
tance of  300  yards  from  the  steading  is  the  boundary  between  the 
shires  of  Ayr  and  Dumfries,  the  same  boundary  wall  or  dyke  dividing 
the  parish  of  Xow  Cumnock  from  that  of  Kirkconnel ;  while  not  very  far 
away  on  the  other  side  of  the  Nith  the  parish  of  Auchinleck  comes  in. 
The  Cairn  farm  is  on  the;  estate  of  the  Manpiis  of  Bute,  and  the  present 
tenant  is  Mr  James  Stevenson,  who  received  me  very  courteously  and 
gave  me  a  consideval)le  amount  of  information  regarding  his  discovery  of 
the  cross,  which  he  values  very  highly.  He  told  me  that  the  Marquis  of 
JUite  had  been  informed  of  the  find,  but  had  not  been  able  as  yet  to 
come  and  see  it.  He  also  told  me  that  a  gentleman  from  Carlisle  hail 
recently  taken  full-sized  tracings  of  the  stone,  and  that  a  stone  mason, 
who  had  examined  it,  liad  n(j  doubt  that  it  was  ancient  and  valuable. 

The  cross  is  not  entire.  Two  portions  have  been  found  which  may 
amount  to  one-third  of  tlie  cross  as  it  stood  in  its  entirety.  Mr  Steven- 
son's story  of  tlio  finding  of  tlio  pieces  is  that  about  tbree  years  ago  the 
little  stream,  which  flows  past  his  farm,  came  down  in  exceptionally  high 
tlood,  and,  carrying  away  a  considerable  amount  of  soil,  laid  bare  one  of 
the  portions  of  the  cross.  This  was  pretty  high  up  on  the  hillside.  In 
the  haugh  below,  while  some  large  stones  were  being  removed  to  make 

302  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,  MARCH  12,  1900. 

way  for  the  plough,  the  other  i>ortioii  was  discovered  about  the  same 
time.  Doubtless  in  some  previous  floo<l  (or  in  the  same  flood)  it  had 
been  carried  down  the  stream. 

The  two  portions  of  the  cross  thus  found  are  apparently  the  base  of 
the  shaft  and  one  of  the  arms.  The  base  of  the  shaft  measures  22  inches 
in  height  by  15  inches  in  breadth  and  6 J  inches  in  thickness.  The  front 
(fig.  1)  is  ornamented  with  an  interlaced  pattern  which  has  doubtless 
extended  all  the  way  up  to  the  head  of  the  cross.  The  lower  part  of  the 
shaft  is  plain,  the  ornament  beginning  about  9  inches  from  the  bottom, 
this  part  having  been  probably  sunk  in  a  socket.  The  sculpture  is  in- 
cised, the  background  of  the  panel  and  the  spaces  between  the  strands  of 
the  interlaced-work  being  merely  picked  out  with  a  pointed  tool,  and  the 
pattern  thus  left  in  semi-relief.  The  pattern  is  an  interlacement  of  two 
strands,  each  strand  duplicated  by  a  line  along  the  middle,  with  a  loop  at 
the  bottom,  and  rings  interlaced  round  each  crossing  of  the  strands  up- 
wards. Tlie  photograph  fails  to  show  the  pattern  of  the  reverse  face 
clearly,  but  it  seems  to  have  a  square  of  four  triangles,  made  by  double 
diagonals  interlacing  in  triangular  loops  at  the  lx)ttom,  and  over  that  an 
interlacing  pattern  of  double  triangular  knots  facing  to  right  and  left. 
The  edges  of  the  cross-shaft  have  each  a  simple  plait  of  two  undivided 
strands  running  upwards  from  a  square-ended  loop  at  the  bottom. 

The  arm  (fig.  2)  shows  a  rope  moulding  round  the  margin  on  lx)tli 
sides,  the  obverse  and  reverse  faces  having  each  a  double  triangular  loop 
of  interlacement  of  two  strands  not  divided  along  the  middle. 

If  the  arm  and  shaft  are  parts  of  the  same  cross,  it  must  have  been  a 
cross  of  the  form  which  ha.s  a  large  shaft  carrying  a  proportionally  small- 
sized  and  ccpial-arnied  cross-head  of  the  sections  found. 

But  how  came  such  a  cross  to  be  in  this  part  of  the  country  ?  Tradi- 
tion siiys  tliat  a  cliapcl,  <»r  religious  house,  stood  where  the  larger  portion 
of  the  cross  was  found.  At  New  Cumnock,  3  miles  further  up  the  Nith, 
tlnTo  stands  tlie  ruins  (^f  a  pr(;-K(;forniation  church,  and  near  Kirkconnel, 
4  miles  further  down  the  rivur,  there  are  the  ruins  of  another  pre-Refor- 
mation  church.     Stuart,  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Sculptured  Stones  of 



SroUand,  figures  21  erass-slab  with  interkfed-work  found  near  Mansfield 
Iloustj,  and  the  finding  of  this  sculptured  cross  at  Cairn  shows  that  tliere 
wen?  ecdesiaaticid  aitefl  in  the?  district  of  older  origiji  than  even  these 
ruined  pre-Keformiitiuu  chuR-lies.  Possibly  some  pious  monk  or  priest 
cjf  the  aiirly  Church,  or  some  chief  of  the  trilw&a  owning  the  land  heiT% 

Fig.  %,  Arm  of  Croaa  foumi  at  Cmrut  Nuw  Ctnunock,     (From  a  photograph  by 
Mr  J.  Mafic  WilsouO 

may  Imve  set  ix\t  the  cross  to  mark  a  siM^t  a  pee  in  Uy  eacreil,  or  to  mark 
the  lx)undary  of  duireh  himb,  or  the  limits  of  a  Siinctuary  girth.  But 
without  theorising  any  further,  we  nuiy  con  duel  e  that  tlicsc  earvcil  sUmes 
]m¥e  come  down  fix>ni  a  far  remote  past  of  wtiich  we  have  now  no  other 


304  PROCEEDINGS  OF   THE   SOCIETY,   APRIL  9,  1900. 

Monday,  9^^  April  1900. 

Mr  THOMAS  EOSS  in  the  Chair. 

A  Ballot  having  l)een  taken,  the  following  Gentlemen  were  duly 
elected  Fellows  : — 

George  Macdonald,  M.A.,  41  Lily  bank  Gardens,  Glasgow. 
Andrew  Thomson,  Glendinning  Terraa*,  Galashiels. 

The  following  Donations  to  the  ^luseum  and  Library  were  laid  on 
the  table,  and  thanks  voted  to  the  Donors : — 

(1)  By  Rev.  J.  B.  Mackenzie,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Kenmore. 

Large  and  tinely-shaped  Axe  of  Greenstone,  11^  inches  in  length, 
found  among  ruins  at  Risklmie,  Colonsay,  in  1864.  [See  the  sul)sequent 
Communication  by  Rev.  J.  B.  Mackenzie.] 

(2)  By  James  Bruce,  AV.S.,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Perforated  Hammer  of  greenstone,  3i  inches  in  length  by  1^  inches 
in  breadth  and  i\  inches  in  thickness,  from  Bisset  Moss,  Forgue,  .Vber- 
(leenshire.     Pair  of  Barnacles,  from  Abenleenshire. 

(3)  By  the  Hon.  Hew  Hamilton  Dalhymple,  Vice-Presuhnt. 

Portion  of  an  Encaustic  Tile,  with  horsemen  in  relief,  from  the 
Dormitory,  (Uenluce  Abbey. 

(4)  By  Rev.  (;eor(;b  C.  1>axteh,  F.S.A  Scot. 

Cui)-marked  Stone,  from  (lallowhill,  Cargill,  Perthsliirc.  This  fine 
specimen  of  a  cujvmarked  stone  has  been  described  and  figured  by  Rev. 
Mr  Baxter  in  the  Prorcffh'iKjft^  vol.  xxxi.  p.  290. 

(5)  By  the  KxEcuToRs  of  Dr  Joseph  Stevens. 

Parochial  History  of  St  Mary  Bourne,  Hants.  By  Joseph  Stevens. 
Imp.  8vo ;  1888. 


(6)  By  the  Nurdihka  Musbbt,  Stockholm. 
Publications  of  the  Nordiska  Museet,  1895-98. 

(7)  By  the  Authorities  of  the  Museum,  Sarajevo. 

Wisscnschaftlichc  Mittheilungen  aus  liosnicMi  uiid   der  Heraegovina, 
Vols,  i.-vi. 

(8)  By  Mrs  Balfour,  Balfour  Castle,  Shapinsay. 

Ancient   Orkney   Melodies.      Collected   by   Col.   David   Balfour,    of 
Balfour.     4to ;  1885. 

(9)  By  Messrs  Johnston  <^-  CIreig,  the  Publishers. 
Shetland  Folklore.     By  »7ohn  Spence.     8vo  ;  Lerwick,  1899. 

(10)  By  F.  C.  Keleh,  the  Author. 

Reservation  of   the   Holy  Eucharist    in  the   Scottish  Church.     4to ; 

(11)  By  the  lion.  John  Abeucromhy,  Vire-Presuhjif. 

Catalogue  of  Antiquities  in  the  Museum  at  Devizes.     Part  1.     8vo ; 

(12)  By  the  Ix)rd  Provost,  Ma(;istrates,  and  Council. 
City  of  Edinburgh  Old  Accounts,  vols.  i.  and  ii.     4to  ;  1899. 

(13)  By  1).  Eraser  Harris,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  Author. 
St  Cecilia's  Hall  in  the  Niddry  Wynd.     8vo  ;  1899. 

(14)  By  Rev.  David  Imrie,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  Author. 

List  of  over  500  IWks,  Pamphlets,  etc.,  printed  in  Dunfermline  from 
1729  to  1894,  now  in  the  Library  of  the  Dunfcjrmline  Archncological 
Society.     12mo ;  1894. 



(15)  By  the  Keeper  op  the  Records  op  Scotland. 

The  Accounts  of  the  Lord  High  Treasurer  of  Scotland,  vol.  ii. 
Edited  by  Sir  James  Balfour  l*aul,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Lyon  King-of-Arms. 

There  were  Exliibited  : — 

(1)  V>y  the  Most  Hon.   The  Marquis   of    Bute,    K.T.,   LKIX, 

F.S.A.  Scot. 

A  Collection  of  Carved  Stones  and  other  Objects  found  in  excavations 
at  St  Blane's  Cliurch,  Bute,  with  Illustrative  Plans  and  Drawings.  By 
R.  W.  ScHULTZ.  [See  the  subseijuent  Communications  by  Dr  Joseph 

(2)  By  Mr  William  Dunn,  through  Rev.  J.  B.  Mackenzie,   Ken- 

more,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

Small  Stone  Cup,  2^  inches  in  diameter  by  IJ  inches  in  depth,  with 
remains  of  the  handle  at  one  side,  ornamented  with  horizontal  lines 
round  the  circumference,  and  short  vertical  lines  (m  the  lip  and  the 
rounded  edge  of  the  bottom.  It  was  found  on  the  top  of  Schiliallion 
in  1899,  and  is  the  property  of  Mr  Dunn,  factor  to  the  Marquis  of 
Bn^adalbane.     [See  the  sul^sec^uent  Paper  by  ]{ev.  J.  B.  ^lackenzie.] 

The  followiii<'  Communications  were  read  : — 



OF  BUTE.  By  JOSEPH  ANDERSON  LL.D.,  Assistant  Secretary  and 
Keeper  of  the  Museum, 

St  Blane's  Church,  in  the  parish  of  Kingarth,  Bute,  is  now  a  roofless 
ruin,  consisting  of  nave  and  chancel,  mostly  of  *  Norman '  work,  but  partly 
of  inferior  masonry  and  rubble  work,  which  has  been  supposed  by  some 
writers  to  be  the  remains  of  an  older  and  ruder  edifice,  but  is  considered  by 
!Macgibbon  and  Ross  to  be  due  to  a  later  reconstruction.^  St  Blane,  tlie 
nephew  of  St  Cathan  of  Kilchattan,  and  a  contemporary  of  St  Columba,  is 
chronicled  in  the  Irisli  Calendars  as  of  Cengaradh  (Kingarth)  in  Bute,  and 
the  founder  of  the  ecclesiastical  settlement  which  bore  his  name  there. 

In  1896,  in  consequence  of  the  serious  disintegration  of  the  building, 
I^ord  Bute  gave  instructions  to  Robert  Weir  Schultz,  Architect,  to  have 
the  walls  thoroughly  examined  and  repaired.  Some  parts  were  so  unsafe 
that  the  only  course  possible  was  to  take  them  down  stone  by  stone  and 
rebuild  them.  In  doing  so  some  sculptured  stones  were  found  to  have 
been  used  in  the  foundations  of  the  so-called  *  Norman  *  work  ;  and  these 
were  taken  out  and  preserved. 

While  the  work  at  the  church  was  in  progress  the  attention  of  Lord 
Bute  was  drawn  by  Mr  Schultz  to  the  remains  of  the  thick  wall  of  en- 
closure of  the  precinct,  locally  known  as  *The  Causeway,'  and  it  was 
resolved  to  try  to  trace  it  right  round.  On  the  south  side  no  traces  of  it 
were  vi8i])le,  and  in  digging  trenches  to  discover  the  line  of  the  wall,  the 
remains  of  a  series  of  foundations  of  early  dwellings  were  discovered,  ex- 
tending over  a  considerable  area  south  of  the  churchyard  and  inside  the 
enclosing  wall  of  the  precinct.     During  the  summer  a  considerable  por- 

*  See  Mr  Galloway's  accouut  of  St  Blane's  Church  in  the  Archceohgia  Scotica, 
vol.  V.  p.  317  ;  Bute  in  the  Olden  Time,  by  Rev.  J.  King  Hewison,  vol.  i.  ]>.  182  ; 
and  Macgibbon  k  Ross's  Ecclesiastiad  Architecture  of  Scotland,  vol.  i.  p.  295. 


tion  of  the  site  was  uncovered  and  the  various  objects  which  were  found 
are  now  described  and  illustrated.  At  the  close  of  the  season  the  work 
was  stopped,  and  the  foundations  again  covered  over.  Lord  Bute  had 
intended  to  examine  the  excavations  and  eventuaUy  to  explore  the  whole 
site,  but  nothing  further  has  been  done. 

The  remains  indicate  that  in  all  probability  the  original  site  has  not 
been  changed.  About  50  yards  to  the  west  of  the  church,  a  line  of  cliff 
forming  one  side  of  the  little  valley  runs  nearly  north  and  south,  and 
along  its  base  is  an  irregidar  talus  of  rocky  fragments,  mixed  up  with 
which  are  here  and  there  remains  of  rude  dry-built  walling,  apparently 
forming  parts  of  roughly  constructed  chambers  of  irregular  circular  and 
oblong  forms.  Nearly  100  yards  to  the  north-west,  and  close  under  the 
shelter  of  the  cliff,  is  a  larger  dry-built  structure  much  more  solidly  and 
regiUarly  built,  consisting  of  a  wall  about  9  feet  thick,  enclosing  an 
approximately  circular  area  of  al)out  30  feet  in  diameter.  The  wall  is  still 
complete  in  its  inner  circumference,  rising  to  a  height  of  from  2  or  3 
feet  to  nearly  10  feet  at  the  highest  part,  and  showing  an  entrance  at  the 
south-east  side  nejirly  4  feet  wide  at  the  outside,  narrowing  slightly 
towards  the  inner  side.  A  massive  dry -built  wall  al)Out  4  to  5  feet  thick 
encloses  the  jirecinct,  including  the  church  and  churchyanl  as  well  as 
the  remains  of  dry-built  constructions,  and  a  considerable  area  around  the 
whole  group.  SUirting  from  the  clilf  a  few  yards  to  the  north  of  the 
circular  structure,  the  enclosing  wall  keeps  well  out  to  the  eastward  of 
the  church  till  the  space  enclosed  between  it  and  the  cliff  reaches  al)Out 
150  yards  in  width,  and  then  bends  round  to  the  south  till  it  comes 
towards  the  clifl'  again,  at  a  distance  of  fully  200  yards  to  the  south  of 
the  circular  structure.  The  area  enclosed  is  thus  approximately  half  of  an 
oval  of  200  yards  by  150  yards  bounded  lengthways  by  the  line  of  the  clill*, 
having  the  circular  structure  at  the  northern  end,  the  cliurch  and 
churchyard  near  th(;  niiddl(^,  anil  to  tlie  soutli  of  the  churchyard  a  space 
apparently  unoccu[)icd.  It  was  in  this  space  Initween  the  southern 
boundary  of  tlio  churchyard  and  the  line  of  the  enclosing  wall  that  the 
princijKd  part  of  the  excavation  was  made. 


The  following  is  a  detailed  description  of  the  objects  found  : — 

Ovoid  Pebble  of  quartzite,  4  inches  in  length  by  1 J  inches  in  breadth, 
and  about  1  inch  in  thickness,  bcuiring  marks  of  use  at  one  end  as  a 
lianimer-stone,  and  highly  ix>lished  by  use  as  a  burnisher  on  one  of  its 
lliitter  faces. 

Oblong  semi-ovoid  l^ebble  (fig.  1),  of  a  reddish  coloured  clay-stone,  4 
inches  in  length  by  li  inches  in  breadth,  and  J  inch  in  thickness, 
flattened  on  one  side  by  nse  as  a  burnisher. 

Oblong  quadrangidar  Whetstone  or  Burnisher  of  quartzite  (fig.  2),  4J 
inches  in  length  by  l\  inches  in  breadth,  by  1  inch  in  thickness,  the 
ends  beveUed  off,  the  surfaces  highly  iM^lished  by  use. 

Oblong  quadrangular  Whetstone  of  silicious  sandstone  (fig.  3),  5  inches 
in  length  by  \\  inches  in  breadth,  and  J  inch  in  thickness,  worn 
flat  on  one  face  by  use. 

Oblong  quadrangular  Whetstone  or  Burnisher  of  hard  micaceous  clay- 
stone  (fig.  4),  5 J  inches  in  length  by  1  inch  in  breadth,  and  J  inch 
in  thickness  in  the  mid<lle  of  its  length,  tixpering  to  both  ends,  and 
pierced  at  one  end  for  suspension. 

Oblong  ovally  rounded  Pebble  of  greywacke  (fig.  5),  3{  inches  in 
length  by  J  inch  in  breadth,  and  §  inch  in  thickness,  slightly  polished 
on  one  face  by  use. 

Oblong  quadrangular  AVlietstone  or  Burnisher  of  hard  micaceous 
claystone  (fig.  6),  2|  inches  in  length  by  |  inch  in  breadth,  and  J  inch 
in  thickness  in  the  middle  of  its  length,  and  tapering  slightly  to  l)oth 
ends.     (Jn  one  side  there  is  a  groove  as  if  by  sharpening  a  wire  or  pin. 

Broken  ijortion  of  an  oblong  quadrangular  Whetstone  of  hard 
micaceous  claystone,  2  inches  in  length  by  1  inch  in  breadtli,  and  § 
inch  in  tliickness,  highly  polished  on  all  sides  by  use,  and  having  at  one 
end  the  commencement  of  a  hole  for  suspension. 

Broken  portion  of  an  oblong  quadrangular  Whetstc^ie  of  silicious 
sandstone,  2  inches  in  length  by  2  inches  in  breadth,  and  1|  inches  in 
thickness,  highly  polished  on  all  four  sides  by  use. 

Portion  of  a  Polishing  Slab  of  red  sandstone,  5  inches  in  length  by 

30G  rKOCKEi^i^^'- 

XUeve  were  Kxl""' 

(1)  I'.y   l^"'    ^• 

at  St  VAMii--  t  1 

(2)  l->    '■ 

Snuill  S. 

in    \^''- 

I      I 


3 J  inclies  in  breadth,  and  l\  inches  in  thickness,  with  three  grooves 
less  than  \  inch  in  width  and  depth  on  its  upper  surface  made  hy  point- 

Whorl  of  steatitic  stone,  IJ  inches  in  diameter,  and  |  inch  in  depth, 
with  a  central  hole  for  the  spindle,  J  inch  in  diameter. 

Portion  of  a  Mould  of  sandstone,  measuring  2  inches  in  length  by  1 J 
inches  in  breadth,  and  1  inch  in  thickness,  having  on  one  face  part  of 
a  mould  for  ingots,  J  inch  in  width,  and  ^  inch  in  depth,  and  on  the 
other  face  two  moulds  for  circular  objects,  partly  broken  away. 

Portion  of  an  Armlet  of  jet,  alK)ut  2  J  inches  in  diameter,  the  interior 
surface  flattened,  the  exterior  rounded. 

Portion  of  a  roughly-shaped  and  flattened  King  of  shale  or  cannel 
coal,  apparently  in  course  of  being  made  into  an  annlet. 

Five  portions  of  similar  roughly-shaped  and  flattened  Rings  of  shale 
or  cannel  coal,  varying  from  1  inch  to  J  inch  in  the  width  of  the 
band  of  the  ring,  and  apparently  in  course  of  being  made  into  amdets. 

A  complete  Ring  of  shale  or  cannel  coal,  3  j  inches  in  diameter,  and 
J  inch  in  thickness,  flattened  on  both  faces,  and  roughly  rounded  on 
the  outside  edge,  having  also  a  perforation  1^  inches  in  diameter, 
roughly  cut  through  the  centre  from  l)oth  lines,  with  an  incised  line  cut 
round  it  at  a  distance  of  i  inch,  so  as  to  extend  the  aperture  to  a 
diameter  of  2  inches,  thus  indicating  the  mode  in  which  these  armlets 
were  fashioned  out  of  the  rough  shale. 

Piece  of  rough  shale,  unshaped,  but  with  a  circular  button-like  piece, 
IJ  inches  diameter,  and  nearly  i  inch  in  thickness  scooped  out  of  the 
centre,  and  a  circular  hole  bored  in  the  middle  of  the  scooped  out  hollow, 
apparently  in  process  of  fonnation  into  an  armlet. 

Two  of  the  irregularly  rounded  button- shaped  pieces,  scoojied  from 
pieces  of  shale  like  the  one  last  described. 

Small  Ring  of  shale,  1 J  inches  in  diameter,  and  J  inch  in  thickness, 
with  a  central  perforation  j;  inch  in  diameter. 

Thin  splinter  of  shale,  nearly  1 J  inches  sijuare,  with  an  incised  cross 
on  one  side,  and  on  the  other  the  letters  J)  A  (see  figs.  7  and  8). 


Triivugular  portion  of  slate,  5  inches  in  length  by  3  inches  in  breadth, 
covered  on  both  sides  with  rudely  scratclied  scrolls.  On  one  side  there 
are  also  a  number  of  letters  in  old  Irish  script.     (See  figs.  9  and  10.) 

riece  of  slate  (fig.  11),  measuring  5|  inches  by  4  inches,  having  rudely 
scratched  on  one  side  a  number  of  letters  in  old  Irish  script. 

Piece  of  slate,  having  a  peg  hole  through  it,  and  one  edge  trimmed, 
and  on  one  side,  between  the  peg  hole  and  the  upper  margin,  a  pattern 
of  Celtic  knot- work  ^  rudely  scratched  in  the  surface  (see  fig.  12). 

Piece  of  slate  of  triangular  form,  4  J  inches  in  length  by  3  inches  in 
grcat(»st  breadth,  having  on  one  side  a  small  sfjuare  panel  of  Celtic 
knot-work,  and  alongside  of  it  a  letter  or  monogram  with  one  leg 
lengthened,  and  terminating  in  a  beast's  head  (see  fig.  13). 

Piece  of  slate  of  irregular  form,  3  inches  in  length  by  2  inches  in 
l)readth,  with  a  figure  of  an  animal  rudely  scratched  on  one  side  (see 
fig.  U). 

Piece  of  slate  of  irregular  form,  7  inches  in  length  by  3  inches  in 
greatest  breadth,  having  on  one  side  the  rudely  scratched  figure  of  a 
running  dog  (?),  and  on  the  other  side  a  stag  hunt,  with  a  single  dog 
following  the  stag  (see  figs.  15  and  16). 

A  roofing  slate,  entire,  of  coarser  texture  than  the  foregoing  fragments, 
measuring  13  inches  by  5  inches,  and  i  inch  in  thickness,  with  a  peg 
hole  J  inch  in  diameter  in  the  middle  of  the  breadth,  and  2  inches 
from  the  top  of  the  slate.  A  series  of  19  lines  radiate  from  the  hole  at 
irregular  distances,  meeting  an  arc  of  a  circle  on  the  lower  part  about 
3  inches  from  the  hole. 

Piece  of  a  circular  (Jrindstone  of  red  sandstone,  8  inches  along  the 

*  There  is  in  tlie  British  Museum  a  *'flat  piece  of  slate  of  irregular  form  found 
alx)ut  1830  at  Kilaloe,  Limerick,  during  excavations  for  a  public  work.  On  both 
8i<les  were  sculptured  intricAte  interlaced  patterns,  consisting  of  animals  and  other 
ornainents,  in  the  style  which  prevailed  in  Ireland  durin>(  the  eleventh  and  twelfth 
centuries."  It  was  supposed  to  have  been  used  by  some  sculptor  or  metal  worker  to 
trace  out  patterns  which  he  intende<l  to  execute.  Proc.  of  the  Soc.  Anf.  Londmi^ 
vol.  iv.  (1858)  p.  171.  Sec  also  a  similar  piece  of  slate,  with  interlaced  patterns 
and  rude  spirals,  found  in  a  craunog  near  Clones.  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
AntiquarUs  of  Irclnml,  vol.  xxx.  p.  210. 



curve,  5  inches  in  diameter,  and  3  inches  thick,  which  has  been  much 
used  for  grinding  and  point-sharpening. 

Quadrangular  piece  of  sandstone,  5  inches  in  length  by  4  inches  in 
breadth,  by  2  J  inches  in  tliickness,  the  edges  much  grooved  by  poiiitr 

Portions  of  a  large  Vessel  of  reddish  pottery,  6  inches  in  diameter, 

Fig.  17.  rortioii  of  Cross-shaft  of  sandstone.     (J.) 
tlic  sides  almost  cylindrical,  and  covered  inside  and  out  with  a   black 
glaze.     One   portion    sliows  a  part  of  the  lip.     It  hiis  a  heavy  doubhi 
moulding  1  inch  in  dopth,  and  a  flat  brim  fully  1  inch  in  width,  which 
shows  the  brick-liko.  colour  and  texture  of  the  iwvste. 

Portions  of  Water-jars  of  reddish  ware  with  a  greenish  glaze;  of  two 
small  Crucihles ;  and  of  horns  of  the  red  deer  and  roe  deer. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  sculptured  stones  at  St  Blanc's,  of 


which  drawings  were  also  exhibited.  Those  represented  in  figs.  17,  18, 
25,  26,  27,  and  29  were  found  during  the  repairs  on  the  church.  The 
others  were  previously  known. 

Portion  of  Cross-shaft  of  red  sandstone  (fig.  17),  9  inches  in  length  by 
4  J  inches  in  breadth,  and  2  inches  in  thickness,  having  on  both  faces  a 
pattern  of  interlaced  work.     Found  in  the  north  wall  of  the  church. 

Portions  of  Cross-shaft  of  sandstone  (fig.  18),  2  feet  2  inches  in  length 
by  llj  inches  in  width,  having  on  one  side  an  angular  pattern  of  inter- 
laced work  of  four  strands  ending  in  circular  loops.  Found  in  the 
north  wall  of  the  church. 

Grave-slab  (fig.  19),  6  feet  10  inches  in  length  by  2  feet  10  inches  in 
breadth,  bearing  on  the  upper  part  a  cross  forme<l  of  interlinked  oval 
rings,  with  tenuinals  of  Staftbrd-knots,  and  a  central  boss  with  four 
smaller  bosses  in  the  intei'stices. 

Headstone  (fig.  20),  being  a  cross  with  ])Iain  shaft  and  a  circular  head, 
the  cross-form  defined  l)y  four  oval  sinkings. 

Tliree  circular  Cross-heads  (figs.  21,  22,  and  23)  wanting  shafts,  the 
cross-form  defined  by  four  oval  sinkings. 

Cross-head  of  circuLir  form,  showing  part  of  the  shaft,  the  cross-shape 
resembling  a  wheel  with  four  spokes  (fig.  24),  and  having  a  diamond- 
shaped  l)oss  in  the  centre. 

Portion  of  Slab,  2  feet  6  inches  in  length  by  13  inches  in  breadth 
(fig.  25),  having  on  one  side  a  plain  Latin  Cross  with  double  incised 
outlines.     Found  in  the  north  wall  of  the  church. 

Portion,  probably  of  the  shaft  of  a  cross,  1  f<x)t  8  inches  in  length  by 
13  inches  in  breadth,  having  on  one  side  (fig.  26)  a  man  on  horseback, 
and  on  the  other  (fig.  27)  a  rude  figure  of  a  man  armed  with  a  short 
sword,  and  having  in  his  right  hand  a  spear,  and  in  the  left  a  small 
circular  target  or  shield.     Found  in  the  north  wall  of  the  church. 

Grave  slab  (fig.  28),  3  feet  8  inches  in  length,  12  inches  in  breadth  at 
the  head,  tapering  to  9  inches  at  the  foot,  having  a  defaced  panel  in  the 
middle,  with  a  pair  of  shears  at  one  side,  and  two  panels  at  the  ends  with 
oval  rings  intersecting  diagonally. 



//' '/ 


I  at  St  \',\m.''  C.  .;  .      ■:.'-.     :■.... 
k  iiiY\i.lA  v.-  M-  .'.  V.'.  -.;.  .  './, 


I  : 


PKnCKEiaNCtS   OF  THE  SOCIKTV,   APlUt-  fl,  1900. 

Large  ti rave-slat",  lirokou  ncrciis  the  luithlle,  5  feet  in  len^tli  hy  1  foot 
3  indies  ill  lireadtli  at  the  on  els,  having  circles  nf  6  iuelitis  diiuat^ttiT  at 
each  of  the  fuur  (^omers.  The  surfaee  tif  the  slab  (tig.  29)  m  fUvji{«} 
into  three  paneli^.  In  the  upper  yutuei  is  a  Celtic  Crijss  iiiciaeil,  li.iviii|; 
a  circle  connecting  the  ^mn^  sli^tft,  mid  summit ;  on  either  siide  itt 
shaft  tlie  space  ntukr  th*^  armn  h  HUed  with  lines,  which  set^m  tu  1 
intended  to  outline  n  pattern  of  angular  iuterbced  work^  though  the 

strands  do  Tiot  iuterlacc      i 
a  pattern  of  fivtwi^rk,     *"     ; 
in  tliree  of  which  the  ornamcin;  ih 
obloug  aiul  i.>oiuteil  riu^s 
space   iMween    tlie   eJirlcK   ai 
incited  eroasess  of  aimjile  short  li 
other  vertically. 

Portion  of  a  Slah  (fig. 
breadth,  having  in  a  ]Ninei  on 
a  helmet  and  ^i^ear,  the  poitu 
fore  legs,     A  j martially  di 
flight,  appean*  ht^lore  the  face  ul 

dlo  panel  there  i:^  a  suggi^ation  *jI 
I  »an  e  1  i  h  d  i  v  iiled  i  n  to  four  q  oar t*«  m, 
£ai;*^d,  while  the  fourth  ^howis  two 
idiagoual  interbceinent  In  %\m 
md  iKitttjm  of  the  skli  are  plain 
\w  one  cHJJSi^iin^^  ol»litiuely  tuid  tlie 

iuehes  in  length  by  10 J  inche*  in 

>er  part  a  figure  of  a  horsemau  witli 

s[jejir  !i  PI  waring  between  th*5  ht>r»e'e 

e,  suggeetive^  perhaps,  of  a  liinl  iii 

hoi^iuiku.     ITmienienth  is  atiofcher 

panel,  tilled  with  liiagonal  ciiequera  with  a  dot  in  the  centre  of  eadu 

Portion  of  a  Cross-shaft  with  semicircular  iioUowe  at  th«  ititejs*ecti*mi 
(ti^r  31),  tljc  arms  and  t^unimit  broken  nwny,  a  boss  in  the  eentn*  *»f  iV 
uj>per  part,  a  murginid  border  of  lines  crossing  ea(4i  other  diagoniilly,  ^^ 
on  the  lower  |>art  the  figure  of  a  nondescript  aninml,  with  tlefaeed  Oi||^tii# 
over  it, 

(Intvo-slah  (fig  32),  6  feet  4  inche^s  in  length  hy  i^Ti  hiclic*  in  htT-a^Uli 
at  the  top,  uu<l  22  inches  nt  the  foot,  having  in  tliu  upper  pail  a  i^n^ 
18  inches  scpiare,  sulMlivided  intij  four  squares,  in  each  of  vthi^ 
two  iival  interlinked  rings,  placed  iU^igonally  with  ii  duunn 
in  the  centre. 

Gmve-Blub  (%  33),  4  feet  in  lengtli  by  21  ijieh*,- 
figure  of  0  broadd>lade4  ^wonl  30  inches  in  Imijk'th, 
guanl  and  yhdvuhir  ponnneb 

324  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,   APRIL  9,   1900. 

Grave-slab  (fig.  34),  5  feet  10  inches  in  length,  but  imperfect  at  the 
lower  end,  1 1  inches  in  width  at  the  head,  tapering  to  9  inches  at  the 
foot,  the  edges  bevelled  and  ornamented  with  a  chevrony  running 
pattern,  on  the  lower  jmrt  a  square  figure  with  triangular  ornament 
round  the  margin,  over  that  a  pair  of  shears,  and  over  that,  occupying 
four-fifths  of  the  length  of  the  stone,  a  stem  with  alternating  branches, 
all  set  at  the  same  angle  and  each  terminating  in  a  quadrilobate  leaf. 
Over  this  branching  stem  is  a  circular  interlacement  of  four  oval  rings 
with  a  geometrical  quatre-foil,  the  whole  forming  a  symbolic  cross  with 
a  circular  head,  in  the  manner  frequently  seen  on  the  grave-slalxs  of  the 
West  Highlands  of  13th  century  or  later. 

Fip;.  36.  Book-clasp  of  Brass. 

Grave-slal)  (fig.  35),  6  feet  4  inches  in  length  by  1  foot  9  inches  in 
breadth  at  the  t<»p,  and  1  foot  6  inches  at  the  foot,  having  in  the  upper 
])art  a  panel  16  inches  sfpiare,  sub-divided  into  four  squares  like  the  last, 
in  each  of  which  are  two  oval  interlinked  rings  placed  diagonally,  with  a 
diamond-shaped  boss  in  tlie  centre.  The  rest  of  the  stone  seems  to  have 
been  covered  with  foliaccous  ornamentation. 

Not  the  least  intens^ting  among  tlie  many  relics  recovered  during  the 
l)r()gress  of  i\n*  excavations  is  the  book-clasp  of  brass,  here  figured 
(fig.  3G)  of  tlie  actual  size.  It  measures  1 J  inches  in  length  by  ^  inches 
in  breadth,   thus  indicating  a  volume  of  considerable  thickness.     The 


ornamentation,  which  consists  of  a  scroll  of  foliage,  prettily  arranged, 
with  an  oval  in  the  centre  enclosing  a  peculiarly  shaped  cross  fitchee, 
seems  to  indicate  a  date  somewhat  later  than  the  majority  of  the  other 
articles  found. 


AND  THEIR  FOLKLORE.  By  Rev.  J.  B.  MACKENZIE,  F.S.A.  Scot., 

In  the  Proceedings  (vol.  xxix.  p.  94),  I  have  described  a  remarkable 
cup-  and  ring-marked  boulder  discovered  in  1894,  on  the  slope  of  the  hill- 
side of  the  Braes  of  Balloch,  a  little  more  than  1000  feet  above  sea- 
level,  and  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  to  the  east  of  the  house  at  Tombuie. 
Its  precise  situation  is  about  100  yards  to  the  south  of  the  fence  which 
separates  the  arable  land  from  that  portion  which  was  partly  arable, 
but  mostly  moorland  pasture,  and  witliin  a  few  yards  of  the  old  road 
from  the  arable  land  to  the  liill.  The  boulder,  which  is  about  4  feet  in 
length,  and  the  same  in  breadth,  is  of  a  hard,  coarse  schist,  presenting 
a  fairly  level  surface,  which  is  almost  completely  covered  with  boldly 
marked  sculpturings  of  concentric  circles  surrounding  small  central  cups. 
The  manner  in  which  they  have  been  pecked  out  by  a  pointed  instrument 
is  clearly  visible  even  in  the  small-sized  photograph,  of  which  a  reproduc- 
tion is  here  given  (fig.  1)  from  the  previous  volume  of  the  Proceedings, 

Since  then  I  have  frequently  visited  the  site  of  the  boulder,  and 
examined  its  neighbourhood,  because  1  felt  sure  that  it  must  be  associ- 
ated with  something  older  if  I  could  but  light  ujK)n  it ;  but  it  was  only 
this  summer  that  I  found  at  least  a  portion  of  what  I  expected.  Not 
far  from  the  boulder,  on  the  toj)  of  a  knoll,  the  rock  comes  to  the  surface, 
and  here  I  found  two  rows  of  cups  of  the  ordinary  plain  pattern  (fig.  2), 
deep,  large,  and  well  marked,  ])ut  without  enclosing  circles.  It  was  only 
by  peeling  off  the  turf  which  had  almost  covered  the  flat  rock  surface 

326  PKOCEEDlKGa  OF  THE   StXIETY,   ArUlL  \\   1900. 

Ftg.  1.  Bouhlei  with  tn)>-  euuI  riii^  muikiii^Hj  <jii  Him^^  of  Ballots b« 
From  u  photo^rnijih  l>y  Rev.  J.  B»  Maeken/ie. 

Fig.  2.  Two  1-0 via  of  ciijwi  in  n  imV-aurfRCP  mi  Braes  of  Ballocli* 
From  a  pUotojjrajib  by  Rev.  4.  H.  Mackenzie, 


"t;  hat  I  camt.»  \i\\on  them,  lii  the  one  I'ow  tliere  are  four  cnpa,  and  in  the 
«  '■ther  five.  From  these  cups  the  seuljitured  bouMev  is  distant  80  feet 
T^}  the  aouth-wost,  and  the  ruin  of  a  l>eehive-slia|Kjd  huikling  300  feet 
£90uth.  The  latter  is  not  nearly  so  j>erfect  as  when  I  first  saw  it.  The 
^rabbits  have  taken  up  their  abode  among  the  rubbisli,  and  in  digging 
"^em  out  many  of  the  stones  have  Iwen  displaced  from  their  former  and 
sipparently  original  position. 

These  rock  cups  appear  decidedly  morc^  ancient  than  anything  on  the 
lK>alder  which  I  have  pre>'iously  described.  The  sculpture  on  its  upjK»r 
3)ortion  seems  more  archaic  in  cliaracter  than  those  further  down,  while 
lowest  of  all,  and  apiwirently  unconnected  witli  what  is  above,  there  is 
a  symbol  which  is  often  introduced  among  sculptures  of  thi»  Christian 
period.  The  work  done  on  the  lower  lialf  of  tlie  stone  is  almost  as  fresh 
08  when  newly  executed,  and  shows  quite  distinctly  the  marks  of  the 
UxA  used.  A  tool  like  the  iiifKlern  granite  pick  would  leave  marks  of 
a  similar  kind.  This  {K)rtion  is  thus  distinct,  because  soon  after  it  was 
iinished  it  got  covered  up  by  the  soil  as  it  is  now.  One  cannot  look  at 
it  without  asking  oneself:  How  came  it  alnrnt  that  this  lalwrious  work 
is  no  sooner  finished  than  it  is  al)andoned  ?  War  or  some  such  catas- 
trophe dispersing  the  trilxi  may  have  been  the  cause  ;  but  1  rather  incline 
to  the  opinion  that  it  was  the  advent  of  Christianity  which  led  to  the 
abandonment  of  the  old  high  place,  and  to  the  building,  in  its  stead,  of 
a  Christian  church  on  Sybilla's  Isle  in  the  lake  IkjIow.  The  old  high 
place  is  now  lonely  enough  on  the  edge  of  the  heathery  moor,  but  it 
was  not  so  in  even  comjMiratively  motleni  times.  On  all  sides  you  see 
the  ruins  of  hamlets  and  wide  traces  of  formcjr  cultivation.  Then,  also, 
till  quite  recent  times,  the  main  road  from  Crielf  to  the  far  highlands 
passed  it  closely  by.^  After  this  the  old  road  went  on  past  the  circles  of 
upright  stones  at   Croftmorsig,-   and   at   that   point    entered    what    is 

*  It  is  from  this  8iK)t  that  Sir  Walter  Scott,  in  The  Fair  Maul  of  Pert h^  makes  the 
Glover  get  liia  first  view  of  Loch  Tay. 

*  These  are  figured  at  p.  356  of  vol.  xxiii.  of  the  I*ro<:e€di7i(js,  Most  likely  they 
are  moonmeDtal,  but  no  one  &in  say,  till  the  spade  is  freely  used  in  its  exidoratiou. 
The  name  means  the  Croft  of  the  littlo  priuccss,  and  (toints  that  way. 



now  tlie  park  of  Taymouth  Castle,  and  crossed  the  Tay  at  the  ferry 
of  Muttonhole,  a  little  ahove  the  present  New  Hall  Bridge.  Further 
on,  it  passed  another  group  of  standing  stones,  five  of  which  are  still 
erect,  before  it  crossed  the  Lyon  and  merged  into  the  present  liighway. 

But  to  return  to  our  high  place,  not  only  is  it  central  among  the 
mountains  of  the  district,  but  it  was  the  centre  round  which  the  native 
spirits  of  the  old  mythology  grouped.  The  only  one  of  the  seven  chief 
ones  whose  place  of  abode  is  not  in  full  view  is  "  Kelpidh,"  called  "  Kel- 
pidh  an  sput "  (Kelpie  of  the  waterfall),  and  it  is  just  round  the  comer. 
Kelpidli  was  the  spirit  of  the  raging  flood,  and  when  things  were  going 
quietly  abode  among  the  waterfalls  of  the  Moness  Bum,  issuing  forth 
in  gleeful  triumph  when  the  floods  were  high,  and  sweeping  away  flocks 
and  crops  and  the  alx)des  of  men — if  themselves,  so  much  the  better. 
She  was  not  truly  malevolent,  only  glad  when  her  work  was 

The  next  spirit  was  "  Brounaidh  an  eilan  "  (Brownie  of  the  Island). 
In  some  parts  of  the  country  he  is  more  commonly  known  as  "  Ourisk." 
His  passion  was  for  work,  and  it  was  always  much  easier  to  set  him 
agoing  than  to  stop  him.  Any  work  which  seemed  of  human  origin, 
yet  which  appeared  altogether  too  stupendous  for  mere  human 
labour  to  eff'ect,  was  ascribed  to  him.  Here  he  is  located  on  Sybilla's 

The  next  spirit  was  "  I^rg  luath  na  Leitir  "  (swift  footprint  of  the 
Leitir).      Leitir  is  the  name  of   the  wind-swept  slope  of  Drummond 

^  This  island,  on  which  there  are  the  ruins  of  the  well-known  monastery,  is  about 
100  yards  from  the  shore  of  the  lake.  When  the  lake  is  at  its  lowest  this  channel 
is  not  more  tlian  about  a  foot  deep.  The  island  is  on  the  outer  edge  of  a  sandbank, 
and  about  an  acre  in  extent.  About  fifteen  years  ago,  a  large  portion  of  the  island 
was  levelled  and  cleared  of  rubbish.  The  workmen  having  slightly  miscalculated  their 
level,  opened  up  two  or  three  pits  down  to  the  level  of  the  lake,  filling  them  up  with 
stones  and  using  the  soil  for  surfacing.  I  was  often  on  the  spot  and  saw  that  tbey 
nowhere  came  to  any  natural  layer  of  gravel  or  sand  :  all  was  artificial.  From  tliis 
I  felt  satisfied  that  the  whole  island  was  artificial,  probably  at  first  only  a  lake- 
dwelling  of  the  ordinary  type,  but  extended  from  time  to  time  as  it  grew  in  import- 
ance and  more  space  was  reiiuired.  In  locating  "Brounaidh**  here  there  seems  to 
bo  preserved  a  tradition  of  its  artificial  character. 


facing  the  island  and  the  lake.  Here  was  the  special  home  of  the 

The  next  spirit  was  "  Trusdar  Fhartingall "  (the  rascal  of  Fortingall). 
This  spirit  is  our  modern  devil,  and  why  he  is  located  at  Fortingall  I 
have  never  heard.  ^ 

The  next  spirit  is  "  Paterlan  na  Fhearnan "  (I'aterlan  of  Feaman). 
His  special  abode  was  Alt  Phaderlidh,  a  wild  mountain  stream  a  little 
to  the  west  of  Fearnan.  I  have  never  been  able  to  ascertain  what  were 
his  characteristics  beyond  having  some  connection  with  rain  and  snow. 
Neither  can  I  make  out  his  identity  with  any  of  the  ordinary  spirits  of 

The  next  spirit  was  "  Sligeachan  a  Bhlarmlioir  "  (Scales  of  Blairmore). 
His  abode  was  among  the  waterfalls  (near  the  lake  on  the  farm  of  Blair- 
more), on  a  stream  which  issues  full  grown  from  a  rock  half-way  up  Ben 
Lawers,  and  rushes  straight  and  foaming  to  tlie  lake  beneath.  He  was 
undoubtedly  the  Dragon  of  mythology  and  exercised  the  usual  functions 
of  a  dragon.^ 

The  seventh  and  last  was  Fuadh  Corry  nan  ghaimhne  (hatred  of  the 
corry  of  the  deer  stirks).  He  was  the  spirit  of  cold  (fuachd),  and  was 
much  feared.  In  Gaelic  there  is  a  play  upon  the  words  for  hatred  and 
cold,  so  that  at  times  one  hears  him  called  Fuachd  Corry  nan  ghaimhne. 
The  former  is,  however,  his  correct  designation.     I  have  not  been  able 

*  I  have,  however,  sometimes  heard  him  called  **  Truis  du  "  (black  trousers).  It 
may  be  but  another  way  of  referring  to  the  same  gentleman  in  black,  but  more 
likely  a  mere  accidental  corruption.  It  surely  cannot  have  been  with  any  intention 
of  getting  rid  of  the  old  gentleman,  for  a  district  which  prides  itself  on  being  the 
birthplace  of  Pontius  Pilate  would  certainly  conserve  its  interest  in  black  Donald. 

^  Although  the  dragon  had  his  lair  among  the  water&Us  of  this  stream,  they  were 
not  his  work,  as  those  on  the  Moness  Burn,  where  she  abode,  were  the  work  of 
Kelpie.  These  are  in  Gaelic  called  *'  Obair  phealidh  "  ( Al>erfeldy),  the  ivork  of  Kelpie. 
Neither  had  he  anything  to  do  with  the  remarkable  spring  whence  it  issues.  It  was 
under  the  guardianship  of  '*  Cailleach  bhere'*  (the  old  lady  of  the  thunderbolt) — a 
very  subordinate  spirit  with  no  initiative  power  as  the  seven  hatl.  She  had  merely 
the  delegated  duty  of  covering  up  the  spring  at  sunset.  On  one  occasion  she  failed 
to  do  so  (being  tired  with  hunting  she  fell  asleep),  when  it  burst  out,  and  before  it 
could  be  checked  by  the  returning  sun  it  had  dug  out  and  formed  Loch  Tay. 


to  asc<Ttaiii  the  oxact  iKxsition  of  tlie  Corrj  which  was  his  chosen  home. 
The  wliolo  of  this  district  was  aiicieiitl}'  a  r<\yal  deer  forest,  and  it  must 
liav('<  Ikhmi  souk?  sixjcially  cold  ami  dismal  glen  to  which  the  young  deer 
W(?re  driven  by  the  older  and  stronger. 

Many  ages  nnist  have  elapsed  since  the  ideas  represented  by  these 
IH^pular  myths  were  re^d  here  in  the  lives  of  men  and  women  like 

l>ut  to  r(»turn  to  the  sj)ot  from  which  I  have  been  looking  at  the  cup 
marks  at  my  feet,  I  am  struck  with  the  extreme  scarcity  of  any  real 
tradition  regar<ling  them.  Only  once  do  1  rememlier  hearing  anything 
genuine.  Tiu^re  had  lH?en  a  gotxl  deal  of  illness  in  some  miserable  old 
hous(»s  where  I  was  visiting,  and  in  s|>eaking  to  an  old  man  a1)out  it,  1 
expH'sscd  my  wonder  that  the  j>eople  did  not  remove  some  boulders 
which  obstructed  the  light  of  the  small  windows,  and  the  drainage  about 
the  dooi-s  ;  and  a<lile<l,  that  it  couhl  easily  \ye  done  and  would  make  the 
houses  more  healthy.  No  doubt  it  would,  he  agreed,  but  then  it  would 
not  do  to  destroy  these  old  worship  stones  (clachain  Aoraidh).  He  said 
that  there  had  l>een  one  near  his  own  door  which  was  very  much  in  the 
way,  but  that  he  had,  with  great  lalnmr,  dug  a  hole  into  which  he  had 
let  it  «lroj>  and  covered  it  up,  for  it  would  never  do  to  incur  the  anger 
of  the  spiritual  beings  by  breaking  it  up.  This  was  more  than  thirty 
y«'ars  ago.  The  iKuddcrs  seemed  to  me  natural  and  of  no  significance; 
l»ut  my  attention  In'ing  thus  called  to  them  I  found  similar  stones  at 
almost  every  old  house  or  site — many  of  them,  undoubtedly,  placed 
tlu-re  of  intention.  Some  of  them  hail  cup  marks,  but  on  many  1  could 
liiid  none.  I  aisn  found  that  any  sort  of  hollow  in  a  stone,  even  when  it 
siM-nu'd  to  me  natural,  wa<  sutlieient  to  give  it  a  sacreil  character;  and 
tliat  anuu'  nf  these  stones  wei*e  undoubte<lIy  ancient  boundary  mark^ 
wliile  ntluTs  lia«l  K»en  used  in  the  pre|xiration  of  food  stuffs.  AH  have 
.1  rcrtain  mystery  aUnit  them,  and  several  still  preserve  around  then 
traditions  of  i]w  [H^i^^ssion  of  su|ieniatura]  powers. 

So  till  as  I  have  examined  them,  these  stone^MM  to  ftll  into  tbnt; 


Tlie  first  group  consists  of  the  rock  cut  cups,  often  single,  but  more 
generally  in  groups,  with  at  times  (piite  an  elaborate  arrangement  of 
cirttles  and  connecting  channels.  The  meaning  of  these  is  very  obscure. 
Nothing  which  1  havci  ever  liwircl  seemed  authentic  or  simple  enough — 
very  sim[)le  the  ideas  must  have  been,  or  they  wouhl  never  have  been 
so  common  or  wide-spread. 

In  the  second  group,  the  stones  present  a  natuml  hollow,  smoothed  and 
shaped  a  little  by  art.  This  fonn  may  have  been  used,  among  other  pur- 
jxises,  for  the  ix)unding  and  rubbing  down  of  grains  before  the  invention 
nf  the  cpiern. 

The  third  group,  which  is  almost  certainly  of  later  date,  comprises  the 
entindy  artificial  stone  cups  (smidl  ones  are  oft(*n  called  elf  cups)  and  the 
y^tone  basins  used  for  the  manufacture  of  pot  barley. 

The  hist  two  groups  have  generally  some  tradition  associated  with  them. 
Many  of  these  have  been  collected.  They  most  fre<piently  relate  to  the 
jKDwer  of  curing  different  kinds  of  diseases  possessed  by  them.  This,  how- 
ever, was  not  by  any  means  their  only  power.  There  is  one  belonging  to 
the  second  group,  in  a  rock  near  Scallasaig  in  Colonsay,  and  the  tradi- 
tion with  regard  to  it  is,  that  by  means  of  it  the  chief  of  the  MThees 
could  get  south  wind  when  he  chose.  Hence  it  is  called  "Tobar  na 
gaoith  deas "  (the  well  of  the  south  wind).  One  of  the  third  group  is 
at  Riskbuie,  also  in  Colonsay,  near  the  ruins  of  an  ancient  ecclesiastical 
building.  Nothing  now  remains  but  a  heap  of  rubbish  with  no  history, 
yet  at  one  time  it  must  have  been  of  considerable  importance.  Over  a 
well  quite  close  to  it  I  found  more  than  thirty  years  ago  as  a  roofing  slab, 
a  stone  with  a  well-cut  sculptured  figure,  which  some  have  supposed  to 
be  of  Christian  origin,  and  others  to  be  a  representation  of  Thor  and  his 
hammer.  It  is  figured  at  p.  121  of  vol.  xv.  of  the  Proceedings,  I  was 
also  told  of  another  sculptured  stone  which  hiul  been  taken  from  this 
ruin,  and  built  into  one  of  the  ohl  cottages  in  the  vicinity.  It  was 
known  as  "iomhaigh  na  leasg"  (the  image  of  laziness).  There  was  a 
well-known  stone  called  by  this  same  name  in  the  Castle  of  Carnassary 
near  Kilmartin.     I  once  hunted  it  up  and  found  it  in  a  rockery,  in  the 


PKOCEKDIKGS  OF  THE   80CIKTV,   AmiL  W,   1900, 

neglected  giYjund&  of  tlie  old  mansion-house  of  Largie.  It  had  appiirently 
been  ft  gni'goyle,  and  prtjliably  tli©  one  at  Riikhuie  may  have  once  served 
tli«  same  useful  piirjjo&e. 

Among  the  ruins  at  Eiskbuio,  au<l  lying  on  the  surface,  I  found,  in  1869, 
a  fine  atono  celt  (lig,  3),  which  I  liave  now  presented  to  the  National 

Fig.  3.  StoEiD  Axe  from  Kiskbnie,  Qolun^ay.     (|. ) 

Museum  as  an  exceedin^^ly  iuteresting  example,  hotli  on  account  of  itg 
mzB  and  its  iiei-uhar  shaiw.  It  \a  of  greenstonej  11^  incht»a  in  length  by 
4J  inches  across  the  cutting  face,  the  edge  of  which  is  romided,  and 
slightly   expanded   beyond  the  width   of   the  body  of  the  implement, 


which  is  almost  circular  in  section  in  the  middle  of  its  length,  tapering 
to  a  conically-i)ointed  butt.  The  surface  is  not  polished,  but  bears  the 
marks  of  picking  all  over  it,  as  if  it  had  been  reduced  to  shape  by  this 

Another  of  this  tliird  group  is  at  Kilchattan,  also  in  Colonsay.  Like 
the  one  at  Riskbuie  it  is  of  the  pot  barley  type,  and  cut  out  of  the  solid 
rock.  It  is  near  the  ruins  of  the  Church  of  St  Chattan,  and  of  the  house 
of  the  chief  of  M*Mhurich  (Currie),  who  owned  this  portion  of  the  island. 
His  house  was  called  "Tigh  an  torn  dreis"  (Bramble  Knoll  House),  and 
according  to  highland  custom  he  himself  was  generally  known  as  "fear 
an  torn  dreis."  As  chief  of  the  more  fertile  moiety  of  the  island, 
M*Mhuri(!h  was,  of  course,  a  much  greater  man  than  MTlieeat  Scallasaig. 
If  MThee  could  get  south  wind,  M*Mhurich  could  by  means  of  his  rock- 
basin  get  any  wind  he  liked.  The  basin  was  called  "  Cuidh  Chattain." 
It  is  quite  a  mistake  to  say,  iis  I  have  heard  at  times  said,  that  any 
Currie  could  operate  the  well.  It  was  only  "  fear  an  tom  dreis  "  himself 
who  could  do  it.  He  could  get  the  wind  to  blow  from  any  quarter  he 
wished,  by  the  simple  expedient  of  clearing  out  any  rubbish  which  it 
might  contain  on  to  the  side  from  which  the  wind  was  desired.  It  was 
sure  to  come  and  blow  it  back  again  into  the  Imsin.^ 

According  to  Adamnan,  St  Columba  did  not  even  need  to  change  the 
wind,  but  showed  his  superior  power  by  sailing  rapidly  in  his  boat  on  Loch 
Ness,  against  the  strong  adverse  wind  which  the  Druid  Broichan  had 

Before  passing  from  the  subject  of  rock  basins  and  cups,  I  may  mention 
as  bearing  on  the  subject  a  tradition  which  I  heard  from  my  friend.  Rev. 
J.  M*Lean  of  Grantully.  We  were  about  half-way  up  Glenlyon,  when 
he  pointed  out  to  me  some  isolated  patches  of  rock  by  the  road  side, 
remarking  that  they  indicated  the  limit  to  which  the  plague  had  reached 

'  Originally  I  am  persuaded  it  was  not  any  accidental  rubbish  which  was  cleared 
out,  but  (with  undoubtedly  certain  ai»j)roi)riate  ceremonies)  the  ofFering  of  food  to 
the  supernatural  powers,  which  had  been  left  in  the  basin  when  last  used  for  its 
primary  purpose  of  making  i)ot  barley. 


in  the  glen ;  St  Adamnan,  it  seems,  stayed  its  further  progress  by  boring  a 
hole  in  one  of  these  rocks — catching  the  plague  and  stopping  it  up  in  the 
hole.  In  the  time  at  my  disposal  1  could  not  find  on  any  of  the  rocks 
any  artificial  markings  which  might  have  started  tliis  tradition. 

A  short  time  ago,  ^Ir  Dunn,  factor  to  the  Marquis  of  Breadalbane, 
showed  me  a  small  stone  cup  (fig.  4),  a  regular  elf  cup  in  the  popular 
estimation,  which  was  recently  found  by  a  shepherd  close  to  a  sheep-path 
near  the  top  of  Schihallion.     It  is  of  very  hard  stone,  with  a  simple  orna- 

Fig.  4.  Stono  Cup  found  on  Schihallion. 

mental  pattern  running  round  the  outside.  At  one  point  there  is  a 
projection  wliich  looks  like  the  remains  of  a  handle.  There  is  no  jmssible 
natural  use,  of  which  I  can  think,  which  could  induce  any  one  to  carry 
sucli  a  vessel  to  near  the  top  of  a  very  high  hill.  It  must  surely  have 
been  in  connection  with  the  idciis  wliich  they  entertained  of  the  super- 
natural, that  our  remote  ancestors  were  impelled  to  cut  out  these  cuj>s  in 
the  rocks,  ])Iace  them  in  their  graves,  and  carry  tliem  up  to  the  high 
places  of  the  earth.      What  were  tliese  ideas? 



Captain  J.  H.  ANDERSON,  F.S.A.Scot. 

Rock-Basins. — At  a  camp  in  the  hills  about  70  miles  north  of  Rani- 
khet,  I  found  a  rock  with  several  l)eautifully-rounded  "  pits  "  or  "  rock- 
basins,"  about  6  J  inches  in  diameter  and  6  inches  deep.  None  of  the 
other  rocks  were  marke<l  in  any  way,  and  as  this  occurred  at  the  junction 
oi  two  streams  (always  more  or  less  a  sacred  spot  to  Hindus),  I  came  to 
the  conclusion  that  there  might  be  some  similarity  l)etween  these  "  pits  " 
and  the  Scotch  cup-marked  rocks.  But  alx)ut  30  miles  further  on,  1 
found  other  pits  of  the  same  kind,  which  required  no  theoretical  explana- 
tion, because  I  found  them  in  use.  They  were  simply  a  kind  of  primitive 
mortars  for  shelling  rice.  The  rice  is  put  into  the  rock-basin,  and  is 
pounded  and  worked  round  by  an  iron  shod  beam  about  3  inches  in 
diameter  and  6  feet  long.  Afterwards  I  found  many  more  of  these 
mills  in  use,  and,  on  my  return  journey,  found  the  old  foundations  of 
several  huts,  that  I  had  not  ol>served  at  my  first  inspection,  hidden  in 
the  brushwood  close  to  the  original  pit-marked  rock. 

Ring-Marked  Stones  without  Cenlral  Cujys. — In  a  Hindoo  temple 
inclosure  near  Dwarahat,  a  small  town  about  13 J  miles  north 
of  Kimikhet,  in  the  province  of  Kumaon,  I  found  a  stone  with 
two  concentric  rings,  incised,  to  the  depth  of  about  half  an  inch, 
•  the  channels  being  a  little  wider  than  their  depth.  The  inner  circle 
was  23  inches  in  diameter,  tlie  outer  circle  6J  inches  in  iliameter,  and 
from  it  there  proceeiled  a  "duct"  11^  inches  in  length.  The  stone  is  a 
slab  al)out  23|  inches  by  17  inches,  and  is  lying  face  uppennost  on  a 
j)il<'  of  loosely  built  up  stones,  and  is  very  much  weathered.  The 
inclosure  contains  numerous  stones  more  or  less  ciirved,  chiefly  of  the 
usual  Phallic  types,  but  there  are  only  two  othei-s,  broken  and  very 
much  defaced,  which  at  all  resemble  this  one. 


In  the  Terai  near  the  Hundspoor  camping  ground,  about  18  miles  due 
east  of  Huldwani,  I  found  another  stone  with  a  single  ring  incised,  the 
channel  being  about  |  of  an  inch  in  depth  and  J  an  inch  in  width,  and 
the  interior  diameter  or  space  enclosed  by  the  ring  1  inch  in  diameter. 
From  this  ring  tliere  proceeded  a  "  duct "  8  inches  in  length.  The  whole 
was  surrounded  by  an  oval  channel  of  about  f  inch  in  width,  narrowing 
towards  tlie  outer  end  of  the  "  duct."  There  is  no  temple  or  any  other 
carved  stone  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  stone  was  propped  up  against 
a  tree,  and  is  evidently  still  held  in  veneration,  as  there  were  numeroiLs 
rags  and  threads  tied  to  the  branches  of  a  tree  close  by.  The  few  native 
cowherds  who  live  near  for  a  few  months  in  the  cold  weather  professed 
to  know  nothing  about  it. 

Though  I  examined  many  stones,  more  or  less  carved,  over  a  very 
wide  area,  these  are  the  only  ones  I  found  presenting  these  particular 

^^Dug-Out"  Canoes, — On  the  Sarda  River,  which  for  part  of  its  course 
forms  the  boundary  between  Nepaul  and  British  India,  I  found  numerous 
(lug-out  canoes  in  use. 

One  I  examined,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Tanackpur,  was  about  36 
feet  long,  2  feet  wide,  and  over  18  inches  in  depth.  Both  ends 
were  neatly  rounded,  and  tapered  oft'  from  underneath.  It  was  made 
out  of  a  single  log,  and  I  was  told  was  hollowed  out  and  shaj>ed  entirely 
with  the  ordinary  native  axe. 

I  imderstand  that  when  the  river  is  in  flood,  two  of  these  canoes  arc 
lashed  several  feet  a})art  by  bamboos  at  the  bows  and  stern. 

The  canoes  are  propelled  by  long  poles  in  shallow  water,  and  by 
paddles  in  the  Canadian  fashion  in  deej)  water. 

In  this  ncighbourhuud  (Tanackpur),  I  found  the  natives  storing  their 
grain  in  large  vessels  often  4  feet  high.  These  vessels  are  constructed  of 
onlinary  basketwork,  covormI  with  slime  (mud),  and  then  dried  in  the  .sun. 

FishiiKj. — Abuiit  20  miles  south  of  Tanackjjur,  in  the  Chouka  River,  a 
triVnitary  of  the  Sarda  River,  a  sluggish  stream  with  large  weed-covered 
pools,  the  native  method  of  fishing  is  curious. 


A  small  erection  of  piles  is  made  in  the  i)ool,  just  far  enough  out  to 
emible  a  man  to  wade  out  to  it  waist-deep.  The  fisherman  sits,  or  rather 
squats,  on  the  pile  erection,  and  has  at  his  right  side,  floating  on  the 
water,  alxiut  a  dozen  lengths  of  thin  ])amlK)<)s,  roughly  shaped  at  the  ends 
to  allow  of  their  l>eing  jointed  into  wich  other. 

The  hook  is  baited  with  a  paste  of  coarse  flour.  The  line  fixed  to  the 
end  of  the  first  bam]x)0  length  allowing  al>out  4  feet  of  free  line,  the 
remainder  of  the  line  is  coiled  up  on  the  seat  l)eside  him.  This  first 
length  of  l)aml)oo  is  now  pushed  out  and  rested  on  top  of  the  thick  bed 
of  weeds.  Another  length  of  himhoo  is  jointed  on  and  jmshed  out  and 
so  on  till  the  made  up  ro<l  measures  45  t<»  50  feet,  al)out  4  feet  of  the 
first  point  projecting  btiyond  the  weed  lied,  thus  allowing  the  sj)are  end 
of  the  line  and  the  hook  to  Ikj  susi)ended  in  the  open  water  on  the  far 
side  of  the  weeds.  Pei'sonally,  I  never  saw  any  fish  caught,  hut  was  told 
tliat  they  were  frequently  up  to  alxKit  2  feet  long;  and  that  when 
hooked  they  were  simply  hauletl  in  over  th<^  weeds — the  line  being  pulled 
in  and  coiled  with  the  left  hand,  while  the  right  hand  disjointed  the  rotl 
as  it  came  back,  the  joints  Ixjing  allowed  to  float  in  the  water  close  at 
hand  and  ready  to  be  used  again  in  making  up  the  rod. 

Methods  of  itnarinf/  mid  animals. — When  on  a  shooting  trip  in  March 
1 900,  on  the  borders  of  the  liickaneer  Desert,  1  found  the  natives  snar- 
ing black  buck  and  chinkara  (or  ravine  deer)  in  two  ways : — 

(1)  /n  pitfalls. — These  are  deep  holes  alMjut  8  feet  deep  and  al)out  4 
feet  by  5  feet.  They  are  either  dug  in  gaps  in  thoni  or  grass-wattle 
fences  or  else  on  the  far  side  of  a  low  part  of  the  fence,  so  that  the  decir 
just  clearing  the  fence  will  jump  into  the  hole.  The  pits  are  covere<l 
with  tliin  brushwo(xl,  over  which  Siind  and  loose  earth  is  carefully  spread. 

A  very  similar  method  for  catching  wild  elephants  was  carried  on  in 
the  Kumaon  Terai,  till  stop[)ed  many  yeivrs  ago  ])y  the  British  CJovoni- 
ment.  I  have  seen  the  remains  of  many  of  these  old  pits,  which  app<iar 
to  have  l^een  generally  in  groups  of  four  or  five.  I  was  informed  by  the 
mahouts  and  natives  that  these  pits  were  covered  with  brushwood,  with 
a  layer  of  alxmt  6  inches  of  fine  earth  on  the  top.     This  was  then  sown 

vou  xxxiv.  r 

338  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE  SOCIETY,   APRIL   9,   1900. 

with  rice,  which  began  to  grow  alK)ut  the  rainy  season,  and  attracted  the 
elephants  right  on  to  the  pitfall,  the  sides  of  which  were  too  steep  and 
deep  to  allow  t)f  the  elej^hant  scrambling  out. 

(2)  By  means  of  tuiares. — The  second  method  is  by  means  of  an 
ingeniously  contrived  snare  of  peculiar  construction,  a  specimen  of  which 
I  have  presented  to  the  Museum.  It  consists  of  a  hoop  of  bamboo,  7  J 
inches  in  diameter,  covered  witli  skin,  and  having  a  large  number  of  slim 
l)egs  of  wooil  set  radially  within  tlie  hoop,  these  pegs  being  firmly 
attached  to  its  inner  circumference,  but  free  in  the  centre.  This  appara- 
tus is  attached  by  a  rope  of  sinews  with  a  running  noose  at  the  end  to 
a  rough  piece  of  branch.     The  method  of  its  use  may  be  thus  described  : 

A  round  hole  is  dug  in  the  earth  al>out  a  foot  deep  and  just  large  enough 
round  to  support  the  "  disc  "  part  of  the  snare,  which  is  placed  so  that 
the  small  sticks  forming  the  rays  are  inclined  downwards.  The  noose 
of  twisted  sinew  is  carefully  adjusted  round  the  cii-cumference  of  the 
disc,  and  attached  to  an  "  anchor ''  consisting  of  a  rope  of  hair,  or  some- 
times hair  and  hemp  mixed,  about  1 J  to  2  feet  long,  fixed  with  the  aid 
of  a  short  stick,  placed  crosswise,  tinuly  and  j)erpendicularly  into  the 
ground.  Sand  and  tine  eartli  are  then  scattered  over  the  wliole  con- 

AXHion  a  deer  places  its  foot  on  the  disc,  the  rays  (or  spokes)  give  with 
the  weight  and  the  foot  sinks  through  into  the  hole.  On  the  leg  l>cing 
withdrawn  the  disc  remains,  the  spokes  catching  hold  of  the  leg,  thus 
supporting  the  noose  on  the  leg.  (_)n  the  leg  being  carried  forwaixl  or 
shaken  to  try  and  kick  oft'  the  ilisc,  tlie  noose  is  drawn  tight,  and  the 
deer  snare<l.  These  snares  are  i)laced  just  outside  the  croj^s,  or  on  paths 
leading  through  the  crops,  and  in  groups  of  five  or  six.  Although  1 
never  personally  saw  an  animal  snared,  I  was  a^isured  by  tlie  natives  that 
they  caught  a  great  many  by  this  method. 

Since  writing  the  above  I  have  come  across  an  interesting  notice  by 
Sir  Samuel  Lkiker  ^  of  the  use  of  a  trap  of  precisely  similar  con- 
struction : — 

'    IVild  Beasts  mid  Tlicir  IVaya.     l>y  Sir  Samuel  Baker,  18^0,  p.  '196, 

340  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,   APRIL  9,  1900. 

AT  QUARFF,  SHETLAND.       By  Rev.   DAVID  JOHNSTON,  Ministke 


The  valley  of  Qiiarff,  in  which  tlie  pre-historic  remains  were  found, 
is  situated  where  tlie  mainland  of  Shetland  contracts  to  its  narrowest 
dimensions,  one  other  place  only  excepted.  The  trend  of  the  valley  is 
east  and  west,  and  it  may  he  descrihed  as  a  ravme  in  the  range  of  hills 
which  terminates  in  the  promontory  of  Fitful  Head.  These  hills  are 
among  the  highest  in  Shetland,  and  carry  their  bulk  upwards  to  the 
rounded  summits,  which  slope  gradually  away  to  the  moorlands  beyond. 
The  rocks  which  guard  the  eastern  entrance  of  the  ravine  are  buffeted 
by  the  waves  of  the  North  Sea,  whilst  the  strand  at  the  western  extremity 
is  washed  by  the  waters  of  the  Atlantic  ;  the  distance  between  the  two 
seas  being  so  short  that  small  ])oats  are  sometimes  dragged  overland 
from  one  to  the  other. 

From  time  immemorial  this  valley  has  l)eeu  inhabited.  On  either 
side,  at  greater  or  less  elevations,  "  tonus  "  or  hamlets  are  dotted  down. 
These  are  the  dweUings  of  crofters,  and  in  close  proximity  are  the  crofts 
or  pieces  of  land  allotted  to  each  tenant. 

Until  very  recently  all  the  land  was  prepared  for  crops  by  the  slow 
and  laborious  method  of  delving;  now  small  ploughs  are  being  intro- 
duced, and  the  ponies  of  the  country  are  utilised  for  the  work.  It  is 
probably  owing  to  this  innovation  that  the  antiquities  now  submitted  U* 
the  Society  were  discovered.  The  crofter  upon  whose  land  they  were 
found  adopted  the  new  system  of  i)lougliing,  ])ut  a  certain  mound  on  one 
of  the  "  rigs "  proved  an  insurmountal>lc  obstacle  to  his  ponies,  and  he 
resolved,  with  the  help  of  his  sons,  t(»  clear  the  obstruction  away.  He 
and  liis  forefathers,  for  generations,  toihng  with  the  spaile  on  the  stime 
land,  had  always  been  confronted  with  this  mound.  They  dug  around 
its  base,  and  finding  only  gravel  deemed  it  a  wortldess  heap.       Year 


after  j-ear  it  was  left  un(listurb(»(l,  and  doubtless  would  have  been  passed 
by,  in  like  manner,  for  years  t<>  come,  liad  it  not  proved  a  hindrance 
to  tlie  plougli. 

The  work  of  levelling;  down  the  heap  havinff  l>een  l^egini,  the 
laljourers  soon  found  that  tliey  had  struck  u|x>n  something  else  than 
a  mere  hillock  of  gravel.  After  a  porticm  of  tlie  surface  had  been 
removed  to  a  depth  of  al)out  18  inches,  a  stone  slab  was  laid  bare,  which, 
on  lieing  lifted,  disclosed  a  cist,  in  which  were  found  a  skull  and  jmrt 
of  a  steatite  urn  (fig.  1)  measuring  13 J  inches  in  diameter  at  the  mouth. 

Fig.  1.  Urn  of  Steatite  found  at  Quarff,  Shetland,     (i.) 

and  partly  broken  away  at  one  side,  the  more  entire  side  being  about  5 
inches  high,  and  the  eilge  nearly  an  inch  and  a  half  in  thickness,  and 
roughly  smoothed  and  rounded. 

A  further  clearing  away  of  the  material  of  which  the  mound  is  fonned 
brought  to  light  more  of  these  cists,  in  one  of  which  the  fragments  of 
another  steatite  urn  were  found,  but  no  human  remains;  and  on  raising 
the  cover  of  one  of  the  smaller  cists,  another  urn,  apixirently  made  of 
clay  and  full  of  ashes,  was  discovered.  This  urn  (fig.  2)  is  quite  whole, 
and  in  a  gootl  stiite  of  preservation.  It  measures  9 J  inches  in  height, 
and  9J  inches  in  diameter  across  the  mouth,  having  a  rounded  taper  to 
the  l>asc  which  measures  4]  inches  in  diameter.     The  lip,  which  is  ^  inch 



in  thickness,  is  ])e veiled  inwards,  and  the  upper  portion  of  the  exterior 
is  smooth  and  blackened.  Clay  ums  are  of  very  rare  occurrence  in 
Shetland,  wliihi  urns  of  steatite  are  common. 

So  far  as  the  work  of  excavation  has  lx»en  carried,  there  have  Ixjen 
eight  of  theses  stone  cists  unearthed.  Two  of  them,  unfortunately,  have 
been  so  desi)oiled  by  the  workers  that  nothing  can  be  said  regarding 
them;  the  others,  which  have  not  been  broken  up,  I  have  carefully 
examined  and  measured.     Their  dimensions  are  as  follows : — 






4    feet 

2h  feet 

2  feet 


24    V 

18    inches 

18  inches 


2      „ 

18        „ 

18      „ 


22  inches 

14        „ 

18      „ 


About  the 

same  as  No.  4. 

Fig.  2.  Urn  of  Clay  from  QuarlF,  Shetland.     {\,) 

The  covcrin<^  slabs  were  in  no  case  more  than  2  feet  beneath  the  sur- 
face. A  (listaiico  of  Ixitwcen  2  to  3  feet  separates  the  cists.  They  have 
been  carefully  made,  as  all  the  apertures,  formed  where  the  uneven  etlges 
of  the  stones  meet,  arc  Idled  in  with  clay.  A  rim  of  clay  had  also  been 
placed  upon  the  upper  edges  of  the  cists  before  the  covering  was  placed 


in  ix)sition — with  a  view,  proliably,  of  making  the  cover  so  close  fitting 
that  water  would  be  excluded. 

Looking  at  the  cists  Jis  they  stand  enibedded  in  the  gnivel,  1  am 
inclined  to  think  that  the  stones  of  which  they  are  composed  were  set 
up,  the  ashes  of  the  dead,  alone  or  inclosed  in  an  um,  deposited  within 
the  chaml)er,  the  cover  adjusted,  and  this  being  done  gravel  was  then 
carried  from  the  sea  ]>each  and  piled  around  and  over  the  cist. 

If  this  were  the  mode  adopted  by  the  people  in  connection  with  their 
interments,  then  the  artificial  nature  of  the  mound  would  be  accounted 
for— and  that  it  is  artificial  hardly  admits  of  doubt.  It  does  not  consist 
of  the  i^eaty  soil  of  the  surrounding  land,  but  of  sand  and  pebbles  similar 
to  those  found  on  the  shore,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  away. 

The  slabs  of  which  the  cists  are  built  must  also  have  been  brought  to 
the  spot  with  great  labour,  as  there  are  no  stones  of  a  like  kind  to  be 
found  in  the  neighbourhood. 

I  have  closely  inspected  the  slabs  to  see  if  they  bore  signs  or  marks  of 
any  kind,  but  found  nothing. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  skull,  which  was  found  in  the  largest 
cist,  fared  badly  at  the  hands  of  the  labourers.  It  was  thrown  into  a 
burn  which  flows  past  the  place.  Afterwards  it  seemed  to  occur  to  the 
men  that  they  had  not  dealt  in  a  seemly  way  with  the  relic ;  and  resolv- 
ing to  give  it,  what  they  considered,  decent  burial,  it  was  cast  into  a  hole, 
and  covered  with  stones.  I  had  these  stones  removed  in  the  hope  of 
recovering  the  skull,  but  found  it  in  fragments,  and  quite  useless  as  an 
anatomical  subject. 

One  tooth,  a  molar,  was  found  in  the  jaw,  and  is  now  l>eing  carried 
about  in  the  pocket  of  the  crofter,  airefully  wnipped  in  paper — perhaps 
as  a  charm.     The  tooth  is  in  a  wonderfiUly  sound  condition. 

The  aslies  found  in  the  clay  urn  were  treated  with  almost  as  little 
(ceremony  as  the  skull,  having  been  scattered  at  the  side  of  the  cist. 
Enough,  however,  remained  for  the  purpose  of  examination.  They  were 
dark  in  colour,  and  intermixed  with  white  particles  which  had  quite  the 
appearance  of  calcined  bones. 


PlOClWlNnR   OF   TWK  SDCIRTT,  AFKIL  fl,   Wm. 

A  layer  of  earth  of  a  bright  tf^i  colour  was  foimd  near  oim  of  ihv  idsia 
which^  I  t.liiuk,  i?t  ('(mi;*ojwMl  of  |it}Lit  allies.  There  is  a  ccrtaiti  kind  of 
peat  ill  this  ili^^trirt,  whicli,  ftri  Imn^  humt*d,  Imvtv^  h**!ihul  «i  rtwl  iish^  ttJiil 
which  Viecoiuffs  iioo|i«*r  in  colour  when  auhjccttKl  to  mtniitun?. 

If  tin*  inhahiuuits  f4  this  eoiintry  hi  pro-historic  timc8  i!idi>os<Hl  nf  th^ 
dead  l^y  the  [mK^esst  of  cwmatioD,  one  might  ex j wet  U*  find  tnu'i»s  of  tlw* 
fuel  empioy^'d,  and  as  Shetkml  h  a  treeteaa  rej^non,  that  tnvl  ^rouJil,  of 
necessity,  ha  peat  or  heather,  poa  h. 

[Tbrutigh  thci  cfond  ofHt^es  of  tht  i  Mr  ,Iohnston,  the  (/tinrfiT  nm*» 
have  Ik^cii  actjuirnl  for  the  National         (Mini,] 


ANiniKsn  STREET  IN  KLr;iN\ 

?  AND  ITS  NEIGH  nor  Rtioon, 


CHURCH,  AND  BANFF.     Bv  W.  RAE  MACDONALD,  F.8,A,  Soot. 

Tht^  town  of  Kl^n  and  surrounding^  district  is  rich  in  objects  of 
antiquarian  interest^  *;s[>et;ially  in  ancient  euclesiastical  hull  dings. 
Intimately  associuted  with  fchej?e  are  the  sculptured  eimts  of  amis,  %vhirli 
form  so  imiiortiint  a  feature  in  their  decoration,  and  tlie  t^fubsUMi^ 
which  vfftwn  record  valuable  genealogical  infommlion. 

With  the  object  of  examiuirtg  thest^  I  spent  some  time  in  tlie  tlistrict 
in  the  autumn  of  1899  making  rubbings  or  sketches  and  copying  inscrip- 
tions. The  results  I  now  submit  to  the  Society  with  short  descriptive 

Tlie  idea  of  putting  my  notes  in  any  ])ermanent  fonn  was  not  |>re- 


sent  to  me  at  the  time,  otherwise  the  particulars  might,  in  some  instances, 
have  }>een  more  comi>lete. 

The  descriptions  of  the  carvings  ami  the  bhizons  of  the  arms  are  given 
jis  they  are  actually  seen,  and  do  not  procisel}'  correspond  in  all  cases  with 
the  illustrations,  f)wing  to  the  mechanical  difficulty  of  rejiroducing  neces- 
sarily imperfect  ruhlungs. 

The  Cathedral. — The  cathedral  heing  conspicuously  the  central 
feature  of  the  district,  on  which  the  other  ecclesiastical  edifices  all  more 
t^r  less  depended,  we  commence  with  it. 

It  consists  of  nave,  choir,  and  transepts,  with  octagonal  chapter-house 
on  tlie  north  side  of  the  choir  and  l^idy  chapel  on  the  south.  At  the 
west  end  are  two  great  square  towers  and  at  the  east  end  two  octagonjil 
turrets  richly  decorated.  There  was  also  a  central  tower  which  fell  in 
1711,  greatly  damaging  the  nave  and  transepts,  tlie  north  wall  of  the 
former  being  almost  levelled  with  the  ground. 

( )f  the  architectural  features  of  this  or  other  buildings  it  is  not  my 
province  to  speak  ;  for  full  detiiils  I  may  refer  to  the  two  invalua])le 
works  of  Messrs  !Macgibbon  &  Koss,  viz.,  'The  Castellaietl  and  Domestir 
Architecture  of  Scotland,  in  five  volumes,  and  the  Eccledadical  Archi- 
tecture of  Scotland,  in  three  volumes.  The  cathedral  is  described  in  tlio 
latter,  vol.  ii.  p.  121. 

Commencing  with  the  west  front  and  its  two  nuissive  towers,  we  find 
l>etween  them  and  al)ove  the  great  west  window  three  shields.  The  one 
to  the  dexter  (fig.  1)  l>ears: — Three  cushions  lozengeways  within  a  royal 
treasure.  It  issusixindwl  by  the  guige  from  a  branch  of  oak,  and  the 
arms  on  it  are  those  }x)rne  originally  by  the  family  of  Kandolph,  and 
afterwards  adopted  by  that  of  Dunbar  on  succeeding  to  the  Earldom  of 

The  shield  in  the  centre  (fig.  2)  bears  : — The  royal  arms  of  Scotland. 
It  is  suspended  by  the  guige  from  a  branch  of  oak. 

The  shield  on  the  sinisti»r  (fig.  3)  bears : — A  lion  rampant  within  a 
Iwrdure  charged  with  eight  roses.     It  is  couchc,  though  shown  erect  in 



thtj  illiisitmtionj  and  is  ^u^iM^udi^l  bj^  a  long  giiige  ;  li^hind  thf  abield  Is  4 
cFoaier»  The  ai'iiu^  aiv  the  orij*iiial  |iatenjal  iiinia  of  the  fiujily  wf  I>uubaT, 
rtiul  luv  (ihikiUly  tlioBt^  iif  Bishop  Ccilumba  I>«nlxir(1429-35)» 

AUivt;  the  r'iintnil  |Hllar  af  the  ilocirway  u  i\  vesicii'SlirnHHf  sj^rwi?  now 
fib  Ilk,  Imt  siiid  to  liavf^  ct)nt4iiuiHl  a  fipiro  of  the  Yirj»i»i  and  ChUil,  on 
fiju'h  siilo  iif  wUicli  kiioeis  an  angt4  waving  a  thuriljlu. 

Fig^  1,%S,  Arms  above  the  West  Window  of  Blffiti  CnthedmL 

Entering  by  the  great  west  door  and  keeping  to  the  left  iheie  is  nothing 
of  iniix>rUince  in  tlie  north  aisle  of  the  nave,  the  north  wall  of  which,  as 
above  stated,  is  ahnost  completely  demolished. 

In  the  north  transept,  on  the  west  wall,  is  a  stone  (31  inches  by  24) 
with  two  sliields  at  the  top,  a  sknil  and  thigh  bone  between  them,  and 
an  inscription  lK?neath  (tig.  4).  The  arms  on  the  first  shield  are  not 
properly  marshalled,  but  may  Ix*  descril^ed  as  : — Three  cushions  lozenge- 
ways  (Diinkir),  imjHiIim/,  throe  lH)ar  heads  erased  (Gordon  or 
rnpihart  ?),  awf  Mwem  thesp  ^oafs: — Throe  buckles  in  bend  (I^slie). 

Tho  arms  on  tho  socoml  shiohl  aro  : — Throe  cushions  lozengeways 
(Ounbar),  inipah'jhj,  A  star  in  chief  and  a  eresoeiit  in  base. 


1-1     ■■'       ^tf       r^ 


Fi^.  4    Tombilone  of  Jolm  Dunbar  of  Benuetficld. 


348  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE  SOCIETY,   APRIL  9,  1900. 

The  inscription  in  Roman  capitals  is:— 

HIC  .  lACEXT  .  Mr  .  lOH  .  DVNBAR 
IT  .  2  .  DER«  .  1590  .  ET  .  MAR  . 
ET  .  ISSOB  .  DVNBARS  .  EIVS  .  CO 
1570  .  ET  .  4  DERSs  1603  ET  .  NICOL 
DVXBAR  .  FILIVS  .  DICTI  .  M«  lOX 
QVI  .  OBIIT  31  .  lANR'  1651  .  ET  .  GR 
ISS  .  MAVER  .  EIVS  .  SPONIS  .  QVE 
OBIIT  .  21  .  IVLI  .  1648  .  ET  .  lONE  . 
DVNBAR  .  SPONSA  .  lOH  .  DVNBAR  . 
DICTI  .  NICOL  .  QVE  .  OBIIT  8  .  SEP 
1648  .  IDEOQVE  .  HOC  .  EXTRVENDVM 

In  Stodart's  Srottish  Anns,  vol.  ii.  pp.  6-1 8,  there  is  a  valuable  notice 
of  the  heraldry  of  the  family  of  I)unl)ar,  by  ^^i^  Archibald  H.  Dunlvir  of 
Dufrus,  the  in'osent  barunot.  On  ]>.  15  it  is  siiid  that  the  fii*st  shield 
al)()ve  mentioned  "suj^gests  that  jH)8sibly  the  mother  of  ^Ir  John's  first 
wife  may  have  been  an  rnpihart,  and  tliat  tlie  motlier  of  his  second  wife 
may  have  been  a  Leslie,"  but  it  s(;ems  more  natural  to  supi)ose  that  the 
wives  themselves  may  have  borne  these  names.  The  second  shield  is 
said  to  be  "probably  f«»r  Nic<»l  Dunbar  and  his  wife  (Jrissel  Maver." 

(hi  the  north  wall  are  two  rcK'umbent  ethgies : — The  one  of  a  knight 
in  armour  enslirouded  in  his  cloak.  The  other  of  a  knight  in  armour 
having  on  his  breastplate  (lig.  5) :— Three  cushions  lozengeways  (Ihmbar). 
Said  to  be  the  statue  of  Sir  Alexauder  Dunbar  of  Westfield,  knight. 

lUiilt  into  the  wall,  behind  these  statues,  is  a  stone  without  inscription 
or  initials,  bearing  on  a  shield  (13  inches  in  wi«lth  at  the  top)  the  arms 
(tig.  6),  viz.: — A  fess  between  three  geese  passant  in  chief  and  in  Uxsui 
a  cushion  an«l  a  star  in  fess,  inijtuHiKj,  Parted  i»er  fess,  a  hen  head  erased 
in  chief  and  a  cock  i»assant  in  base.  Above  the  shield  is  a  helmet  with 
mantling  (omittecl  in  illustration)  and  wreath  but  no  crest. 


.VJ  >"— 

\  I 








On  the  c<ist  wall  a  stone  with  the  following  inscription  is  built  into 

an  aiimrv :  -- 




PRINCEPs  1675. 















Opposite  th(*  cast  wall  of  the  transei)t  and  in  a  line  with  the  north 
wall  t>f  the  chancel  is  a  ccltic  sculptured  stone  of  giimite,  figured  in 
SLuait's  Snil^ftured  StoiicSy  vol.  I.  \)\.  16. 

77/''  ClKi}if(-r-}nm'<e  is  octaj<«nial  and  has  a  central  pillar  also  octagonal 
witli  st<Mi<'  desk  for  a  readtT  (on  the  west  and  north-west  sides).  On  the 
ei<;ht  faci's  nf  the  cai»ital,  comniencin^'  with  the  c»ne  opposite  the  entnince, 
are  the  followin^^  seulj»tures  :  — (1)  Shield  (oj  inches  hroad)  with  the  ro^-al 
anus  of  Scotlancl  {\vj^.  7),  tlie  toj*  of  the  royal  tri'ssure  beiiig  omitteil. 
{'!)  Sldelil  with  instninients  of  the  Passion,  similar  to  those  descrilKnl 
JM'lnw.  (3)  Slii<'ld  (5]  inclies  at  top)  with  arms  of  IJishop  Andnnv 
Stewarl.  (1  lSL>-ir)01)  <»f  tlie  family  of  Lorn  (li^^  8),  viz. :— Quarterly,  Ist 
and  llh,  A  lymplia<l  ;  2iid  ami  ord,  A  fess  eluMpiy.  Ahove  the  shield  a 
mitiv.  (I)  Shii'ld  {1\  inelu's  at.  widest)  liearing  (li^'.  9): — the  Cros.s  with 
till'  Cinwu  of  tlmrns  and  piercrd  ln-arL,  1'  A  feet.     (5)  St  An<li'e\v 




•«  r^^z*^^^'\  «p  ^' " 







Fig.  lli. 







Fig.  16. 
Frgs*  15,  1^.  Siualda  of  A^rtua  ia  the  Chapter  Hoiuie,  Elgui  Cathedrals 

35G  rROCEEDIXOS  of  THK  society,   APRIL  9,  1900. 

On  the  oast  wall  i8  a  monuiuent  t'outaiiiing  two  tablets  divideil  by 
Pinal's.     Oil  the  onv  is  the  followinj^'  instTiption  in  Roman  capitals,  viz. : — 



















On  the  Other  tablet  the  inscription  is: — 










(V/d/i'v/. — In  ihi-  u«'iih  wall  is  an  aivhetl  rwess  for  a  tomb  in  which 
.III'  pi.iced  three  iletaehed  siiMies,  pn»lnil)lY  i«rts  of  tomlistoiies,  beariiig 
.iiniN  hill  without  ins^Tiptions.  (1)  A  shield  ^14  inches  at  top)  bearing 
^tii;.  17) :— A  fess  ehargixl  with  two  hiicklcs  between  alien  head  erased 
in  v-liief  and  A  star  in  base  (King),  ic  "o,  A  lion  rampant  with- 
in .1  Kuxhm'  chargeil  with  [eight f]  r  .  (2)  Arms: — A  stag 
h.  1 1  e.iK'ssiHl,  1)otwoen  tha  attinf  4ueld  a  hehnet 



with  mantling  and  wreath  but  no  crest,  over  that  the  motto  COELUM 
FIDE  CERNO  and  at  foot  the  initials    ^^^'^    ^"^  M^M       (3)  Shield 

(10  inches  at  top)  bearing : — On  a  chevron  three  stars. 

The  three  stei)s  up  to  the  high  altar  remain  in  situ.  Where  the  altar 
stood  is  a  granite  monument  in  memory  of  the  Rev.  I^achlan  Shaw,  the 
historian  of  the  Province  of  Moray. 

Fig.  17.  Shield  of  Arms  in  the  Chancel. 

In  the  south  wall  has  been  a  sedilia  of  four  seats.  In  front  of  it  lies 
a  detached  stone  with  shield  bearing  arms,  viz.  : — Ermine  on  a  fe^s  three 
crescents  (Craig).  Initials  J.  C.  and  M.  I.  ?.  Crest,  on  a  helmet  with 
mantling  and  Avreath,  a  stiig  head.     Motto  undecipheral)le. 

Near  to  the  south  wall  <)pi)osite  the  entrance  is  a  large  blue  stone,  the 
matrix  of  a  brasvS,  siiid  to  1)0  the  tombstone  of  Bishoj)  Andrew  Murray, 
whodietl  1242.^ 

St  Marifs  aisle  or  tfie  Ladt/  chapeU — On    the   north  wall   are   two 

monuments,  viz.  : — 

'  Keith's  Binhftps. 

358  PROOERDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,   APKIL  9,  1900. 

(1)  At  the  west  end,  on  entering,  a  recessed  tomb.  The  recumbent 
effigy  rests  on  the  ground.  At  each  si<le  of  the  head  there  remains 
part  of  a  shickl,  that  on  tlie  dexter  showing : — A  lion  rampant 
within  the  royal  tressure — hut  that  on  tlie  sinister  not  noted.  In 
the  Guide  to  Elgin  Cathedral  (1897),  by  Mr  James  S.  Pozzi,  p.  34,  it  is 
said  : — "  The  figure  on  the  tomb  is  that  of  a  mitred  abbot.  It  has  also 
l)een  called  the  tomb  of  Bishop  Alexander  Stewart,  1482-1501,"  but  in 
the  Proceedings^  vol.  xxix.  p.  358,  it  is  stated  that  the  "  mitre  is  of  the 
type  prevailing  in  the  13tli  or  eiirly  14th  centuries." 

(2)  Near  the  east  end  the  recessed  altiir  tomb  of  Bishop  John  Win- 
chester (1437-1458),  with  an  inscription  in  decorative  Grothic  letters 
on  the  bevelled  edge  now  almost  illegible. 

There  are  shields  at  each  end  of  the  arch,  but  no  arms  have  been 
carved  on  them.  On  the  arch  within  the  recess  are  traces  of  frescoed 
angel  figures  in  black  outline. 

On  the  south  wall  are  two  monuments,  viz. : — 

(3)  Marble  monument  to  Her  (Jrjice  Henrietta,  Duchess  of  Gordon, 
who  died  1760. 

(4)  Marble  monument  with  following  inscription  in  Roman  capitals : — 





WHO  DIED  IN  JUNE,  1827 ; 



WHO  DIED  28th  MAY,  1836, 



WHO  DIED  3l8T  OF  JANUARY,  1864, 


(5)  On  the  floor  ;it  the  cast  end  is  a  sijrcoi)hagU8  tomb  with  recum- 
luMit    <^lliuy    of    the    first    Earl    uf     Huntly  in  his  cloak.     Koiind  the 



margin   (Imt    not    at    head    or    foot)   is    this    inscription    in    Gothic 
letters: — 

bic  tacet  nobilia  et  potent  bne  alleiaOet  cordon  ptfmud  cornea  de  buntlie  bne 
be  dotbone  et  bab3enocb  qui  obift  apub  buntlie  \5  iulii  anno  bni  t470. 


Fig.  18.   Date  on  the  Tomb  of  the  First  Earl  of  Huntly. 

The  (late,  it  will  be  ol)8erved,  is  in  Arabic  numerals  (tig.  18),  an  early 
example  of  their  use  in  such  inscriptions.  On  the  front  of  the  sarcopha- 
gus has  been  inserted  (probably  in  tlie  seventeenth  century)  a  coat  of 
arms,  viz.  : — Quarterly,  1st.  Three  boar  heads  couped  (Gordon) ;  2nd. 
Three  lion  heads  erased  (Badenoch) ;  3rd.  Three  crescents  witliin  a  royal 
tressure  (Seton) ;  4th.  Three  fraises  (Fraser).  The  four  quarters  within 
a  royal  tressure.  Aljove  the  shield  a  coronet,  over  that  a  helmet  with 
mantling  and  wreath,  and  thereon  for  crest  a  stjig  heiul.  Supporters, 
two  hounds  collareil  and  leashed.^  Underneath  is  his  title,  now  nearly 

On  the  floor  are  ten  other  tombstones. 

(6)  Stone  with  sliield  bearing  arms : — Tlirec  lx>ar  heads.  Underneath 
are  emblems  of  mortality,  viz. : — Bell,  sand-glass,  coffin,  skull,  and  bones. 
The  marginal  inscription  is  hi  Roman  capitals,  viz.  : — 



(7)  Stone  (77  inches  by  41)  with  shield  l)caring  arms  (tig.  19),  viz.  :  — 

rruixeifiti'jftf  vol.  xxix.  {k  303. 


ri:tX^EKI»INT,S   OK   Till 

•'     IfKK). 

(1)  At     tllO    west   Oiul,  im    rllli 

v\\\\;y  it'sts  III!  tlu'  i^rouiul.       A 
]»art    of    a   shicM,    that    on 
witliin    \]\v  roval    tivssun' — i 
iho  (f #//./«•  to  Kii'>- 
s;iiil :     "  Tho  li^m*  mi  i\w  u 
Uvii  »m1Km1  the  t<mih  of 
t!u»  Pn^^ee^Nutjii^  voL  xx.,    r 
lyjH*  pri'vuilin^  in  tbt*  13tb 

(2)  Noar  the 
oliosior  (U37-M 
oil  iho  Ivvclleil 

Tliori'  an^  sliirktu  ^ 
carvinl  on  I  hem  '  '  ■ 
iuigol  ti^ures  in 

Oil  iho  !«outh 

(3>  Marbli"  \ 
whoilu-a  1760. 

(4^  Marblr  • 

.;i);   2ml.  Tliir^- 

'.vitliin  a  royal   :rr 

ilu'  shit'Ll  a  cmhoik-:. 





Some  distance  beneath  this  is  a  skull  with  legend  round  it,  "MEMENTO 
MORI."    The  marginal  inscription  is : — 



DEPERTIT .  YE .  lANVAR.  1622. 

(8)  Stone  with  marginal  inscription  only,  in  Gothic  letters,  viz. ; — 

bic  •  tacent  •  nobilis 

ailia  •  et  •  robert  •  frat  •  [eius]  •  cantor  •  orate  •  p  •  aia 

(9)  Stone  with  shield  (25  inches  in  width)  bearing  impaled  arms  (fig.  20), 
viz. : — Three  holly  leaves  (Irvine),  impaling ^  Three  boar  heads  couped 
(Gordon).  Initials  I).  I.  and  E.  G.  Some  way  beneath  the  shield  a 
skull  and  thigh  bone,  and  under  that  the  date  "  1603,"  which  is  really 
the  conclusion  of  tlie  following  marginal  inscription,  viz.  : — 

HEIR  .  LYIS  .  ANE 




LAST  .  OF  .  MARCH. 


(10)  Stone  with  inscription  recording  the  burial  here  of  the  five 
successive  Dukes  of  Gordon. 

(11)  Tombstone  of  Thomiis  Calder,  precentor  of  Ross,  with  marginal 
inscription  in  Gothic  letters,  viz. : — 

bic  facet  venerabfUa  vix  mgt  tboai?  calbar  quoba  pcetot  xo^sc 

Q.  obiit  t^ifi  Ne 
mens  ^c  be  .  .  .  bcr  a©  D»  1519 


(12)  Blue  stone,  the  matrix  for  a  Ijriss,  siiid  to  cover  the  remains  of 

three  bishops.^ 

^  Oaide^  p.  34. 

Fig.  m.  Furl  of  Buriifcl  SLub  in  St  Maiy*^  Aialt;,  Elgiu  C^thedtmL 



(13)  Stone  (36  inclies  in  widtli)  witli  cross  in  centre  having  ends  of 
liead  and  arms  l»e veiled  off,  and  foot  encircled  by  wreath  which  rests  on 
four  steps.  Above  the  arms  of  the  cross  are  two  shields,  each  bearing  the 
same  arms,  viz. : — A  bend  (charged  with  three  buckles  (Ijcslie).  Below 
tlie  arms  of  the  cross  are  a  chalice  with  paten  on  the  dexter  side  and 
ail  open  book  on  the  other.     The  marginal  inscription  is  : — 

bic  •  tacit  •  wnerabilis  • 

t>ir  •  magtrter  •  tbomas  •  leflg  •  quonba 

rector  •  be  •  ftsn9t>rs  • 

qt>i  •  obiit  •  octa^  •  mot>i  •  an^  •  bomini  •  m^  •  ccccc^  •  jv^ . 

Alonteith  in  his   Tlieater  of  Mortality ^  p.  222,  in  giving  the  inscrii>- 
tion,  omits  the  day  and  month. 

(14)  Stone  with  shiehl  (12  inches  in  width)  bearing  arms  (fig.  21), 

Fig.  21.  Shield  IiniKiling  Caldcr  iiiul  Muiiro  Anns. 

viz. :— A    stjig    head    cnui>e<l,    and    in   chief   a    nmndlo    lu'tweeii    two 
stars  (Calder),    inqyalirifj,      An    ciigle    head    erased    (Miinro).      Above 


the  shield  a  helmet  with  wreath  and  mantlmg  but  no  crest.  Initials 
W.  C.  and  L.  M.  Two  winged  boys  support  the  shield,  and  beneath  it 
one  under  the  other  are  carved  : — A  cherub  ;  an  hour  glass ;  an  escroll 
with  the  words  "  MEMENTO  MORI  " ;  a  skull ;  cross  bones ;  and 
finally  a  skeleton  in  a  coffin  beneath  a  mattock  and  a  shovel.  Inscrip- 
tion in  Roman  capitals  round  margin  : — 





( 1 5)  Slab  with  two  shields  at  top,  (one  broken  off)  bearing  : — A  l^nd 
charged  with  three  buckles  (Leslie).  Inscription  in  Gothic  letters  round 
margin : — 

bic  iacet 

quon6am  rector  6ero 

Tlie  following  extract  from  ^lonteith^s  Tlieater  of  Mortality^  p.  216, 
relates  to  this  monument : — "  Hie  jacet  Archibaldus  Lesly  quondam 
Rector  de  Rothes  qui  obiit  3  Julii  1520.  Orate  pro  communi  Patria  " 
— the  rest  worn  out. 

Between  St  Mary's  aisle  and  the  south  transept  are  three  monuments, 
viz.  : — 

(1)  Sarcophagus  tomb  with  recumbent  figure  of  knight  in  armour;  on 
his  breastplate  are: — Three  escutcheons  (Hay).  On  the  dexter  side 
of  the  bevelled  edge  of  the  sarcophagus  is  this  inscription  in  one  long 
line  in  Gothic  letters,  the  latter  part  being  illegible  : — 

btc  iacet  wtlls  6e  le  bas  quo6a  6115  6e  locblos  QUt  obttt  Pitt 
bie  meCbecebris  aiio  but  m  cccc  ili 


Tliis  inscription,  though  continuous  in  one  lino,  terminates  on  a 
s«'parate  stone^  which  projects  ]M»yoml  the  feet  of  the  effig}*^  and  the 
original  position  of  which  it  is  difficult  to  understimtl.  Dascril)eil  and 
figured  in  Prorpr-Jiwj.'i^  vol.  xxix.  p.  393,  wliere  it  is  said  the  in- 
scription is  "  now  ahnost  (piite  illegible."  Tliis  must  he  a  mistake,  as  if 
it  was  illogi])le  tlien,  it  must  have  l>een  recut ;  but  it  does  not  look  as 
if  tliis  liad  been  done,  an«l  Mr  Pozzi,  tlie  keei>er  of  the  cathedral,  who 
has  l)een  tliere  many  years,  has  no  knowledge  of  any  restoration. 

(2)  Recumbent  slab  (83  inches  by  30).  In  the  centre  is  a  cross  with 
entls  of  head  an«l  arms  bevelled  off,  tlie  foot  encircled  by  a  wreath  rests 
on  five  steps.  On  the  dexter  side  is  a  chalice  with  paten  and  on  the 
sinister  an  open  book  showing  the  cover.  Round  the  margin  is  the 
inscrii>tion  in  (Jothic  letters: — 

bic     iacet  • 

vcnerabiliB  •  viv  .  mafliftcr  •  pilclmua  •  l^el  • 

quonda  •  Bnbbcca 

nu6  •  ecclerie  •  motauien  •  q  •  ol>iit       bic  -  met  •         anno 

^m   mo  .  cccco 
iiit  • 

(3)  Recumbent  slab  with  shield  of  arms,  viz. : — A  chevron  between  three 
garbs.     Above  the  shieM  a  helmet  with  wreath  and  mantling  but  no 
crest.     On  an  escroll  above,  the  motto  "  COURAGE  ",  and  on  another 
benciitli,  ''  (  ;E0R(  rE  CUM[ING  OF  LOCHTER]VANDICH." 
Round  the  margin  is  this  inscription  in  capitals : — 






MBER  THE  YEIR  OF  GOD  1^56. 

t. — On  the  cjust  wall  is  a  deUiched  HUmc  (35  inches  in 
of  arms  (fig.  22) : — Quarterly,  1st  and  4th.  Three 


T*EOCEEDIXGS   OF   TFE   SOa^TT,    APRIL   9,   1900. 

f^tars  (ruiipii);  2ml  ami  SnL  Thrrf*  l>nfii"  h(^jnl«  mui>f*il  (Aljen^liiinlor  ?X 
impaUn*j^  A  t^ti'vrou  l>(*twc'int  thivo  Itoar  \muh  v^mm^A  (El|thiii.stoiip), 
AIhjvo  tLo  shiekl  is  aJiL^irjet  witb  munLtiiig,  wroatli,  ami  for  I'resta  hniiiid 
lieail  eolJarml.  The  aiipportcm  art} :  dexter,  ti  hound  colhiixni,  smigter,  n 
savage  with  cIuK  On  an  eaemll  above  is  the  motto  *'  [KEIP]  TRAI8T/* 
The  iintial?^  ni-p  R,  I.  ami  E,  E, 

Fig.  2^,  Armort&l  Stone  in  Soiitli  Tnascitit  of  Elgin  Cathedral. 

The  ftilluwing  iivsoriptiun  from  Moil teith'a  Timater  of  Moriaiiti/y  p,  220, 
is  prohably  fn>m  the  nioimment  (*i  which  the  alx>ve  arms  fonned  part : 
— **Requie.«*cimt  hie  Ri»bertiia  Tiine^  nh  eodem  i^  Eli}uibetha  Elphin.stone 
ejim  Conjux  {^111  Fatis  concoaaenmt  25  Septcinh  &  26  Febr  Anno  Sal. 
hum.  1597  ^  1610  Ideoq^  in  piam  gratamci'  ^feinoriam  charifiaimomm 
Parentum  hoc  Moniimentum  extniendnm  curavit  Rol>erti!s  Filiui?/'^ 

^  Macphftil'u  Pluscardht,  ju  121. 



Oil  tin*  aniitli  wall  i\w  two  r(MM*ss<^(l  altar  tombs.  The  fii-st  has  a  shield 
with  arms  on  oarh  si«lo,  viz. :  DcxtiM",  shirM  for  Ah'xandcr  Stewart,  Earl 
<»f  Mar  an<l  ljm\  of  Oari<K*h.  (^uartorly,  1st  and  4th,  A  f(»ss  chwjuy 
iKitweon  throe  oyum  (•n)wn8 ;  2nd  and  3rd,  A  \mu\  lx»tween  six  crc)S8 
crosslets  (see  anna  at  Bishop's  House  des<'rilKMl  p.  381).  Sinister,  shield 
(tij^.  23)  for  JUshop  James  Stewart  (1460).  A  fess  cluMpiy  l>etwoen  throe 
o^Kin  crowns:    l)ehind  the  shiehl  a  crosier.     His  senl  is  descrilxjd  and 



Fi^'.  23.  Shield  of  Arms  of  Bishop  James  Stowart. 

tijj^ured  hy  Ilcuiry  \a\uv^  in  his  first  volume,  \o.  909,  where  it  l)enrs 
similar  arms,  hut  with  a  double  lim^  round  them  evidently  of  no  heraldic 

Keith,  in  his  Catalogue  of  S'^fitfix/i  liishopn^  states  that  lUsht^p  James 
Stewart  l)elon|^e«l  to  a  braneh  of  the  family  of  I^»rn,  but  jud^inj;  from 
the  arms  this  do(»s  not  appear  to  have  been  the  ease. 

The  arms  lx>nu^  by  members  of  the  family  of  Lorn  are  usually  in  the 
form    (»f   a   fess   e.hequy   quartered    with  a  lymphad.     Tluwe  l>ome  by 


Bishop  Andrew  Stewart  of   this  family  have  been  already  described 
and  figured  (]>.  350).      The  question  therefore  arises  what  family   of 
Stewarts  bore  "A  fess  chequy  l>etween  three  crowns"  or  similar  anns? 
Five  such  coats  are  known  to  me,  viz.,  those  of  : — 

(1)  Alexander  Stewart,  Earl  of  Mar  and  Lord  of  Garioch,  who  lx)re 
them  in  the  first  and  fourth  quarters  as  represented  on  this  tomb  (p.  367) 
and  on  a  stone  in  the  bishop's  house  (p.  381).  Also  on  his  seal,  as  de- 
scribed and  figured  by  lAing  in  his  first  volume,  No.  796. 

(2)  Bishop  James  Stewart,  who  bore  the  undiflferenced  coat  as  on  tliis 
tomb.     Also  on  his  seal.     (Laing,  I.,  No.  909.) 

(3)  Bishop  David  Stewart,  the  brother  and  successor  of  the  last,  who 
l)ore  the  arms  differenced  by  a  cross  crosslet  instead  of  the  lower  crown 
as  on  stone  at  Bishop's  House  (p.  379)  and  at  Spynie  Palace  (p.  394). 
Also  on  his  seal.     (Laing,  IL,  Nc».  1039.) 

(4)  The  impaled  arms  on  the  dexter  shield  of  the  tomb  next  following 
(p.  369),  which,  however,  are  somewhat  doubtful. 

(5)  A  detached  seal  in  the  General  Register  House  with  a  shield  bear- 
ing "A  fess  cliecpiy  between  three  «»pen  crowns"  and  the  legend 
"  8.  VALTERI  8TKVART."  This  is  believed  to  l)e  the  seal  of  Walter 
Stewart  of  Strathoun.     Particulai's  of  his  descent  are  given  below. 

King  RoV>ert  II.  luul,  as  liis  fourth  son,  by  his  first  wife,  Elizabeth 
Mure,  Alexander  Stewart,  to  whom  he  granted,  in  tlie  first  year  of  liis 
reign,  the  lands  of  Stratliown  or  Strathavon,  in  the  shire  of  Banff.  This 
Alexander,  known  Jis  tlie  Wolf  of  Badenoch,  wius  afterwanls  Lord  of 
Badenoch,  and,  in  right  of  his  wife,  Earl  <jf  Buchan.  By  her  he  had  no 
heirs,  but  by  "  Mariota  tilia  Athyn  "  he  left  several  natural  children, 
among  whom  witc  Alexander  Stewart,  in  right  of  his  ^\•ife  Earl  of  Mar, 
and  Andrew  Stewart  of  Sandliakli  who  also  is  said  to  have  |)ossesse«l 
Stratliown.  The  latter  had  a  son,  Walter  of  Stratliown.  From  a  cai-eful 
exaniinati<ni  of  all  the  documents  availal)le  reganling  the  above  gene^ilogy, 
the  transmission  of  lands  among  the  parties,  etc.,  and  by  a  process  of 
elimination  of  th(»  other  Walter  Stewart*^,  the  Rev.  John  Anderson, 
Assistant  Curator  of  the  Historical  l)ei)artment  of  the  Genenvl  Register 


HoiiHO,  is  of  opinion  that  the  seal  No.  5  was  that  of  Walter  Stewart  of 
Strathavon,  that  pi-oUihly  the  two  bishops  were  his  brothers,  and  thus 
that  all  three  who  bore  those  arms  were  of  the  Str.ithavon  family,  and 
were  nephews  of  Alexander,  Karl  of  Mar.  Further,  that  the  three  crowns 
used  to  dilferen(;e  the  Stewart  arms  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  Lordship 
of  Garioch,  but  weni  probably  derived  from  some  lands  possesses!  by 
Alexander,  Earl  of  l>uchan,  in  Badenoch.  T"n fortunately,  his  seal  is  not 
known,  but  it  is  to  l>e  observed  that  three  crowns  are  borne  by  the  Gmnts, 
whose  pro|>erty  of  Bally ndala(!li  is  situated  in  Strathowne,  and  three 
crowns  are  aho  quartered  by  the  Frasers. 

These  particulars  are  given  as  showing  the,  line  in  which  future 
research  might  be  prosecuted  in  (jrder  to  ch^ar  up  the  origin  of  the  Ijear- 
ing  of  the  three  crowns,  which  are  combin«'d  with  the  fess  checpiy  in  this 
group  of  Stewart  arms. 

Within  the  recess  has  been  place»l  the  recumbent  ligure  of  a  knight  in 
armour,  probably  brought  from  some  other  part  of  tht^  cathedral,  show- 
ing on  his  breastplate  : — Thre(^  stars  (only  two  visil>le)  (Innes).  On 
the  bevelled  edges  of  the  stone  on  wliich  he  rests  is  an  inscription  in 
Gothic  letters,  commencing  at  the  head  on  the  dexter  side,  viz. :— - 

[bic  •  ja]cct  •  nobilie  •  vix  •  robcrt9  •  innee  •  t>c  •  (nnmFiBc  •  qui  •  obiit  •  • 

The  |K)rtion    on    the   sinister  side  was   not   tlecij)hered.     The   effigy  is 

prolably  that  of  Robert  Innes  of  Innermarkye  (circa  1511   to  1528),^ 

ami  has  evidently  not  been  intended  for  its  present  position,  Iwing  much 

too  short. - 

The  second  recessed  toml>  has  also  on  each  side  a  shield  with  arms, 

viz. :— I  )ext<;r  shield  (tig.   24).     A  fess  chequy  between  two  crescents 

in  chief  and  an  open  crown  in  base,  inij^afinfj,  A  f(;ss  chequy  between 

two  open  crowns  in  chief  and  in  bjise  some  charge  broken  oil*.     Sinister 

shield  (tig.  25).     A  tree  (dexter  sitle  broken  away),  but  on  sinister  a 

wjuirrel  seatetl  on  its  hind  legs  on  one  of  the  branches,  on  a  chief  three 

buckles.     These  shields,  though  dilapidated,  are  jn-obably  not  original,  as 

'  Dow^i^^  L'lrow I ijc  of  Scotland^  p.  78. 
-  Prvcccdirnjs^  vol.  xxix.  p.  398. 

VOL.  XXXIV.  2  A 


PKOCKKDIXGt^  OF   THK   mCWn,    Al'UU.   !»,   liKKJ. 

they  arB  on  stones  wliich  afvi.iejir  ti>  hii%*e  beeu  inserted,  the  curving  i*ii 
the  liivvtiv  Kules  Iwing  inforior  to  that  nf  the  rest  of  the  tomb,  Tlicy  may, 
howevt^r,  be  facsimik^s  ijf  tlie  original  iinntj.  On  tliu  sjircui^hiijrin*  ri^t£ 
a  slalj  with  eftigy  of  a  knight  in  armovu'.  There  nre  no  cljargea  un  liU 
breastphite^  hut  on  the  iMsvelled  edge  of  the  slab  hiis  Twtm  an  ini^cription, 
in  ( tothic  letters,  now  illegible.  In  the  Gidfh  to  FJffin  Cathedml,  ]k  29, 
the  knight  isi  sjiid  to  be  *^  Walter  Stewmt,  Duke  of  Allmny,  who  fi-oni  thi^ 
anaoml  bearmge  must  have  l^eeu  alltod  to  the  fiiinily  *if  Miir.     Ht*  ilietl 


Ftgs.  2^,  25*  Anns  on  Woat  Tomb  in  South  Tmii3e|*l. 

in  the  yeitr  1481."    Tn  the  Fme^^^ingn  ^  it  is  mud  the  monument  is  ustuUly 
ascribed  to  Alextmtlerj  Duke  of  Albanj,  the  second  eon  of  Jamm   IL, 
ncitluM'  stJiteiaeTit  being  very  credible, 
On  Uie  west  wjdl  \^  n.  sedilia  of  four  gicats. 

South  Aisle  of  NaVG.^-\ii  ihe  angle  furiucd  by  the  ^uuiL  Uaixbtipt 
wall  arc  portions  of  three  colossal  statues  believed  to  have  formed  part 
of  the  decorations  of  the  central  tower. 

(1)  Statue  of  a  l)is]i(»i)  found  at  the  base  of  the  north-west  pillar  of 
the  central  t<>W(;r,  and  stated  to  be  that  of  Bishop  John  Innes,  1407- 
1111  {Guih,  p.  29). 

'   Vol.  xxix.  ]).  384. 


(2)  Kneeling  figure  of  an  ecclesiastic,  headless. 

(3)  Torso  of  a  knight. 

Built  into  the  south  wall  is  a  stone  coffin,  also  two  stones  with  arms. 
The  one  has  a  shield  (10 J  inches  in  width)  bearing  arms  (fig.  26) : — A 
denii  lion  issuant  from  a  fess  of  three  bars  wavy  between  three  stars 
in  chief  and  a  fleur-de-lys  in  base  (Chalmers),  impaling^  A  chevron 
l)etween  two  stars  in  chief  and  a  heart  in  base  (probably  for  Tares). 
Initials  I.  C.  and  B.  T.  The  inscription  beneath  is  in  Roman  capitals, 
the  lines  lieing  often  continued  on  the  Ijevelled  edge  of  the  stone,  viz. : — 



TARES  .  SPOVS  .  TO  .  lAMES  . 


IN  .  ELGIN  .  WHA  .  DEPARTIT  . 

THIS  .  LYF  .  ON  .  THE  .  13  OF 

AGWST  .  1644  .  ALTHO 

THES  .  CORPIS  .  IN  .  DVVST  . 

DIETH  .  LY  .  THEIR  .  BET 

TER  .  PEARTES  .  SHALL  .  NEWIR  .  DIE  . 

On  the  other  stone  is  a  sliield  (8 J  inches  in  width)  bearing  arms 
(fig.  27) : — A  he^irt  transfixed  l)y  two  darts,  points  downward,  and  in 
base  three  stars  in  fess  (probably  for  Wilson,  but  differing  from  usual 
arms),  impaling,  Tliree  liearts  (2  and  1)  between  two  swords,  points 
upward  in  bend  and  bend  sinister  (Boynd).  The  initials  at  side  arc 
G.  W.  and  M.  B.  Above  the  shield  is  a  cherub  and  beneath  is  the 
following  inscription  : — 



Some  further   particulars   Jire   obtained    from    a    slab  on   the   ground 


Wi^  ±^. 




Fig.  27. 
Figs.  26-27.  Shields  in  Soutli  Aisle  uf  Xave  ;  and  tig.  28,  in  Burying-ground,  Elgin  Cathedral. 


immediately  in  front  of  the  tablet.     The  first  part  of  tlie  inscription  on 
it  is : — 




WHO  DIED  20  FEB  17r)5  .... 

At  the  west  end  of  the  wall  is  the  south  doorway,  outside  which  can 
be  seen  the  foundations  of  the  porch. 

Cathedral  Burylng-Grounti, — On  the  north  wall,  third  space  from 
west  end,  is  the  monument  of  Alexander  Douglas,  said  to  have  l^een 
removed  from  the  old  church  of  St  Giles  when  it  was  tlemolislied.  It 
lias  the  following  inscription  in  capitals  on  three  separate  tablet^!,  viz. : — 

HIC  .  DORMIT  .  IN  .  DO 



PATER  .  M  .  ALEX 



TISSIM'  .  QVI  .  SV 

MMA  .  CVM  .  LAV 

DE  .  HVC  .  VRBI  . 




ET  .  PRiEF\^IT  .  41  .  ANNOS  . 

OBIIT  .  JilTATIS  .  SViE  .  ANNO  .  62  .  ET  .  CHRIS 

TI  .  1623  .  MAI  .  11  .  RELICTIS  .  ALEXANDRO  . 


MINA  .  NON  .  MINVS  .  VERE  .  RELIGIOSA  .  QVAM  . 


SOLEVM  .  STRVCTVM  .  EST  .c^ac/3ac/3 

374  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,  APRIL  9,   190a 


LA  .  VT  .  SI  .  XES 


O  .  VKXIET  .  P 

ARATVM  .  TE  .  I 



IX  .  DOMINO  . 


TIO  .  INDVET  . 


ONEM  .<JOn 

riulonicatli  aro  four  sliieMs  with  amis,  viz.: — (1)  Ermine,  a  heart, 
on  {\  cliief  tlin»o  stiirs  (Doujrlas),  imifoling,  Quarterly,  Ist  and  4th,  Three 
stars  (Inues);  2nd  ami  3nl,  Tliree  l)oar  hoixdn  couped  (Alierchirrler). 
(2)  On  a  IxMid  tlireo  Imckles  (Leslie).  (3)  Three  cushions  lozengeways 
(DuuK'ir).  (A)  On  a  l)end  three  binis.  Tlie  following  extract  from 
Montei til's  Theater  of  Morfalttt/,  p.  215,  shows  that  probably  neither 
the  alxno  inscTi])tions  nor  the  four  ct^ats  of  arms  are  those  of  the 
original  nioniimrnt.  '•  Uishoj)  ALEXAXI)P:K  I)0rGL.\S8'8  Monu- 
nuMit,  St  (lih's  C.'hunh.  Mr  Alexander  Douglass,  Minister  at  Elgine,  for 
the  spaee  «>f  25  Years,  was  promoved  to  the  see  of  Morray  in  the  vear 
1606,  di«Ml  162*5,  was  burietl  in  the  South  Isle  of  St(Jiles  Kirk  (now  the 
Paroch  Kirk  of  Elgine).  He  had  married  to  his  2  Wife,  Mary  limes. 
daiigliter  t<»  K«»bert  Innes  of  that  Ilk  he  was  Bishop  of  Morray  17  yeiirs. 
T1h»  ins('ripti»>n  of  his  Monument  n(»l  legible.'' 

In  till'  ci'ntre  of  the  m(»nument  alH)ve  the  inscription  is  inserted  a 
stone  (19  inches  in  length),  bearing  arms  (Hg.  28) :— Three  irushioiis 
iMzengeways  within  a  r<»yal  tressure  (the  latter  forming  the  Ixiuiidarv 
line  instead  of  a  >hiil<lK  IJcliind  is  a  en»sier  and  l>eneath  the  initials 
A.  P.  TlieM'  aif  >ai«l  i<»  Im-  the  arms  of  Alexander  Dunliar,  Prior  of 
Phiscanlin.     ((V/vd  ir».S:>-156<'  >  p.  409.) 

On  the  south  sid<'  of  Si  kum  the  west  buttress,  is  a  slab 


al)out  15  feet  in  lieight  by  2  feet  2  inclies  in  width.     It  has  a  long 
inscription  in  capitals  commencing : — 

DIED  4  MAY  1674  .... 

A  few  yards  south  of  this  is  the  base  of  what  has  been  a  cross  or 
monument  of  some  kind,  which  is  known  as  the  "  Bishop's  Cross." 

A  few  yards  south  of  the  west  door,  in  the  south  wall  of  nave,  is  a 
recuml>ent  stone  (26  inches  in  width)  with  arms,  viz.  : — Three  crescents, 
imjyalinr;,  A  stag  head  couped.  The  initials  liave  been  tlefaced  as  well 
as  the  inscription  round  the  margin,  the  greater  part  of  which  has  been 
carefidly  chiselled  out.     All  that  remains  decipherable  is : — 

HEIR  •  LYIS  •  ANE  •  HO 



On   the  ]x)undary   wall,  a  little  south-west   of   this,  is  a  tablet  with 
inscription  in  capitals  (Guide,  p.  51) : — 








MEMENTO  MORI,  1687. 

376  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,  APRIL  9,  1900. 






Cathedral  Precincts. — In  the  street  bounding  the  north  side  of  the 
])iiryinf?-gr()und,  built  into  the  gable  of  a  stable  nearly  opposite  the 
chapter-house,  is  a  stone  (20  inches  in  length)  bearing  amis  (fig.  29) : — 
A  lion  rampant  double  queu(Ml.  Behind  tlie  shield  is  the  head  of  a 
crosier.  This  coat  is  similar  to  one  on  a  detached  stone  in  the  chapter- 
house, only  here  the  lion  is  not  collared  (see  p.  353). 

South-ejist  from  the  catliedral,  at  tlie  east  end  of  North  College  Street, 
still  stands  one  of  the  city  gates.  Continuing  along  the  street,  which 
turns  south  as  far  as  the  end  of  the  lx>undary  wall  of  the  house  calle<l 
the  "  South  College  "  (Miss  Cooper's),  a  fragment  of  the  massive  old 
boundary  wall  of  the  cathedral  precincts  is  seen,  and  beside  it  the  dead 
stump  of  a  lnig(;  tree,  which,  not  many  years  ago,  was  known  as  "  the 
l)eech  tree." 

The  house  called  the  "  South  College'  "  has  l)een  mentioned  above  ; 
a  somewhat  similar  house  stands  north-west  from  the  cathedral  next  to 
the  l)ish()p*s  house.  It  is  called  the  North  College.  Both  houses  are 
no  doul)t  named  from  the  colleges  wliere  the  higher  clergy  had  their 
residence,  and  which  occupied  sites  north  and  south  of  the  cathednd 
now  forming  part  of  the  grounds  of  these  houses.  The  North  College 
is  said  to  have  boon  the  d(*anory  and  the  South  College  the  sub-dean's 

BisHOi*'s  llousK.  -Tlie  bishop's  house  stiinds  opposite  the  north-west 
angle  of  the  cathedral. 

On  its  east  wall  is  a  panel  (32  inches  in  height  ])y  25  in  width)  within 

.S7<S  rR()CKEI>IN(;S   ok   TIIK   society,   APRIL  9,   IfiOO. 

a  iin»nM«Hl  Ih^nler  (li^.  .SO),  containinj^  thn*o  shiolds,  one  in  cliief  and  two 
in  l>asi».  That  in  <*hi»'f  Invars  : — A  lion  ram])unt  within  the  royal  treasure 
(fnr  Si'ntland).  AIma'c;  tlio  shioM  is  a  closetl  crown,  an<l  issuing  fr«>m 
hehiiul  tlie  fornior  arc^  two  branrlios  of  thistle,  on  each  side  one,  oousi»tin<; 
of  a  hea»l,  one  small  leaf  and  three*  large  ones,  not  shown  in  illustration. 
TIh'  slii<*ld  in  dexter  Iwise  Inmrs : — A  staj?  head  couihmI  (Reid).  Alxive 
the  shield  is  a  mitre  with  initials  R.  R.  at  sides  of  the  last.  Tlie  anns  are 
tluKse  of  R«>lH;rt  Reid,  Ahlx)t  of  Kinloss  (a  mitred  abbot),  from  about  1526, 
and  l)ishop  of  Orkney  from  1540.  His  arms  appear  on  the  ablxit's  house 
at  Kinloss*  and  at  IWuly  Priory.-     The  shield  in  sinister  base  liears  : — A 

lion  i-jimpant  within  the  nn-al  tressure  (for  Lyon).     Tlie  initials     /   y 

•,\rv  at  top  an<l  si«les  of  the  shielil.  These  are  pnilMil)ly  the  amis  of  Mr 
Alexander  Lyon,  Master  of  Murray,  a  younger  son  of  John,  fourth  I^r«l 
(llamis,  who  «lied  in  1 54 1,  and  "lyeth  burietl  in  the  quire  of  Tnrreflt* 
whieh  he  built."'*  Al)ove  the  jmnel  is  a  dripstone  ornamented  with  a 
vine  liraneh  eonsisting  of  a  bunch  of  grapes  and  a  vine  lenf,  Iwth  repeatcnl 
alternately  on  each  side  of  the  stem. 

On    the   skewj)Ut   on    the    east  wall    of   the    stain*ase    is   a    Trinity 
of    heads,    consisting    of    three    faces    hniking    to    dexter,    fr«3nt     and 

sinister  :  tlM'ir  arc  four  «'vt's.      Above  this  is  the  date  ,,.zl^'      and 


in  th«»  correspiMuling  position  on  the  west  side  is  a  shield  bearing  anus, 
viz  : — On  a  fcss  a  ri>s*'  an«l  in  chief  three  hearts.  The  initials  J.  XT.  are 
at  tlte  si<lcs  in  (lothic  capitals.  A  shield  with  same  arms  and  initials 
I.  T.  in  K»unan  cajutals  is  carve«l  over  the  fireplace  of  a  room  on  the  first 
lloor,  and  still  auntlicr  example  of  thct^i*  urms  (llg.  31)  but  with*HU  iuUf-u- 
is  t<»  be  seen  on  tl*e  Hutel  of  a  lireptaco  n^wdetfl^bf^l  (shield  5|  inehei^  in 
width).     Mr  'lohu  W,  Siiuill^^^||||g|^  s  hfw  a.  sketch 

<,inu'  arms  and  itiitUls 




demolislied  which  stood  in  Clialmers'  Close,  Canongate,  Edinburgli.  If 
any  information  could  be  obtained  al)out  this  liouse,  it  might  help  to 
throw  light  on  tlie  ownersliii)  of  the  arms  and  initials.  Over  the  fire- 
place in  the  small  room  at  the  top  of  the  stair  an^  the  letters  I.  H.  8.  in 

Inside  the  entrance  door  in  the  wall  of  tlie  courtyard  are  three  stones 
with  sculpture. 

Fig.  31.   Anns  in  tlie  Bishop's  Houso. 

That  al)ove  the  door  is  rounded  at  top,  and  has  in  the  centre  a  mono- 

K  C 

gram,  over  whicli  is  a  coronet  and  at  the  sides  the  initials  j  ^^v  and  ,    ^. 

said  tf>  1x5  for  the  P]arl  and  Countess  of  Dunfermline. 

That  on  the  dexter  side  hiis  a  shield  (7  inches  in  width)  with  arms 
(fig.  32) : — A  fess  clie(juy  l)etween  two  open  crowns  in  chief  and  a  cross 
crosslet  fitchee  in  l)ase.  Al)ove  the  shield  a  mitre.  The  same  arms  are 
at  Spynie  Palace,  and  are  those  of  Bishop  David  Stewart,  1461-1476. 
See  note  to  description  of  arms  of  liis  brother  on  tomb  in  south  transept 
of  cathedral  described  above  (p.  368). 

'^^^  ! 


The  stone  on  the  sinister  side  l)ears  on  a  sliield  Scotland  with  an  open 
crown  al)ove  it. 

Within  the  courtyard  there  jire  also  two  important  detached  stones  : — 
(I)  The  one  (27  incites  by  15  within  the  moulding),  lying  among  a  heap 
of  stones  near  the  entrance,  has  on  a  shield  the  following  arms  (fig.  33) : — 
On  a  chevron  two  lions  pulling  at  a  rose  and  in  base  a  star.  Above 
the  shield  a  mitre  with  the  initials  P.  H.  at  sides,  and  on  an  escroU 
l)encatli  the  shield  the  motto  "EXPECTO."  The  arms  are  those 
of  Patrick  Hepburn,  l^ishop  of  ^Foray,  1535-1573.  His  seal  is 
described  and  figured  by  Henry  Laing  in  his  first  volume,  No.  913. 
He  is  erroneously  stated  to  have  been  son  of  Patrick,  first  Earl  of 
Both  well,  in  Keith's  Bishops^  Douglas'  Peerage,  etc.  He  was  really 
brother  and  heir  to  Master  John  Hepburn  of  Beinstoun,^  who  was  son 
of  Patrick,  first  of  Beinst<jun,*-  who  got  the  lands  by  charter,  dated 
26th  Xov.   1478,  from  his  father,  Patrick,  first  I^rd  Hailes.^ 

(2)  The  other  and  more  imi)ortant  stone  (37  inches  in  length)  is 
lyhig  in  a  vaulted  passage  under  the  main  building.  It  prolxibly  came 
originally  from  the  cathedral,  and  is  perhaps  the  finest  piece  of  decor- 
ative heraldry  in  Scotland.  The  shield  (11  inches  at  top)  is  couche,  ami 
Ixiiirs  the  following  arms  (fig.  34) : — Quarterly,  1st  and  4th,  A  fess 
chwjuy  between  three  open  crowns ;  2nd  and  3rd,  A  bend  between  six 
cross  crosslets  fitchue  (Mar).  Above  the  shield,  and  strapped  to  it,  is 
a  tilting  helmet  with  tasseled  capeline,  and  thereon  a  coronet  out 
of  which  rises  the  crest,  two  demi-serpents  entwined,  their  heads  (which 
have  large  teeth  and  eyes)  looking  l)cfore  and  behind.  The  arms  are 
those  of  Alexander  Stewart,  natural  son  to  Alexander  Stewart,  Eiirl  of 
Buchan,  who  became  Earl  of  Mar  and  Lord  of  CJarioch  in  right  of  his 
wife  Isabella  Douglas.     A  seal  with  the  siime  arms  is  described  and 

^  Hef/ister  of  Ads  aiul  Decreets^  vol.  iii.  p.  836. 

-  Acta  JJfjinhiorutu  Coticilu,  vol.  xxxii.  f.  6. 

^  RegiaL  Secreti  Sigilfi,  vol.  liii.  f.  176  ;  Protocol  15ook  of  JanicH  Nicolson, 
f.  5J0  (preserved  in  the  General  R<;gister  House).  For  the  relerences  in  these  three 
notes  I  am  indebted  to  Colonel  the  Hon.  K.  E.  Boyle. 


Fig,  34.  Arois  of  Atexuuder  Stewart. 


figured  by  I-^ing,  vol.  I.,  No.  796.     They  are  also  on  a  tomb  in  the 
south  transept  of  the  cathedral  (p.  367). 

Grbyfriar-s  Chukch.  This  church  is  presently  being  restored  by 
tlie  Marcpiess  of  Bute,  and  Conventual  buildings  are  being  erected  on  the 
old  foundations  atljoining  under  the  8U])ervision  of  ^Ir  W,  Scott. 
There  are  several  monuments  in  the  nave  of  the  church  :  — 
(1)  (hi  the  west  wall  is  a  monument  consisting  of  two  tiiblets  within 
columns,  over  each  of  which  is  a  shield  with  impaled  arms.  The 
shield  on  the  dexter  side  (13  inches  in  width)  bears  arms  (fig.  35) : — On 
a  fess,  Ijetween  a  lion  head  erased  and  a  star,  three  buckles  (King), 
impaling^  Three  garl>s  (Gumming).  Crest,  on  a  hehnet  with  mantling 
and  wreath,  a  hand  holding  a  swonl.  Motto  along  the  top,  Audaces 
Fartuna  Juvat,     Inscription  in  italics  on  tiiblet  beneath : — 

In  BesHirtctionu  Beatm  Spem 

ComluiUur  Hie  Relvinire  Viri 

Dujniasimi  (tulielmi  King  De 

Neumiln  Urhis  hiijm  Elgini 

Quondam  Prcefecti  qui  27 

Septenihri^  A.  .^.  G.  MDGGXV 

^EUUis  11  Animam  Deo  Reddidit 

Necnon  Reliquiw  Mulieris 

Spectattssinue  Margaretm 

Gumming  Filifs  Viri  meritissimi 

(ieorgii  Gumming  De  LodUer 

Vandich  Urhis  etiam  hujus 

Quondam  Prcefecti  Prcpfati 

Gulielmi  King  Gonjugvt  char 

immoi  qiuv  2  January  A.  .E. 

G.  MDGGXIV  ^Etutis  61  Animam 

efflavit  Relviuifn  et  Liherorum 

ex  his  Prognatorum. 

The  shield  on  the  sinister  side  (lOi  inches  in  width)  bears  arms  (fig. 
36) :— On  a  fess,  between  a  lion  head  era.sed  and  a  star,  three  buckles 



!  m  fii 


,^1:      ^      A 

^„-'   «]©■    11 


FiK.  3r.. 


(King),  impaling,  On  a  fess  between  three  cross  crosslets  fitch^e  as 
many  sUirs  (Tulloch).  The  crest  and  motto  are  the  same  as  al)Ove,  and 
the  inscription  beneath,  also  in  italics,  is : — 

Hie  Quiescit  quod  Kduiuum 

est  Mulieris  omatimmce  Anruc 

Tulloh  Filiiv,  Viri  Sjyectatimmi 

Thoni(t  Tulloh  de  Tanachiy 

Gulielmo  King  hodit  d^  Neu 

Mihi  Nuptam  datas  qua  I 

Septembris  A,  /tL  G,  MDCCXVI 

u^Jtatis  21  ad  Godites  abiit. 

(2)  On  floor  of  north  jnissage,  a  shield  (12  J  inches  at  top)  with  arms, 
viz.  : — A  chevron  Ix'tween  three  l)oar  lieads  couped  (Gordon), 
impaling,  On  a  fess,  l)etween  a  lion  head  erased  and  a  star,  two  buckles 
(King).  Crest,  on  a  ludmet  with  mantling  an<l  wre^ith,  a  boar  head. 
Motto  on  an  escroll  at  k>i)  "AU1)ACP:S  FORTITNA  JUVAT."  The 
above  achievement  occupies  the  centre  of  the  stone,  the  upper  part  is 
blank,  and  on  tlui  lower  part  is  an  inscripticm  in  Roman  capitals, 
viz.: — 




DIED  27  AUGUST  1712  LUCR 

ETIA  DIED  12  JAR"  1717. 

(3)  Stone  on  floor  of  south  passage.  It  has  a  shield  (11  inches  at  top) 
with  arms,  viz.  (fig.  37)  : — P]rmine,  on  a  fess  three  crescents  (Craig), 
impaling,  On  a  l)end,  between  two  lion  heads  erased,  three  buckles 
(King).  Crest,  on  a  helmet  with  mantling  and  wreath,  an  open 
book.  An  escroll  above  but  no  motto.  This  achievement  occupies  the 
centre  of  the  stcme ;  the  upper  part  is  ])lank,  and  in  the  lower  part  is  an 
inscripticm  in  Roman  capitals,  viz. : — 

VOL.  xxxiv.  2  B 










(4)  Another  stone  further  west  in  the  passage  is  non-heraldic. 

Fig.  37.  At  Greyfriars  Church,  Elgin. 
(5)  Stono  on  soutli  wall  of  nave.  The  shield  (15  inches  at  top) 
bears  (fig.  38) : — ( )n  a  fess,  hotween  a  lion  head  (erased  ?)  and  a  star, 
two  Inickles  (Kin<;),  impalimj,  Three  garbs  (Cuniming).  A  helmet 
with  mantling  and  wreath  Imt  no  crest.  An  escroll  l>eneath  the  shield 
but  no  motto.     Above  is  an  inscription  in  capitids,  viz.  : — 






Xenio  Potest etc 

wall  of  the  Nave  at  Grey  friars  Church,  Elgin. 

388  PROCEEDINGS  OK  THE   SOCtETTT,   APRIL  9,  1900- 

At  tha  sitle  of  the  panel  coiitaininfj  the  aniis^  the  initials  1^"".   K.   and 
beneath  the  inscrii»tioii : — 

HERE  ,  LVES  ,  THE  ,  CHILDREN  ,  of 
CUMMINtJ  .  R.  K.  L.  K.  A  K. 

In  thn  south  mthr  of  tlie   tlomeMtic  |mrt  of  the  buihliugK  tliore  atv 
built  into  the  wall  two  old  st<.irie^  : — 

(1)  A  lintel  over  doorway  with  inacrij^ti  on  in  cai>ittils  : — 


(2)  A  stuue  built  into  tlie  wall,  i\  li  fch?  to  the  west,  coiisUting  of 
a  panel  (ubout  15  iiidiea  )iy  12)  with  u  a  mouhled  Iwmler,  which 
contjiInB  a  ahield  beiirtiig  {irme  *  (fif<.  ^) : — Quarterly,  1st  and  4th5 
A  liun  rampnt  (Wrtlkce) ;  2nd  and  .  d,  A  fpas  i-hexjiiy  (Liiuli*ay). 
The  charges  in  the  seetind  i\m\  thin!  i  trtor  are  defectivt*,  rescinhling 
a  cross  couped  and  quarterly  piercer  ,  but  no  dotibt  reprt^seiiting 
a  fesK  chequy,  PenOi<^d  on  tliy  upper  comers  nf  the  shield  art*  twa 
papiiiga^,  holding  between  tbeni  in  their  beaks  a  horsie  shoe  — -  an 
original  ^v^ay  tif  repreaenting  sujiporteri  and  creist  it  intended  for  the^tv 
Benpjith  tire  i^hield  are  the  initials  T,  V,  (for  Thomas  Widlaee  !), 

In  the  room  at  the  south- west  eorner  of  the  domestic  buihlingg  are 
renin  ijiH  of  jwiinting  on  some  of  the  i-afters,  and  niao,  I  understand,  on  the 
ceiling  which  is  temponirily  removeti 

In  the  street^  Ui  the  north  of  the  church,  on  the  opi^osite  siiie,  is  a 
quaint  old  liuilding  now  used  as  a  stiihle,  hut  originally  connected  with 

High  Street  of  Elgin  and  adjoining  Lanes. — Proceeding  west  from 
the  cathedral,  at  the  junction  of  North  with  South  College  Street,  is 
what  is  known  as  the  Little  Cross,  consisting  of  a  pedestal  with  a  round 
pillar  and  square  ornanu'iital  top.     On  two  of  the  faces  are  rude   repre- 



sentations  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  on  each  of  the  other  two  faces  are  two 

crosiers,  grasped  on  each  side  backwards  by  the  Virgin  and  by  the  Child. 

Opposite  this  is  the  Museum  (High  Street,  No.  1).    Among  many  objects 

Fig.  39.  Shield  at  Greyfriars,  Elgin. 

of  interest  is  an  old  carved  chair  from  Dallas,  which  has  on  the  back  a 
shield  (9 J  inches  in  width)  bearing  arms  (fig.  40) : — On  a  fess,  between 
a  star  flanked  by  two  garbs  in  chief  and  a  cinquefoil  in  base,  a  saltire. 
At  the  sides  are  the  initials  R.  B.  and  beneath  the  date  1620.  Below 
is  an  ornamental  panel. 



A  few  doors  along  (Xo.  7)  is  the  house  of  Duff  of  Dipple,  ancestor  to 
the  Earls  of  Fife.  Over  tlie  dormers  are,  in  the  one  case,  the  initials 
I.  D.,  with  date  1694  al)ove,  and,  in  the  other,  M.  I.  with  star  above. 

Fi^.  40.   Back  of  a  Chair  horn  Dalljuu 

Xext  we  cninn  to  Dr  Adani^s  hom^  '*St  GQcf*'  (No,  IS^  «  ' 
now  ImiMini,^  (lesi\Ljiio«l  by  Mr  lleiton  (^^H[k^_On  Ihn  w»U  at  tlie  mh ' 
of  tlic  (Milrinco  door  is  built  ill  ^^^^^^Qk^^^HllbJlOO^f^ 



It  has  on  it  a  shield  bearing  anus  (fig.  41)  : — A  chevron  between  three 
garl)s  (Gumming  of  Lochterwandich),  impaling^  Out  of  a  fess  a 
derai  lion  issuant  and  in  base  three  stars  (Chalmers).  Initials  I.  C. 
and  I.  C.  The  date  beneath  the  panel  is  1576.  The  stone  is  said  to  have 
been  taken  from  an  old  house  in  a  close  nearly  on  the  same  spot. 

Down  a  close  (No.  37),  opposite  the  County  Buildings  and  named 
"  High  House  Buildings,"  above  a  garden  gate  is  a  lintel  having  carved 
on  it  in  the  centre  a  hammer  crowned,  with  date  1667,  and  at  each 
side  a  shield.     That  on  dexter  bears: — Three  escutcheons  (Hay),  with 

Fig.  41.  Shield  built  into  Dr  Adam's  House,  Elgin. 

initials  I.  H.  And  tliat  on  sinister : — Three  boar  heads  erased 
(Gordon),  w^ith  initials  M.  G.  Over  the  lintel  is  a  triangular  stone  with 
a  monogram  apparently  for  D.  M.  M.  S.,  under  which  is  the  date  1688,  and 
at  top  two  fish  in  chevron.  On  the  opjwsite  or  south  side  of  the  street 
houses  from  Nos.  42  to  52  rest  on  a  series  of  low  j)illars  with  arches. 

A  little  further  along  is  the  town  cross,  rising  from  a  platform,  a 
pillar  with  a  lion  at  the  top  holding  a  shield  (which  is  of  17th  century 

Close  to  this  is  the  parish  church  occupying  the  site  of  the  old  church 
of  St  Giles.  When  the  latter  was  pulled  down,  its  carved  oak  pulpit 
was  taken  to  Pluscardin,  where  it  remained  till  the  present 'year,  when  it 
has  been  sent  back  to  Elgin,  and  is  to  Ixj  put  up  in  a  hall  in  connection 
with  the  parish  church. 



Nearly  opposite  the  cross  (No.  103)  is  Dr  Macka/s  house,  with  a 
round  tower  on  which  is  a  panel,  within  a  moulded  border,  containing  a 
shield  bearing  arms  (fig.  42) : — Quarterly,  1st  and  4th,  On  a  bend  three 
buckles  (Leslie)  ;  2nd  and  3rd,  A  lion  rampant  (intended  for  Abemethy). 
Initials  A.  L.  and  I.  B.,  date  beneath  1634. 

Again,  on  the  south  side  of  the  street,  up  the  close  (No.  78,  I  think), 
there  are  some  pieces  of  carving  from  the  cathedral  built  into  the  wall 
of  a  house  on  west  side  of  close.  In  the  south  gable  of  a  house  on  the 
same  side  of  the  close  is  a  coat  of  arms. 

On  same  side  of  the  street  (No.  150),  hut  entering  off  Batchen  Lane, 
is  Thunderton  House,  now  the  Gordon  Temperance  Hotel.     There  are 

Fig.  42.  Shield  built  into  Dr  Mackay's  House,  Elgin, 
some  pieces  of  carving  at  entrance  and  above  dormer  windows  facing 
south.     Two  large  figures  of  lieraldic  savages  from  this  house  arc  now  at 

Nearly  at  the  west  end  of  the  Higli  Street,  a  little  to  the  north,  is  the 
Lady  hill.  On  the  toj)  are  remains  of  the  Ciistle  of  Elgin.  In  earlier 
days  it  had  been  a  native  strongliold ;  traces  of  the  surrounding  ramparts 
still  remain. 

Spynie  Palace. — Here  there  are  five  coats  of  arms  remaining. 

Over  tlie  main  gateway  in  the  east  wall  of  courtyard  is  a  shield 
bearing  arms  (fig.  43) : — On  a  fess,  between  three  keys  paleways,  as 
many  stars.  Behind  the  shield  a  crosier.  These  are  no  doubt  the  arms 
of  a  Bisliop  of  Moray,  but  not  of  Bishop  Innes,  as  commonly  stated. 



On  the  south  wall  of  the  great  keep,  said  to  have  been  built  by  Bishop 
Da\'id  Stewart  (1461-1476),  and  comparatively  low  down,  are  a  group 
of  three  heraldic  panels,  one  above  and  two  beneath. 

The  upper  (fig.  44)  contains  a  shield  bearing  : — Scotland,  surrounded 
by  thistles  at  top  and  sides  and  resting  on  the  back  of  a  unicorn,  couchant, 
gorged  with  a  cro\vn  and  chained. 

The  two  lower  panels  each  contain  a  shield  also. 


Fig.  43.  Shield  at  Spynie  Palace. 
The  arms  on  the  dexter  are  (fig.  45)  : — A  chevron  charged  with  two 
lions  puUing  at  a  ro6e  and  in  base  a  star.     Above  the  shield  a  mitre 
with  initials  P.  IL  at  sides.     Beneath  shield  an  escroll  without  motto. 
The  anns  are  those  of  Bishop  Patrick  Hepburn  (1535,  died  1573).    A  simi- 
lar panel  in  the  Bishop's  House  is  described  above  (p.  381),  and  there  is  a 
i^eal  with  the  same  arms  described  and  figure^l  by  Laing,  voL  L,  No.  913. 
The  anns  on  the  sinister  shield  are  (fig.  46) : — A  fess  chequy  lietween 
crowns  in  chief  and  a  cross  crosslet  fitchee  in  base.     Above   the 
A  mltn^     The  arms  are  those  of  Bishop  David  Stewart.     A  stone 

i-[^  mii\ 

Fir?,  1 1- it;  BhUUH  il  ^yymt  Va\ml^ 




On  the  west  wall  are  two  stones,  one  on  cither  side  of  the  entrance. 

Fig.  48.  In  the  Wall  at  Trinity  Church,  Spynie. 
They  have  each  in  the  centre,  near  the  top,  a  shield  with  impaled  anns, 
above  which  on  an  escroll  is  rudely  incised  the  motto  *'  SUB  SPE,"  under 
the  shield  a  skull,  and  round  tlie  marj^in  an  inscription  in  Roman  capitals. 
The  first  shield  (14  inches  at  top)  bears  (fig.  48) : — Three  cushions  lozenge- 



ways  (no  royal  tressure  or  mark  of  cadency)  (Dunbar  of  Burgie),  impaling^ 
Quarterly,  1st  anil  4th,  Three  buckles  in  bend  (not  on  a  bend) ;  2nd  and 
3rd,  A  lion  rampant  (not  debruised  ])y  a  ribl)on)  (Leslie  quartered  with 
Abernethy).     Marginal  inscription  continued  down  centre  :  — 

HERE  .  LYES  .  THE  . 


BVRGIE  .  WHO  .  DE 

PARTED  .  THIS  .  LIFE  .  THE  .  TENTH  .  OF  .  JANUARIE  . 


Fig  49.  In  the  Wall  at  Trinity  Church,  Spynie. 
Tlie  other  shield  (13  inches  at  top)  bears  (fig.  49) : — Three  cushions 
lozengeways    ( Dunbar   of    Bishopmiln) ;    impaling,    A    cross   engrailed 
between  four  roses  (Ayton).     Marginal  inscription  continued  down  the 
centre  : — 

lllE  SOCIETY,  APRIL   9,    1900. 


■{<»  .  DEPARTED  .  THIS  . 
NTH  . 

— '.-.  V  '1.  ii.  p.  17,  is  tlie  following  note: — "  Alex- 

•..  .-iti.-.  :p>ii  his  chimnoypieco,  l>etween  initials  and 

-  ■ ;.:  -iii^e  onshions;  impaling  on  a  cross  indented,  l>e- 

--^•-1.  .11  less  point,  for  his  wife,Margaret  Aytoun." 

uviv  monumont.     The  upper  part,  wliich  is  tri- 

:-    *:uL  v»f  the  inclosure  and  has  on  it  an  achieve- 

.-  L-.-*.L     The  shield  hears: — Six  buckles  in  l)end 

»;.:. -  v'\»mKitiUit  (intended  for  I^slie  quartered  Avitli 

•    Lir  -liiield  a  helmet  with  mantling  and  at  the  sides 

..    .  1.     The  lower  part  of  the  monument  consists  of 

Ar<  with  the  following  inscription  in  script : — 

Here  Lyes 
'  ./«'»;  Leslie  Esq''  of  Findrafsie 
ivbo  was  Heir  Male 

;.■  ^'b  Earl  of  Rothes  bis  Lordsbi^ 
■  f  J  hatber  of  T{obert  Leslie  tbe 
"  ^s:  :^'  tbe  Family  of  Findrafsie 
:i:  died  at  Findrafsie  House 
26  May  1793 
.  hid  to  the  Mewo7'\  of  an 
.  Iffectionate  Husband 
Ibis  Monument  is  erected  by 
Mrs  Jea^'  ^     '^>  bis  iridoiv. 


Lhanbryd  Church.  —This  churcli  has  also  now  disappeared,  but  the 
churchyanl  remains. 

On  the  east  side  is  the  Innc^s  inclosure.  On  its  east  wall  is  a  recessed 
tomb  witli  recumlxint  effigy  of  a  knight  in  armour,  with  hehnet  open 
from  brow  to  chin,  lion  at  feet,  sword  at  side,  and  on  his  bretistplate  an 
escutcheon  and  a  star  (but  no  charge  in  l>ase). 

On  the  south  wall  is  a  stone  with  two  shields.  The  one  l)ears  Innes 
arms,  viz. : — Three  stiirs  within  a  l)ordure.  The  other  ]>ears  the  arms 
of  the  Earl  of  Iluntly,  viz. : — Quarterly,  1st,  Three  boar  heads  couped  ; 
2nd,  Three  lion  heads  erased  ;  3rd,  Tliree  crescents  within  a  royal  tres- 
sure  ;  4th,  Three  f raises.  The  inscription  commences  as  follows  : — 

On  the  north  wall  is  a  large  stone  having  in  the  central  space  near  the 
top  a  shield  bearing  the  arms  of  Tnn(»s,  viz. : — Three  stars.  With  initials 
A.  I.  at  sides.  Round  the  margin  is  an  inscription  in  Roman  capitals 
commencing  at  foot  of  the  dexter  sid(»,  viz.  : — 




SIT  .  G  .  OCTOB  .  1012  .  SV 

E  .  VERO  .  .ETATIS  .  80. 

In  an  inclosure  a  Httle  east  of  the  gate  in  the  north  wall  is  a  stone 
with  arms  (fig.  50) : — On  a  fess  of  three  bars  wavy,  a  lion  passant 
contounie  and  in  base  three  fleurs-de-lys.  The  inscTiption  records  that 
it  is  "  Tn  memory  of  »James  Chalmers,  eldest  lawful  son  to  John 
Chalmers,  sometime  in  little  Coxton died  the  9th  of  Decem- 
ber 1766 " 

CoXTON  ToWBK. — Less  than  half  a  mile  west  of  Lhanbryd  and  about 
three  miles  east  of  p]lgin  is  Coxton.  It  is  built  of  stone  throughout,  the 
ceihngs  vaulted  alternately  at  right  angles  to  each  other,  and  the  roof 
covered  with  stone. 


PR0CKEDING8   OF  THE  SOCIKT7,   APRIL  9,   1900. 

There  is  a  s^uai^  o):iening  in  the  centre  of  each  floor,  closc'd  by  a  ^tone 
which  fits  in,  TJie  ontmnce  is  on  the  first  st<;n'y,  an*i  is  iiroteoted  by  a  fine, 
iron  yett  with  an  ofik  door  on  the  outuide  almost  touching  it,  Tfie  pre- 
sent stair  up  to  it  ia  tin  addition,  a  ladder  having  lieen  originally  use^L* 
Over  the  entrmice  is  a  cnat  of  arm»/^  viz,  r— Quarterly »  Ist,  Three  stairs 
(Innes) ;  2nd,  Three  Ktarw  (Innes) ;  3nl,  A  j?tiig  Lend  conj.*ed  (Reid)  ;  4tb, 
Three  boar  hc^ids  erased  {tJoTdon),  Above  the  ahield  is  a  coronet,  ami 
there  are  ff>nT  sets  of  initials,  two  al>ove  and  two  beneath,  viz. : — 
R.  I,,  A,  J.,     R.,  tmd  K,  (?.     The  coat  is  evidently  composed  of  the 

Fig.  50.  At  Lhanbryd  Church, 

arms  applicable  to  these  four  sets  of  initials.  Above  is  an  older  stone 
with  the  date  1641  between  two  sets  of  initials,  the  same  as  appear  above 
the  shield,  viz. : — R.  I.  and  A.  I.  In  the  first  floor  room  over  the  window 
in  the  south  wall  is  another  coat  ])earing  (fig.  51) : — A  stag  head  cabossed 
with  star  botwoen  the  attyres,  on  a  cliief  three  stars.  There  are  no 
initials  or  date. 

BiRNiK  Church— St  r»iiKN'nAxs.— The  Norman  church  of  St  Brendans 
at  Birnie,  2^  miles  sDUth  of  Kli^in,  was  founded  aWit  1160.^ 
*  Casttflatfif  ntui  P^>m(Mttr  AirhitectHr>\  vol.  ii.  p.  23, 

5  IVseribovl  in  A\v'.  Arxh.,  vol.  i.  p.  21 S. 



The  most  noteworthy  objects  in  it  are  : — 

The  chancel  arcJi,  which  is  in  perfect  condition. 

An  txrtagcinal  stone  font  with  hemispherical  basin  undecorate*!. 

A  Celtic  })ell,  rectanj^ukr,  with  rounde<l  corners,  formed  of  two  pieces 
of  iron  riveted  t4:)gether  down  the  sides,  with  handle  at  top,  and  which 
appears  to  have  been  plated  with  bronze.^ 

A  bronze  han(l-])ell  of  usual  shape. 

Fig.  61.  Shield  in  Ck)xton  Tower. 

On  the  north  wall  near  the  west  end  is  a  monument  with  .shield  (12 J 
inches  at  top)  l>earing  arms  (fig.  52) : — A  chevron  couped  between 
three  crescents  (Sanders),  impaling^  A  heart  with  a  falcon  head  issuing 
therefrom  (Falconer).  At  the  sides  of  the  shiidd  are  a  cofhn  and  hour-glass, 
and  alwvo  it  Mr.  W.S.,  M.F.,  the  last  four  letters  forming  a  monogram. 

'  This  bell  has  beou  figiircil  and  described  with  other  Celtic  bells,  by  Dr  Joseph 
Anderson,  in  Scotland  in  Efirfy  Christian  Times,  i».  178. 


rr  c 



The  whole  is  inclosed  in  a  semi-circular  headed  frame,  outside  of  which 
are  the  initials  W.  S.,  and  on  a  slab  beneath  the  inscription : — 
This  pulpit  the  corps  of 
M^  W"™  Sanders  lait  .  min- 
ister .  of  this  parochin 
who  deceased  .  the  13  of 
may  1670  &  of  Kather- 
in  &  Elspet  sanders  his 

Fi^.  f '2.  On  a  Monument  in  Hiinie  Church. 
In   the  churcliyard  near    the  west   f^ato   is  a   granite    ]>oulder   with 
incised  symbol. 



IviNi.oss  AnnEY. — lii  the  Ecrleaiastieal  Architecture  of  Scotland^  vol.  i. 
I».  416,  is  <,qv(Mi  a  doscriptiou  of  all  that  remains  of  this  building,^  and 
of  the  a])]M)t's  house  adjoiuin^i,',  toj^ether  with  a  sketch  of  the  panel  over 
the  door  of  the  latter,  which  contains  the  arms  of  Ahlx)t  Robert  Reid, 
viz.  : — A  stag  heiul  cal)ossed.  Behind  the  shield  a  crosier  and  at  the 
top  the  initials  R.  R. 

Fig.  53.  Shield  at  Burgie  House. 

Burg  IE  Castle. — This  castle  is  described  in  the  Castellated  and 
Domestic  Architecture  of  Scotland,  vol.  ii.  p.  260. 

The  arms  there  referred  to  as  over  the  great  fireplace  in  the  hall 
(p.  260,  fig.  715)  api)ear  to  be  those  now  built  into  the  outside  wall  at 

L      (p.  260,  fig. 

ftlso  Stuart's  Records  of  the  Monasierif  of  Kinloss,  issued  by  the  Society, 
1872,  4to. 


The  whole  is  inelosti*!  in  a  aemi-Dircalar  headed  fmme:,  out^^it- 

are  the  initials  \V,  S,.  and  oti  a  ^hih  betieuth  tlii?  )Tisc*rlpt,inn 


ThiB  j>ulpit  i\m  oorpB  nf 

M^  W"^  Sautk'rK  la  it  .  jni«- 

ister  .  tjf  this  p^irothiti 

who  dec.'4au£e4l  .  tlie  13  of 

^may  1070  ^i  oi  KathtT- 
in  k  Elflpet  aaudertj  hi^ 

In  the  chuKhyfinl  tr 
incised  syml)ol. 



head  between  the  lettei-s  K.  R.  in  base  ;  })eing  the  arms  and  initials  of 
his  father  and  mother,  Mr  Alexander  Dunbar  and  Katherine  Reid  ;  and 


Fig.  51.  Shield  and  Monogram  at  Burgie  House. 

below,  outside  the  garter,  R.  1).,  his  own  initials  ;  all  the  al>ove  in  relief  ; 
the  date  1602  is  cut  into  the  stone.  This  Robert  Dunlwr  of  Burgie 
married — first,  in  or  l)efore  1609,  Isobel,  daughter  and  co-heir  of   Sir 


i'i:(h;eki>in(;s  of  tmk  society,  a 

the  side  ni  the  stair  leading  to  the  entrance 

Th«*  shiolil  is  partial  jM*r  fess.     7;i  /7if<^/',  Tli 
(Duuhar)  :  witli  initials  ^f.  A.  I>.     Iji  />««(%  A 
with  initials    K.U.     Ahnvo  thn  shioM  n  liehii 
iK'hind  the  helniot  an«l  surmundinj^  tho  shieb 
OuUido  of  this  and  at  foot  are  the  initials   i 
motto,   '•  MANET  1MMVTA151LP:  YIKTV.- 
ZKIKIS."     This  is  evidently  copied   fnuu 
into  the  wall  of  the  trench  snntnindin*;  tli- 
and  rlose  to  the  front  d(K)r.     Tt    has  a 
and    initials,    and    may    1h^    deserilK'il    ; 
o})lon«<  panel  (Hi  inches  by  81)  willii- 
per    fess.      In  rhipf.    Three    cjnshions    ' 
M.   A.  J).,  the  fn-st  letter  within   Xhr 
In    hasp^    A    rttii^    heml    (eras(;d  ?).    " 
shield.     At  the  foot  and  outside  tin*  s^ 

A  coat  now  huilt  in  cUwe  t»»  th> 
in  width)  with  arms  (fiy.  54):— Th' 
inipalvif/,  A  hand  holding;  a  sw(»nl  e^ 
of  the  initials  K.  I).,  I.  S.,  and  I'.u- 

The  followin«^  notes  are  tii-m  >: 
15.     "Mr  Alexander  Dunhai, 
f«)rmer  Dean  Alexander),  mIso  ^!  "" 

the  Senators  (»f  the  (.'ollem»  of  J- 
Katlurrine    Ki»id,    sister-i^i'MiKii 
Kinlc^ss,  ami  niere  of  Kuln'i 
Ahhot  (»f  Kinloss.     Tlu'  !»•■ 
three  cushions  within   th" 
Pa-e.   10.     ''KoIhtI    I>m,I. 
of   I)('an    Alexanihr.  ':  ■  ' 
wilhin  a  j^arter,  l"---- 
tlih'.-  rii^hioii^,  \\V' 



St  Michabl^s  Church,  Ogbtox. — On  the  site  of  this  church  is  a 
mausoleum,  recently  erected  with  stones  said  to  be  from  the  old  church 
of  OgstonJ 

In  the  churchyard  are  a  numl)er  of  17th-century  stones.  There  is  one 
bearing  arms  (fig.  55),  viz.  : — A  saltire  couped  between  a  star  in  chief, 
a  hunting-horn  in  base,  and  two  crescents  in  flanks,-  impaling^ 
Three  birds  passant. 

Fig.  55.  Shield  at  St  Michaers  Church,  Ogston. 

()\i  the  dexter  side  of  shield  is  a  scythe  and  hour-glass  and  on  the 
sinister  a  spade  and  mattock  in  saltire.  Beneath  is  an  escroll  with 
initials  T.  Z.  and  M.  W.  Under  that  an  anchor  between  two  axc^,  then 
a  blank  jKinel,  and  at  foot  a  skull  and  cross  bones  with  the  motto 

'  Eccl.  Arch.,  voL  iii.  p.  554. 

-  These  bear  uo  resemblance  to  the  usual  arms  uf  Youug. 



John  Sharpe  of  Houston,  knight,  lulvtJCiitf.     TTjB 
nion^igtum  of  thoir  initiali?  R.  IK,  I.  S.,  unil 
euBbions  ;  impling  a  ilext*^r  hanil  ho  Ming  a  cliJ 
id  the  ckt*'  1621— all  in  relifif." 

IiurFus  Castlk. — ^TUiH  must  iutt'toatiiig  ; 

reiufiiiis.     It  iH  «leacril*od  in  tlic  Cwtf/^llnit^ 
vol  i,  n.  *279. 

8t  1'kti^k's  CutmoH,  Uuffus.  -Thin  churcli 
In  the  eentre  of  the  chiircJiyard  is  a  curio«> 
shaft  alwut  12  foet  high^  fixed  tn  aaockpt**.!  t 
tlie  base,  ftUtl  with  au  oniamoutiil  toju    Theril 
all  very  nmch  overgrown  with  moaa,  hut  tiosi 
only  decoration  being  ikiills  with  rroas  l*cmi»j 
T  aside  the  ehiirch  are  two  shields  on  orunniAfl 
a  monument.     They  aji|iear  to  1^  Keith  coiit 
CEOsa  cfosatetB  fitchde,  on  a  chit^f  thre«  ]iti] 
Throe  piles  eupfrailed^  in  point,  ou  &  zbiei  thf^^ 

tiURBoNHTiiWK  HouHK. — The  princiiml  fnf| 
arc  two  full  acliievement^.     That  to  the  fi^t  ' 
Lennox,  viz. :— Quarterly,  1st,  Tliree  boar  hi. 
heads  enused.    3rd,   Three  crescents  within  • 
fraisiis,  impaling^  Quarterly,  l^^t   and   4  th, 
bonlure  charged  with  eight  buckles  ;  2nd  i 
II  Ijonliire  engrailed.     8urtout,  A  mltire  (i^u^ 
Crest,  on  a  helmet  with  mantling  (and 
portersj    twti    hounds    collared.     Tlmt 
lluntly  and  Times  quartered,  viz, :— 1, 
boar  ]\i\uU  i-oiiprd.    2ud,  Three  Hon  he*n 
IV i thin  a  rtiyal  UessiurLs     ithj  Tiiree  fn 
iSurtout,  thi?  lutdge  of  a  bartrnet  of  Natj 
with  MinnlHiig  ;iTid  wrnith,  a  mhHt  i 
a  hinind  niid  u  s;tva;:f-  with  rhib,  etc* 



Pluscardin  Priory. — The  architectural  features  are  described  in  the 
Ecclesiastical  Architerturey  vol.  ii.  p.  146,  and  other  particulars  are  given  in 
TJi£  Rdigums  Hou^e  of  Pluxeardiiiy  by  tlie  Rev.  S.  R.  Macphail,  or  in 
its  abridgment  the  Guide  to  Pluscardin  Priory, 

On  our  way  to  the  church  we  jwss  tlie  Dunlwir  vestry  which  stands  in 
the  angle  l)etweeu  tlie  dioir  and  north  transept.  On  its  central  boss  is  a 
shield  bearing  anus,  viz. : — Three  cusliions  lozengeways  within  a  royal 
tressure.  I^hind  the  shield  is  a  crosier  and  on  each  side  a  draped 
figure.  There  are  also  initials.^  The  arms  are  those  of  the  last  prior, 
Alexander  Dunbar  (1533-1560),  who  built  the  vestry.  He  is  supposed 
to  have  l>een  a  descentlant  of  Mr  Patrick  Dunbar,  chancellor  of  Aberdeen 
and  Caithness,  who  was  sixth  son  to  Sir  Alexander  Dunbar  of  Westfield, 
and  died  8th  Septeml)er  1525.-  Another  stone  with  his  arms  is 
described  under  Elgin  Cathedral  burying-ground  (p.  374).  The  lintel  of 
what  was  formerly  a  doorway  into  the  choir  is  formetl  of  a  tombstone 
with  incised  cross  of  somewhat  unusual  pattern.^ 

Entering  the  church  by  the  north  door  of  the  north  transept,  we  find 
in  its  eastern  (and  only)  aisle  some  tombstones  on  the  floor.  The  most 
imix)rtant  of  these  is  that  of  Sir  William  Byniet  (fig.  56).  The  slab  is 
34  inches  wide,  and  the  part  remaining  is  44  inches  long.  In  tlie  centre 
of  the  stone  is  a  cross  with  arms  pointed,  and  a  circle  at  the  intersection 
containing  the  Oothic  letters  1  b  B-  At  the  sides  a  chalice  and  closed 
book.     The  inscription  round  the  margin  in  (Jothic  letters  is  : — 

bic  :  iacet 

bii5  •  ttilbclmuB  •  &c  •  bgrnet  •  • 

•    if  •  ano    &ni  •  m*^  cccc*^  octogcrD<>  ^ 

Another  stone,  the  upper  part  of  which  only  remains,  has  no  lettering, 

*  Figured  in  Macphairs  PltiscartHVf  ]>.  121. 

2  IbOl.f  p.  127,  and  Stodart's  Scottish  Arimff  p.  15.  ^  Ibid.^  p.  162,  fig. 

*  Ibid.,  p.  164. 

•  '  :!£TY.   APKIL  9,    19<X). 

■ ->  with  anns  crossleted,   luargiiia] 

-^.   11' 'FH  uuKlern  in  date,  and   all  i>f 










^ I.  s;i'».it  Pluscanliu  Priory. 

-.  .'        •    -I'l'-.       The   iiiseriptious   in    Kuman 



EUARY  28  1715 

The  inscription  reads  round  the  margin  and  then  down  the  centre  of 
the  stone,  beneath  are  the  initials  I  A.  I  M.,  and  immediately  under  them 
and  at  the  foot  of  the  stone  a  panel  with  emblems  of  mortality. 
The  second  stone  has  the  following  inscription : — 
SONE  .  IN  .  DWELLAR  .  IN  .  EAST  .  HILL  .  OF 

THE  .  12  .  OF  .  APRIL  .  1703 
lA  .  IM. 
The  third  stone  is  inscribed : — 

HEIR  .  LYES  .  lOHN  .  DUNCA 

N  .  LAFULL  .  SON  .TO N  AND  ISOBLE  .  GR- 

DUELL  .  .  R  .  IN  .  REDEYE  .  WHO  DEPARTED  .  THE  .  29 
GOD  1722  lOB  THE 





....  WORMS  DE  .  .  .  . 
IS  BODY  YET  IX  ...  . 
WD  I  - 
1  — 
Beneath    is  a  panel  with  emblems  of  mortality,  similar  to  that  on  the 
first  stone  ciIkjvc  mentioned. 



In  the  choirs  uear  the  ceutre,  lie  two  stones  aide  hj  side,  Oae  (74 
inches  by  27)  lias  ld  the  upper  ]K>rtion  a  ahield  (fig,  57)  with  initials  A-  0, 
at  top  and  L  R.  ^t  l^wt,  the  anna  on  which  nre : — A  lion  mm|iiuit  (not 
passant)  (for  Clgilvy),  impaling,  Tlin^e  (jiciwcts  or  tadpoles T)  {Russell?) 
The  lower  portion  has  on  it  a  skull  with  an  escroU,  alwve,  inscribed  itt 
Roman  capitals,  *'  MEMENTO  MORI. '  Round  the  niai^nn  (coTomencing 
at  the  lower  left  hand  tionier)  ifj  tl^-  iiisr-^-^tion  in  Roman  cupitals  : — 

.  .  .  .  Kt:  [.YKTU  .  ANE  .  HON'Ei^T  .  1  S'DROW  .  tKIILBY  -  Q 

(V)HA  .  DWALT  IX  TH 

E  KSTKH  .  HIL  -  OF  .  FLVSCARDEN  .  SOV  18  DEfEBTBT  OV"l'  OF  TH 
18 I 

Fig.  57-  Shield  OD  Sppukbral  Skb  at  Phiitcarilin  Priory. 
The  otlier  stone   has  rotuid  the  margin  the  following  in^riplion   in 
Roman  capittds  :— 

AN(E)  .  (HON)EST  .  MAN  .  (CA)LED  (OKOR)GB  .  OGILBIE  . 


KD  .  THE  .  »  .  DAY  OF  .  (I)VLIK  THE  YEARE  .  OF  GOD  .  1643 

EN  .     ALR  . 

.      KD  .  I  DO. 

Initials  in  centro.     'VUvw  aiv  still  Ugilvics  in  the  glen  who  claim  to 
helong  to  tho  snnn'  family. 

'   Fi^:;iiicd  in  Macpliail'is  J'li(i>C(inUn,  p.  168. 



A  roughly  dressed  blue  stone  lies  on  the  north  side  near  the  entrance 
to  the  choir.  It  has  on  it  an  incised  cross,  with  top  and  arms  bevelled, 
on  a  base  of  four  steps.     On  either  side  of  the  cross  above  the  arms  are 

Fig.  68.  Sepulchral  Slab  at  Pluacardin  Priory. 

the  Gothic  letters  g  &  and  below  two  objects  somewhat  resembling  a 
heart  and  a  knife  or  ploughshare.^ 

In  the  crossing  under  the  tower  two  stones  have  been  discovered, 

'  Macphail'a  Pluscardin^  p.  168, 



■'I'll  xrtttv  ^ftl  'T^ 


:.-±     .»oi 

JU,  rr-u.     -l 

■ '  *^ -^  !:ro!iii — 

..I  lTlTWi«     »f  -. 

i^'-t-i.       •ir. 


eontiiins  a  uuiiibt»r  of  recumbent  tombstones,  all  incised,  of  which  the 
following  are  the  most  interesting  : — 

(1)  Nciir  the  east  end  a  stone  (39  inches  in  width),  the  upper 
portion  of  whicli  is  occupied  by  a  sliield  bearing  arms  (tig.  59) : — 
Three  cushions  lozenge  ways  (Dunliar),  impaling^  A  stag  salient 
(Strachan).  Initials  A.I),  at  top  and  M.S.  at  sides.  Lower  down 
are  the  words  "MEMENTO  MORI"  with  skull  and  cross  bones. 
Inscription  round  margin  in  Roman  capitals,  viz. : — 




TVANTIE  .  FOURT  .  DA  YE  .  OF  .  APRYLE  .  THE  .  ZEIR  .  OF  .  GOD  .  l(J26.i 

(2)  Stone  (61  inches  by  30),  near  centre  of  chaiKjl,  with  incised  cross, 
the  head  and  arms  bevelled,  resting  on  three  steps.  Inscription  round 
margin,  in  Gothic  letters,  in  relief,  viz. : — 

bic  :  iacct  : 

bonotabilis  :  vtt :  alesan^et  :  &ubat 

:  &C  :  &Unir  :  Ct 

blaw  :  &c  :  plufcartc    q    o  :  a<^  :  &*  :  m<^  :  q  :  V  : 
c» :  b  :  m* :  r*  - 

(3)  A  stone  at  the  west  end  has  in  the  upper  part  a  shield  in  relief 
bearing  arms,  viz. :— Three  boar  heads  eraied  contoum^e  and  in  base  a 
chevron  couped  and  inverted  (Urquhart),  impaling,  A  stag  head  cabossed. 
Initials  at  sides  I.  V.  and  I.  B.  In  the  lower  part  are  a  skull  and  cross 
bones  with  two  hearts  at  their  intersection.  The  marginal  inscription 
is  in  Roman  capitals  : — 

HERE  .  LYES  .  lA 



*  Figured  in  Macphail's  Pluxardiv,  p.  171,  fig. 

-  IhUL,  p.  172,  fig.    See  remarks.  '  Ibid,,  p.  174. 

;^  ^ij^iitj.^-  <vu^y»» 

Fig.  59.  Sepukbnil  Slab  it  PhiRcardm  Priory* 



(4)  A  large  slab  (74  inches  by  40)  with  incised  design  and  inscription 
now  broken  and  some  parts  lost.  It  formerly  lay  at  the  door  opening 
into  the  cloisters,  but  has  recently  been  fixed  to  the  south  wall  of  the 
chapel  close  to  its  old  position.  The  centre  of  the  stone  is  occupied  by 
a  cross  on  a  base  of  five  steps  with  curved  ends,  the  head  and  arms 
also  ornamented  with  curved  lines.  Above  the  arms  of  the  cross  the 
dexter  side  is  broken  away,  but  on  the  sinister  are  the  Gothic  letters 
VXV^,  over  which  are  faint  traces  of  an  indented  line.  Beneath  the 
arms  of  the  cross,  on  the  dexter  side,  is  a  shield  (fig.  60)  bearing : — 
A  cross  between  two  crosses  pattee  in  the  first  and  fourth  cantons  and  as 
many  stars  of  six  rays  in  the  second  and  third,  all  within  a  bordure  (the 

Fig.  60.  Shield  on  Sepulchral  Slab  at  Pluscardin  Priory. 

cross  and  bordure,  which  are  of  double  lines,  may  simply  be  intended  to 
divide  and  bound  the  shield).  The  initials  i  I  are  at  the  sides  of  the 
shield  and  t  I  below  it.  On  the  sinister  side  of  the  cross  are  a  skull  (?) 
and  leg  bone.  Round  the  margin  of  the  stone  is  the  inscription  in  Gothic 
letters : — 

[Die  iacct  bo]norabiliB  vir 

5acobu0  :  l[8Cl  (?)  qui  o]biit  :  viii  :  5bU0  :  aprilis  : 

a[nno ]  :  p[ 

]ra  :  /ft"^ :  ccccc"^ :  fit :  IRobart^ :  iBCl  :  [ ] 

In  the  centre  of  the  base  of  the  cross  is  a  hole  in  which  is  an  iron  bolt 
perhaps  for  a  ring  by  which  to  lift  the  stone.  ^ 

^  Figured  in  Macphail's  Pluscardin^  p.  173.     See  remarks. 
VOL.  XXXIV.  2  D 


PEOCSXDINGS  OF  THK  eOClfi'lT^  APBIL  9,   1900. 

A  stone  in  Elgin  Cathedml  ta  William  Lyol,  died  1^04,  k  dtsscriljQAl 
above,  p.  3G5. 

South  of  tlic!  Lady  Cliapel  k  the  Chapter-Hoiise  with  central  ptlkr^ 
Next  that  is  a  |mssage  in  which  are  deposit ^  various  objects  of  interest 

Fig.  61.  Shield  in  the  Chapter-House,  Pluscardin. 

found   during   the   excavations   and   alterations   presently   in    progress. 

Among  the  carved  stones  there  is  only  one  which  is  heraldic,  viz. : ^A 

slab  with  a  shield  (8i  inches  in  width  ^||n)  bearing  arms  (fig.  61)  >^ 
On  a  chevron  three  niascles.     Beb       ^^^^■t-u    -~  j^  crosier 


crowned  (Ogilvie) ;  2iid  and  3rd,  A  cross 

fo//j  Quarterly,  1st,  Three  boar  heads  couped; 

erased ;    3rd,  Three   crescents  within  a   royal 

fraist^a  (bring  the  arms  of  the  Earl  of  Huntly). 

iieatli,  LAVB  DEO. 

liR'Ms  is  an  insifL-ription  in  Gothic  letters,  viz. : — 

\b  ^  a  [est  '  ogilup  ^ne  •  ^e  finMater  beros 
^0port5c  ■  cle^abctl)  oor^on  vtrumq^  •  eabat 
fucsi&c  ^  prrls  btstcr  •  pwrifg^  ^uobus 
baa  ificiiit  cOcs  -  iwtus  vterg^  •  plus  • 
iniGravut  c?  bac  luce  •  bic  bie  4^  mefis  fuUf 
1554  5lla  Me mefis  •  •  •  •  155    • 

On  the  opi)osite  or  south  wall  is  a  handsome  gallery  of  carved  oak, 
having  tw<»  shields  witli  arms  carved  and  coloured  on  the  front,  viz. : — 
The  dexter.  Quarterly,  1st  and  4th,  Argent,  a  lion  passant  gules 
crowned  or  (Ogilvie) ;  2nd  and  3rtl,  Argent,  a  cross  engrailed  sable 
(Sinclair).  The  sinister.  Quarterly,  1st  and  4th,  Argent,  a  heart 
gules,  on  a  chief  (depressed  and  resembling  a  fess)  azure  three  stars  of 
the  field  (Douglas) ;  2nd  and  3nl,  Argent,  on  a  chief  from  which  issues 
tliree  piles  gules,  two  stars  of  the  field  (Douglas  of  Locldeven).  The 
arms  of  an  Earl  of  Morton  ? 

On  one  of  the  pillars  is  the  date  "18.  AP.  1608,"  beneath  that  a 
shield,  and  under  that  arms  not  on  a  shield  (fig.  65)  ^ : — A  crescent 
between  tliree  stars  (for  Innes),  with    initials  I.  I. 

The  enti'ance  from  the  church  to  the  south  transept  or  St  Ann's 
Chapel  is  by  an  arch,  and  on  its  west  wall  is  another  arch  over  what  was 
formerly  the  recessed  tomb  of  John  Duff  of  Muldavit,  who  died  in  1404, 
and  whose  efiigy  was  removed  to  Duff  House,  near  Banff,  in  1792.-  There 
are  numerous  inscriptions  about  these  arches  and  in  other  parts  of  the 

^  Ecd.  Arch.,  vol.  iii.  p.  404,  fig.  -  ProceeduujSj  vol.  xxix.  p.  336. 

'*  Jbid.,  vol.  ix.  p.  278. 



Outaide  the  church  on  the  fiouth  wall  of  the  choir  are  threa  eont^ 
vbi,  :— West  shield.     Qimrterlyi   1st  and  4th,  A  lion  passant  crowtied  ; 

Fig.  66.  Shield  in  Korth  Wall  of  Cullen  Church. 

•Jiul  ami    3nl,    Thivo    Kxir    heads   coui>ed.      MotU)    "TOVT    IO\T^/' 
Initials  I.  O. 

Contn*    shioM.     Quariorly,    1st    and    4th,   A   lion    pa.ssant    crowned: 
•Jiul  and   3i\l.   A   vvoss  oui:r.uK\l,   ///?^'(l/^'^;,  Quiirterly,   1st,   Tliree   boar 


heads  couped;  2nd,  Three  lion  heads  erased;  3rd,  Three  crescents 
within  a  royal  tressure;  4th,  Three  fraises.  (The  Huntly  anns). 
Motto  "LAVS  DEO."     Initials  L.  O. 

East  shield.  Quarterly,  Ist  and  4th,  A  lion  passant;  2nd  and  3nl, 
A  cross  engrailed.     Motto  "TOVT  IO^^l."     Initials  A.  O. 

Against  the  north  wall  of  the  church  are  two  tomhstones  with  arms. 
One  is  at  the  east  comer  (fig.  66),  and  has  the  shield  parted  per  fess.  In 
chiefs  Three  boar  heads  erased  contoumee  (for  Abercrombie).  With 
initials  I.  A.  In  hase^  Three  stars  and  between  them  a  crescent  (Innes). 
With  initials  I.  I.  This  is  a  somewhat  unusual  arrangement  for 
the  arms  of  husband  and  wife,  the  correct  method  being  that  of 
impalement  Two  similar  examples  at  Burgie  Castle,  with  arms  of 
Dunbar  and  Reed,  are  described  above,  p.  404.  The  inscription  is  in 
Koman  capitals,  but  is,  unfortunately,  much  damaged,  the  commencement 
round  the  margin  of  the  stone  being  quite  indecipherable.  The  latter 
part  above  the  shield  is  as  follows  : — 

HIC  .  ETIAM  .  lACET  .  10 
VM  .  FILIVS  .  QVI  .  OBII 
T  .  2  FEBR  .  1603. 

The  other  stone  is  near  the  west  end,  and  has  in  the  centre  a  shield 
bearing  arms,  viz. : — Three  cushions  (Dunbar)  and  round  the  margin 
an  inscription  in  Roman  capitals,  which  was  not  copied. 

Deskford  Church. — The  old  chuich,  in  the  village,  is  now  roofless.^ 
It  contains  two  objects  of  interest   which   are   well  protected,  each 

being  inclosed  in  a  wooden  frame  with  padlocked  door.     Both  are  on 

the  north  walL 

The  more  important  is  the  Sacrament-house,  which  is  close  to  the  east 

end  of  the  church,  and  is  described  and  illustrated  in  the  Proceedings, 

vol.    XXV.    p.    109,   and    also    in   EccL    Arch.,   voL    iii.    p.    406.       In 

'  EccL  Arch.,  vol.  iil  p.  406. 


the  lower  compartment  are  two  shieldB  side  by  side.  The  <me 
bears: — Quarterly,  1st  and  4th,  A  lion  passant  crowned;  2nd  and  Srd, 
A  cross  engrailed.  With  initials  A.  O.  and  motto  "TOVT  lOVB." 
The  other  bears : — Quarterly,  1st  and  4th,  A  lion  passant  crowned ; 
2nd  and  3rd,  A  cross  engrailed  (same  as  above),  impalmg^  Quaxteilyy 
1st,  Tlireo  boar  heads  couped;  2nd,  Three  lion  heads  erased;  8id, 
Tliree  crescents  witliin  a  royal  tressure;  4th,  Three  fraisee.  With 
initials  E.  G.  and  motto  "LAYS  DEO."  The  same  coats  are  on  the 
monument  to  Alex.  Ogilvy  and  his  wife  Elizabeth  Gordon  in  Cullen 
cliurch,  described  alxjve,  p.  421. 

The  oUier  monument  (fig.  67)  has  for  its  principal  part  an  oval  pointed 
at  top,  with  a  shield  (9  inches  at  top)  in  the  centre  bearing  arma,  via. : — 
A  lion  passant  between  a  star  in  chief  and  a  (dagger  1)  in  baae.     Initials 

y  0  at  top  and  sides  and  a  rose  above  the  M.  The  inscription,  which 
is  in  Roman  capitals,  is  arranged  in  (me  and  a  half  concentric  lines,  vijs. : — 


and  is  continued  in  an  oblong  panel  beneath 

QVI  .  FATIS  .  CES 
SIT  .  XV  .  KAL  .  FEB 
ANO  .  DV  .  1658. 

Close  to  tlic  north-ciist  augle  of  tlie  church  is  a  fragment  of  the  old 

Ciistlo  of  Deskford. 

IUnff. — At  the  comer  of  tlie  main  upper  street  or  High  Street  and  a 
steep  narrow  lane  called  Straight  Path  is  an  old  house,  said  to  be  the  town- 
house  of  Ogilvy,  Lord  Banff,  but  described  as  the  town-house  of  the 
Bairds  of  Auchmeddeii  by  ^lessrs  Macgihbon  and  Roas.^ 

( )ver  the  entrance  to  the  courtyard  in  Straight  Path  is  an  oblong  panel 
wit) I  moulded  sides  and  base  bearing  arms : — A  lion  passant  between  two 
crescents  in  chief  and  a  rose  in  base.     Above  the  shield  a  helmet  with 
^  CfisUUated  aTid  Domestic  Arch,  of  Scot,,  voL  ▼.  pt  88. 





Fig.  67*  Otia  SUbut  Deakford. 

426  PROCBKDrKGS  OF  TirE  SOCIETY,   APBIL  fl,   10<XX 

mantling  and  wreatli,  thereon  a  lian<l  holding  a  palm  bmiich,  Alwv<* 
that  an  escmll  with  the  niutto  "SEC  .  DAT  .  VERRA  ,  F[T>Ea" 
Beneath  the  shield  the  initials  T»  0.  and  E.  0.  Above  the  oblong  iwiiiel 
is  a  triangular  one,  with  moahled  sides  and  onmment  at  top  and  sides^ 
inclosing  a  toonograni  of  the  letters  T.  E,  (J.  between  a  star  at  the  top 
and  two  fleur4ie-lya  at  the  aides. 

There  are  three  dormer  windows  to  the  High  Street^  all  with  more  r»r 
less  triangular-shii|>ed  oniamuntal  pedlmentB  over  thenuieeoratedasfoUowsr 
— (1)  A  rose  ui  eight  petak,  beneath  the  initiidw  T*  (.>,,  and  under  that 

"THOMAS  OGILVy,"  with  the  date  jTsj-M  at  the  sides  ;  (2)  Mono- 
gram of  the  letters  T,  E,  O. ;  (3)  A  ahitdd  hearing:— A  lion  pas^jit 
with  a  creeeent  in  ehief.^ 

The  house  forms  the  west  side  of  the  courtyuiHl,  In  u  recently 
erected  building  on  ita  nortli  ^de  are  inserted  three  other  sculp- 
tured stones  with  the  foUoi\4ng  *Ie vices,  ™. :— {!)  Monogrmm  of 
the  letters  T,  E.  0.;  (2)  A  slneld  Ijearin^  a  lion  passant  with  n 
crescent  in  chief ;  (3)  A  shield  1  muring  the  cre^t,  a  dexU^r  hand  erect 
holding  a  jialni  branch  with  the  motto  on  an  escroll  *'  SEOUKDA  BAT 
VER  FIDKt?," 

In  a  biitMiiiL-^  ^m  the  east  side  of  the  court  opposite  the  honsu>  i^ 
inserted  a  triangular  stone  with  moulded  sides  and  scroll  ornament 
inclosing  a  rose  of  twelve  petals,  beneath  the  initials  E.  O.,  and  under 
that  ELIZA  .  OGILVY. 

In  the  lower  town  on  a  gable  next  the  County  Police  Buildings  in 
Low  Street  are  inserted  tliree  i)ieces  of  sculpture,  viz. : — The  Virgin 
witli  Child  on  right  arm  surrounded  by  an  aureole  of  tongues  of  flame — 
the  arms  of  the  burgh.  Above  the  foregoing  is  a  very  rude  figure  of 
the  Virgin  with  a  very  small  child  on  her  left  arm,  the  date  beneath 

being  |l628|.  The  other  is  a  full  achievement  of  the  Royal  arms  ^vith  date 

The  churchyard  is  in  tlie  low  town.     Near  the  centre  is  a  vaulted  aisle 

^  Castellated  and  Ihrncstic  Arch,  of  Scot.  ^  vol.  v.  p.  84, 


containing  a  recessed  tomb.  Within  the  recess,  on  a  semi-circular  slah, 
is  an  inscription  in  capitals,  viz. : — 

ANO  .  DNI  .  1558  .  NOVE 



MILES  .  PR^POSIT^  .  HV19  .  VRBIS  . 

ET  .  HIC  .  lACET  .  CV  .  ALISONA  .  HVME  . 

EI'  .  SPOSA  .  OBIIT  .  25  .  IVLII  .  ANO  .  1557  . 

At  the  top  are  two  small  shields.  The  first  bears : — A  lion  passant 
(Ogilvy),  with  the  initials  V.  0.  The  other  bears : — Three  birds  (for 
Pepdie,  part  of  the  Hume  arms),  with  the  initials  A.  H.  At  either  side 
of  the  recess  above  the  pillars  are  two  coats.  The  dexter  bears,  A  lion 
passant,  with  a  helmet  over  the  shield.  The  sinister  bears  : — Quarterly, 
1st  and  4th,  A  lion  rampant  (Hume) ;  2nd  and  3rd,  Three  birds  passant 
(Pepdie).     At  the  fess  point  something  like  a  star. 

The  above  inscription  is  quoted  in  Douglas'  Peerage^  vol.  I.  p.  191, 
and  also  that  on  the  lower  portion  of  the  tomb  is  given  as  follows : — 


The  said  Alison  Hume  is  stated  to  have  been  daughter  and  co-heir  of 
Sir  Patrick  Hume  of  Fastcastle. 

Other  tombs  that  may  be  mentioned  are  : — A  recessed  tomb  containing  a 
recumbent  effigy  said  to  be  of  one  of  the  Bairds  of  Auchmedden.     A  table 

tombstone  to  "  John  Junes  of  Knocko volte,  who  died  —  day  of ,  and 

Margaret  Gordon,  his  wife,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Gordon  of  Park." 
It  has  two  shields  bearing  arms,  viz. : — Dexter^  Three  stars  within 
a  bordure  chequy  (Innes  of  Knocko  volte).  Sinister^  A  mailed  arm 
embowed  issuing  from  the  sinister,  holding  a  sword  erect  between  three 
boar  heads  couped  (Gordon  of  Park). 

On  the  outside  of  the  wall  surrounding  the  churchyard  are  three 
armorial  stones,  viz. : — 



On  the  cast  side  next  the  river  Deveron  a  shield  bearing  armfl,  vix. : — 
A  fess  between  two  cross  croeslets  fitchk-s  in  chief  and  a  star  in  \ma/e. 
Above  the  s^liicld  a  pheon  point  upwards.  Above  that  the  motto  '*  FERIO 
SED  SAKa'^  Beneath  the  shield  the  name  **  ROBERT  SHARP,"  said 
to  be  the  father  of  the  Archbishop  of  St  Andrews. 

Above  the  gateway  at  the  south-west  mrner  yf  the  buryiug-ground  n 
shield  suinx)Tted  by  two  strap**  bearing  Jirms  : — A  chevron  between 
three  boai-  heads  erased.     At  the  sii"  ar  tht"*  fwit  of  tlie  shield   the 

initials  I.  A.  and  l>oneath  tliat  the  na:  AKKT  AnKHCR03rBYK-*^ 

A  few  feet  to   the   east   of   thia  i       rge  tiibkt  (42  inches  by  24) 
is  inserted  in  the  wall     It  has   in   th^ 
arms : — A  fess  charged  with  a  heart,  in 
ermine,  with  initials  at  top  and  sides 
capitals  is  : — 

ower  part  a  shi*d«i  bearittg 
uf  three  Htars  and  the  hme 
A*  D,     Tlie  inscription   iii 


BOYGLAS  .  JiA        M 





And  beneath  tho  sMeld- 

CIO  .  DC  .  L 

1  .  6 

.  YIII 

5  ,  8 

I      I 

On  a  wall  nearly  opposite  the  above  tablet^  on  the  other  side  of  thi* 
open  spaci ,  is  an  achievement  hearing  impaled  arms  on  a  shield : — 
A  buckle  lutween  tlime  Tniar  h^^dsernijed  (Gordon),  impaluifj^  A  chevron 
between  three  crescents  (Sanders  ?).  With  initials  beneath  shield  I.  G. 
and  I.  S.  Crest,  on  a  helmet  with  manthng  and  wreath,  a  three- 
masted  ship  with  sails  set.  Motto  ^' YIRTUTE  NIL  ^VRDUUM." 
Date,   "1675." 



V  Tf*.*  •'*—.« 


^t^^fi^.   -*^^>«w^^«<.V^<ii^^.^ 


,AMNO  "-.^ 

:Ji»  ^«^5'8' 

Fig.  68.  On  a  Slab  at  Banff. 

430  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900 

Monday,  UtJi  May  1900. 
Sir  AKTHUR  MITCHELL,  K.C.B,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  in   the  Chair. 

A  Ballot  having   been   taken,  the   following   Gentlemen   were   duly 
elected  Fellows : — 

James  W.  Drummond,  Weaterlands,  Stirling. 

Sir  Kenneth  J,  Mackenzie,  Bart.,  Queen's  and  Lord  Treasurer's 

Rev.  Robert  Scott,  M.A.,  Minister  of  Craig,  Montroee. 
Rev.  James  Primrose,  M.A.,  27  Onslow  Drive,  Qlasgow. 

The  following  Donations  to  the  Museum  and  Library  were  laid  on  the 
table,  and  thanks  voted  to  the  Donors : — 

(1)  By  Dr  K.  de  Brus  Trotter,  Perth. 

A  pair  of  Draught-Ox  Shoes,  from  Killin,  Perthshire. 

(2)  By  Rev.  W.  E.  Scott-Hall,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

The  Oxfor<l  Portfoho  of  Monumental  Bnisses.     Part  ii.      Folio. 
Oxford  Journal  of  Monumental  Brasses.     Vol.  ii.  No.  1.     8vo. 

(3)  By  W.  Bruce  Bannerman,  F.S.A.  Scot. 

The  Visitations  of  Surrey,  1530,  1572,  and  1623  (Harleian  Society). 

(4)  By  tlic  Master  of  the  Rolls. 

Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Colonial  Series,  1685-88. 
Calendar  of  State  Papers,  relating  to  Ireland,  1599-1600. 
Year  Books,  PMward  III.     Vol.  xvi.  Part  ii. 


(5)  By  the  Kebpbr  op  the  Records  op  Scotland. 

Calendar  of  State  Papers  relating  to  Scotland  and  Mary  Queen  of  Scots. 
Edited  by  Joseph  Bain.     Vol.  ii.     1563-69. 

(6)  By  Lieut.-Col.  William  Johnston,  M.A.,  M.D.,  F.S.A.  Scot., 

the  Author. 

Some  Account  of  the  last  Bajans  of  King's  and  Marischal  Colleges, 

(7)  By  Dr  William  Cramoxd,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  Author. 

Old  Memories — a  Walk  in  the  Churchyard  of  CuUen,  1899;  Rothic- 
may  House,  1 900  ;  The  Truth  about  ( reorgc  Wishart. 

(8)  By  James  M.  M*Bain,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  the  Author. 

Eminent  A]>erbroathians — being  Sketches  Historical,  Genealogical,  and 
Biographical,  1178-1894.     4to;  1897. 

(9)  By  Rev.  James  Primrose,  ^f.A.,  the  Author. 

Strathbrock ;    or,   The    History   and   Antiquities   of    the   Parish   of 
UphalL     4to;  1898. 

(10)  By  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum. 

The  Book  of  the  Dead,  folio,  1899  ;  Description  of  Anglo-Gallic  Coins, 
4to,  1826;   Catalogue  of  books  printed  in  Iceland,  4to,  1885;    Term 
Cotta  Sarcophagi,  folio,  1898 ;  Designs  from  Greek  Vases,  folio,  1894 
White  Athenian  Vases,  folio,  1896;  Ancient  Greek  Inscriptions,  folio. 
Parts  ii.  and  iii.,  1883  and  1890;  Antiquities  from  Benin,  folio,  1899 
Catalogueof  Greek  and  Etruscan  Vases,  Vols,  ii.,  iii.,  and  iv.,  4to,  1893-96 
Catalogue   of   Bronzes,    4to,    1899  ;    Catalogue   of    Sculpture,   Vol.    i. 
8vo,  1892 ;  Handbook  of  Coins  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  8vo,  1899 
Catalogue  of  Greek  Coins,  5  vols.  8vo,  1892-99  ;  Catalogue  of   Seals, 
Vols,  ii.,  iii.,  iv.,  and  v.,  imp.  Bvo,  1892-98. 

432  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

The  following  Articles  acquired  by  the  Purchase  Committee  for  the 
Museum  and  Library,  during  the  Session  25th  November  1899  to  14th 
May  1900,  were  Exhibited  :— 

Fabricator  of  brown  flint,  3 1  inches  in  length  by  yf  of  an  inch  in 
breadth  by  ^  inch  in  thickness,  found  at  Cranloch,  Lhanbryd,  Moray- 

Urn  of  clay,  9\  inches  in  heiglit  and  9|  inches  in  diameter  at  the 
mouth,  tapering  to  4^  inches  in  diameter  at  the  base,  the  lip  slightly 
bevelled  to  the  inside,  and  the  exterior  plain,  found  in  excavating  a 
moimd  at  QuarfF,  Shetland. 

Portion  of  a  Vessel  of  steatite,  1 3 J  inches  in  diameter  at  the  mouth 
and  4  J  inches  in  height,  tapering  slightly  to  a  rounded  base  of  11  inches 
in  diameter,  and  having  a  lip  1 1  inches  in  thickness,  part  of  one  side 
broken  away,  found  in  excavating  a  mound  at  Quarflf,  Shetland. 

Four  portions  of  a  Vessel  of  steatite,  apparently  about  17  inches  by 
14  inches  when  com])Iete,  with  a  groove  round  the  edge,  and  a  portion  of 
a  smaller  vijssel,  also  of  steatite — all  found  in  excavating  the  same 
mound,  at  Quarff,  Shetland,  as  described  in  tlie  previous  paper  by  Rev. 
David  Johnston,  minister  of  (JuarlF. 

Seven  polished  Stone  Axes,  viz.  : — (1)  Of  indurated  clay-slate,  lOi 
inches  in  length  by  3  J-  iiiclies  in  breadth  and  11  inches  in  thickness, 
from  Cruden,  Aberdeensliire  ;  (2)  of  gnionstone,  with  a  roughish  surface, 
10^  inches  in  length  by  3  J  inches  in  breadth  and  1|  inches  in  thickness, 
with  pointiMl  l)utt,  from  Aberdeenshire  ;  (3)  of  greenstone,  with  a 
roughened  surface,  8 J  inches  in  length  by  3  inches  in  breadth  and  IJ 
inches  in  tliic.kness,  from  Inverkeithny,  Banflshire  ;  (4)  of  greenstone, 
rough  surface,  with  a  (lej)ression  in  the  centre  on  each  of  the  broad  faces, 
and  pointed  butt,  8^  inolies  in  length  l)y  2  J  inches  in  breadth  by  IJ 
inches  in  thickness,  found  at  Benachie,  A]>erdeenshire ;  (5)  of  indurated 
c!ay-slate,  smooth  surface,  and  pointed  butt,  4^  inches  in  length  by  2|- 
inches  in  breadth  and  1^  inches  in  thickness,  from  Aberdeenshire ; 
(G)  of  indurated  slate,  with  a  polished  surface,  4|  inches  in  length  by 


2  inches  in  breadth  and  |  inch  in  thickness,  from  Aberdeenshire ; 
(7)  of  grey  flint  broken,  and  butt  wanting,  3 J  inches  in  length,  locality 
unknown,  and  possibly  Danish. 

Three  Stone  Balls,  with  projecting  knobs  or  (liscs  round  the  circum- 
ference, from  Aberdeenshire,  viz. : — (1)  Of  greenstone,  3^  inches  in 
diameter,  with  six  projecting  knobs ;  (2)  of  greenstone,  2J  inches 
in  diameter,  with  six  j)rojecting  discs  ;  (3)  of  greenstone,  2|  inches 
in  diameter,  the  surface  divided  into  four  circular  discs,  with  four 
triangular  spaces  between. 

Three  Arrow-heads  of  light  brown  flint,  barbed  and  tanged,  from 
Gordonstown,  Banfl*8hire. 

Twenty-four  Arrow-heads  of  flint  from  Banftshire,  viz.  : — One  long 
and  narrow  and  hollow-based,  eight  barbed  and  tanged,  and  fifteen 

Twenty-two  Arrow-heads  of  flint,  from  Aberdeensliire,  viz. : — One 
small  and  hollow-based,  seven  barbed  and  tanged,  and  fourteen  leaf- 

Two  small  Cores,  three  Flakes,  from  Aberdeenshire,  and  one  Scraper 
from  Bisset  ^[oss,  Forgue,  Huntly. 

Thirteen  Beads  of  glass  or  vitreous  paste,  jet,  etc.,  from  Aberdeenshire, 
viz. : — (1)  Dark  blue,  1  inch  in  diameter,  with  rings  of  white,  each 
having  an  amber-coloured  centre ;  (2)  flattened  bead,  black,  with  bright 
yellow  streak  ;  (3)  triangularly  compressed,  blue,  with  a  yellow  spiral  on 
each  of  the  three  sides ;  (4)  flattened  bead,  greyish,  with  narrow  perfora- 
tion ;  (5)  small  octagonal  bead,  blue ;  (6)  of  jet,  double-cone  shape,  1 
inch  in  length;  (7)  cylindrical,  black,  with  white  and  l)rown  wavy 
streaks  ;  (8-13)  smaller  glass  l>eads,  various. 

Whorl  of  fine-grained  sandstone,  li  inches  diameter,  deeply  lined 
round  the  middle  of  the  periphery. 

Nine  sniiill  clay  Tobacco  Pi[)es,  found  at  Cloister-Seat,  Udny,  Aber- 
deenshire, and  Orchardtown,  Bantfshire. 

Oblong  round-backed  C(mib  of  horn,  8  inches  long  by  2  inches  wide 
in  the  middle,  inscribed  "John  Chalmers,  Logiemar,  1793." 

VOL.  xxxiv.  2  E 

434  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

Long-handled  or  Weaving  Comb  of  deer-hom,  4J  inches  in  length, 
with  a  saltire-shaped  marking  scored  in  the  butt  end  of  the  handle,  found 
in  Shetland. 

Stone  Axe  of  greenstone,  7  J  inches  in  length  by  3  inches  in  breadth 
and  1|  inches  in  thickness,  made  from  a  naturally  shaped  boulder,  from 
Kirkton  of  Aberlemno,  Forfarshire. 

Stone  Axe  of  mica-schist,  6  J  inches  in  length  by  3  inches  in  breadth 
and  1 1  inches  in  thickness,  found  at  Balglossie,  Aberlemno,  Forfarsliire. 

Thirteen  polished  Stone  Axes  from  Peeblesshire,  viz.  : — (1)  Of  serpen- 
tine, 6  inches  in  length  by  2|  inches  in  breadth  and  If  inches  in 
thickness,  from  Stobo;  (2)  of  greenstone,  5  J  inches  in  length  by  3  inches 
in  breadth,  from  Spitalhaugh ;  (3)  of  indurated  claystone,  5  J  inches  in 
length  by  2  inches  in  breadth  and  I^  inches  in  thickness,  from  Garvald, 
Dolphinton  ;  (4)  of  indurated  claystone,  5  J  inches  in  length  by  2  J  inches 
in  breadth  and  IJ  inches  in  thickness,  from  Harlaw  Moor;  (5)  of  serpen- 
tine, 5  inches  in  length  by  2|  inches  in  breadth  and  IJ  inches  in 
thickness,  from  Scarlaw,  near  Biggar;  (6)  of  serpentine,  4 J  inches  in 
length  l)y  2J  inches  in  breadth  and  1  inch  in  thickness,  from  West 
Linton  ;  (7)  of  felstone,  4  inches  in  length  ])y  2  J  inches  in  breadth  and 
I  inch  in  thickness,  from  Hare  Stanes,  Castlecraig;  (8)  of  felstone, 
35  inches  in  length  by  IJ  inclies  in  breadth  and  J  inch  in  thickness, 
from  Hare  Stanes,  Castlecraig;  (9)  of  felstone  (broken),  5i  inches 
in  lengtli,  from  Dolphinton  ;  (10)  of  indurated  claystone  (broken),  4 
inclies  in  length,  from  Wester  Pentland ;  (11)  of  indurated  chiystone 
(broken),  4 J  inches  in  length,  from  Drochil ;  (12)  of  felstone  (Imiken),  3i 
inches  in  length,  from  Xoblehouse  ;  (13)  of  indurated  claystone  (]>roken), 
3i  inches  in  lengtli,  from  X()])lehouse. 

Nine  iM)lislied  Stone  Axes,  from  Lanarkshire,  >nz. : — (1)  r)f  indurated 
claystone,  8|  inches  in  length  by  2 J  inches  in  breadth  and  li  inches  in 
thickness,  from  Caniwath ;  (2)  of  felstone,  8}  inches  in  length  by  2i 
inches  in  lavadth  and  IJ  inches  in  thickness,  from  Carnwath  ;  (3)  of 
greenstone;,  nearly  cylindrical  in  the  cross  section,  7f  inches  in  length  by 
2i  inches  in  l)rea(lth  and  2  inches  in  thickness,  from  an  earthwork  near 


Libberton ;  (4)  of  felstone,  5 J  inches  in  length  by  2J  inches  in  breadth 
and  1 J  inches  in  thickness,  from  Carnwath  ;  (5)  of  felstone,  GJ  inches 
in  length  by  2|  inches  in  breadth  and  1|  inches  in  thickness,  from  Mill- 
rig  ;  (6)  of  claystono,  5|  inches  in  length  by  2 J  inches  in  breadth,  from 
Crawfordjohn  ;  (7)  of  serpentine,  3|  inches  in  length  by  2 J  inches  in 
breadth  and  J  inch  in  thickness,  from  Bissbery ;  (8)  of  serpentine,  2 J 
inches  in  length  by  IJ  inches  in  breadth  and  |  inch  in  thickness,  from 
Braid  wood  ;  (9)  of  serpentine,  3  inches  in  length  by  li  inches  in  breadth 
and  f  inch  in  thickness,  from  Coulter. 

Adze-like  Implement  of  felstone,  flat  on  the  under  side,  convex  both 
ways  on  the  upper,  narrowing  in  the  middle  of  its  length,  and  having 
both  ends  slightly  expanding  to  a  rounded  edge,  from  Easter  Cairnhill, 
Peeblesshire.  Similar  imi)lements  are  already  in  the  Museum  :  of  flint, 
from  Ferny  Brae,  Slains;  and  of  greenstone,  from  Little  Barras, 

Bronze  Sword,  (imperfect),  18 J  inches  in  length,  wanting  the  point 
and  three-fourths  of  the  handle  plate,  found  at  Auchencorth. 

Flat  Axe  of  bronze,  5  J  inches  in  length  by  2 J  inches  in  greatest 
width,  with  incipient  flanges,  and  the  flat  faces  ornamented  with  a 
chevTony  decoration,  much  worn,  from  Harlaw  Moor. 

Bead  of  pale  green  glass,  J  inch  in  diameter  and  J  inch  in  thickness, 
ornamented  with  intersecting  lines  of  red  and  white,  from  Lesmahagow. 

Three  Beads  of  jet,  J  inch  in  diameter  and  J  inch  in  depth,  from 

Eight  Stone  Whorls,  all  flat  and  undecorated,  and  varying  from  |  inch 
to  1 J  inches  in  diameter,  all  from  Peeblesshire. 

Smoothing  Stone  of  black  Iwisalt,  5 J  inches  in  length  by  2^  inches  in 
breadth  and  1^  inches  in  tliickness,  from  Broughton,  Peeblesshire. 

Three  Stone  Moulds,  f<>r  buttons,  circular  discs,  and  bullets,  from 
West  Linton  and  SUnv. 

Four  Stone  Balls,  from  2 J  inches  to  1^  inches  diameter,  all  plain,  from 

Stone  Hammer,  of  reddish  quartzite,  3  inches  in  length  by  2^  inches 

436  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,   MAY  14,  1900. 

in  breadth,  having  the  perforation  begun  on  both  sides,  but  not  carried 
through,  from  Whitfield,  West  Linton. 

Oval  Disc  of  greenstone,  3  inches  in  length  by  2  inches  in  breadth 
and  I  inch  in  thickness,  perforated  from  both  sides,  from  Castle  Law, 

Rudely  circular,  water-worn  Pebble  of  greenstone,  3J  inches  in  lengtli 
by  3  inches  in  breadth  and  1§  inches  in  thickness,  having  a  sluillow, 
circular,  concave  depression  in  the  centre  of  each  of  its  flat  faces,  from 
Noblehouse,  Peeblesshire. 

Large  Whorl  of  red  sandstone,  2|  inches  in  diameter  and  1;^  inches  in 
thickness,  from  Blyth  Bridge,  Peeblesshire. 

Two  oblong  water-rolled  Boulders  of  greenstone,  11  inches  in  length, 
and  one  5^  inches  in  lengtli,  with  grooves  round  the  middle,  from 
SherilT  Muir,  Stobo,  Peeblesshire. 

Seventeen  Arrow-heads  of  flint,  from  various  localities  unspecified  in 
Peeblesshire  and  Lanarkshire. 

Fifteen  Flint  Implements,  mostly  Knives  and  Flakes^  from  Peeblesshire. 

Six  Saws  of  flint,  mostly  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  West  Linton. 

Twenty  Scra]>ers  of  flint  and  a  quantity  of  flakes,  trimmed  and 
iintriinined,  fnun  the  neighKiurhootl  of  West  Linton. 

SktMiOHlhu,  the  Made  3 J  inches  in  length  and  notched  on  the  back,  the 
haiulle  3  inches  in  length  and  (Ornamented  with  studs  and  a  small  shield 
of  brass,  ftnnul  on  ilie  wall-liead  of  an  old  house  at  Roslin. 

The  followiiii;  IxH^ks  for  tlie  Library: — 

l>er  Honiisehe  Limes  in  Ostereich,  Heft  1;  Small's  Scottish  Market 
Crosses:  Thipsou's  Choir-stalls  and  their  Carvings;  Cormac's  Glossary ; 
Koi-sviirs  Beauties  of  Scotland,  5  vols.  :  Handbuch  der  Waffenkunde 
Von  Wendelin  Rrhmen  :  Catah»^e  of  the  Sculptured  and  Inscribed 
Stones  in  tlie  Cathedral  Library,  Durham  ;  Wagner's  Tranalatioii  of 
the  Islendinua^ok  :  c1ephan*s  I>efensive  Armour  and  Wespon%  and 
Lupines  of  War  of  Moilit'eval  Timea^  and  the  Benaiiwance. 

Til''  f.'lL'wiiiu'  Comr 

t>lLE  STRtJCTtJRE  ON   Tllfc  NORTft   BANK   OF  THE   RIVER  CLYDE.     43? 

DUMBARTON  ROCK.     By  JOHN  BRUCE,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Helensbukcil 

Position  and  Const iiMction, — The  structure,  which  from  its  proximity 
to  the  Hill  of  Dumbuck  lias  been  called  tlie  Dumbuck  Pile  Structiu-e,  is 
situated  about  1  mile  east  from  Dumbarton  Rock,  and  4  feet  above 
low- water  mark  and  5  feet  below  high- water  mark.  At  high  water  or 
during  spring  tides  there  is  a  depth  of  water  on  the  structure  of  5  to  8 
feet  from  present  level,  and  12  to  18  inches  additional  down  to  the 
wooden  floor,  the  difference  l)eing  made  up  of  a  deposit  of  sand  and  mud. 
This  part  of  the  river  bjink  from  1  )umbarton  eastwards  to  Dunglass  is  of 
gravel  and  sand  and  a  thin  toj)  layer  of  mud  deposited  within  the  last 
thirty  to  forty  years  consequent  on  the  polluted  state  of  the  river. 

When  first  discovered  a  few  of  the  toi)s  of  the  ring  of  oak  pile  stumps 
were  just  visible  protruding  from  the  sand  and  abraded  to  a  point  by  the 
action  of  water  and  age.  There  are  twenty-seven  of  them,  embracing  a 
diameter  of  about  50  feet,  and  spaced  from  6  to  9  feet  apart.  No  gaps 
occur,  all  the  original  piles  appearing  to  be  in  position.  They  are  not 
placed  in  a  peri>endicular  position,  but  have  a  bias  or  lean,  which  is  very 
perceptible  towards  tlie  inside.  Within  this  circle,  and  at  a  depth  of 
from  12  to  18  inches,  is  a  kind  of  flooring  of  horizontal  timbers  in  three 
layers  crossing  each  other  at  right  angles.  Some  of  the  timbers  of  the 
top  layer  are  curved  in  keeping  with  the  circumference.  The  ends  of 
those  which  protrude  all  round  the  structure  at  tlie  outer  edge  show 
signs  of  fire.  At  all  the  piles  a  larger  tree  than  those  fonning  the  floor- 
ing proper  has  been  used,  either  with  the  natural  knee  or  fork,  or  a 
similar  recess  mortised  to  fit  the  pile ;  and  to  make  the  locking  more  secure, 
stone  wedges  or  jams  have  been  used.  The  floor  is  entirely  of  fir,  alder, 
and  birch,  which  is  so  permeated  with  water  that  the  spade  cuts  through 
it  all  with  the  greatest  ease.     Underneath  this  timber  flooring  is  a  bed 

438  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

of  blue  clay  which  extends  all  over  the  shore.  In  the  centre  there  is  a 
circular  stone-walled  cavity  of  about  6  feet  diameter,  inside  of  which 
were  found  remains  of  what  seemed  like  wattle  or  basket  work  of  hazel 
twigs  and  rods.  From  the  stones  lymg  in  and  about  the  cavity  it  would 
appear  as  if  the  wall  round  it  had  been  originally  of  some  height.  Round 
the  outside  of  this  centre  cavity  were  live  circular  paved  spaces,  the 
paving  raised  slightly  above  the  top  tier  of  the  wood  floor,  and  all  were 
outlined  by  a  row  of  soft  wood  piles  about  2  feet  apart.  The  flooring 
stones  had  evidently  been  packed  in  with  a  mixture  of  gravel  and  clay. 

Midway  l>etween  the  centre  and  the  outside  piles  of  the  structure  what 
looked  at  first  to  be  tree  roots  or  snags  were  noticed  partly  imbedded  in 
the  sand.  On  being  washed  of  the  adhering  soil,  holes  of  12  inches 
wide  by  25  inches  deep  were  foimd  cut  in  them  at  an  angle,  to  all  appear- 
ance for  the  insertion  of  struts  for  the  support  of  an  upper  structure. 
On  the  outside,  14  inches  down  on  either  side,  holes  of  2  inches  dia- 
meter were  found  intersecting  the  central  hole,  apparently  for  the 
insertion  of  a  wooden  key  or  treenail  to  retain  the  strut.  These  were 
found  at  intervals,  and  were  held  in  position  by  stones  and  smaller 
jammers.  One  of  the  piles  is  now  here,  having  been  drawn  out  in  ortler 
to  exhibit  the  way  in  which  they  have  been  dressed  for  driving.  We 
have  verified  the  fact  that  these  piles  have  been  driven  home,  the 
striation  being  visible,  caused  by  the  obstruction  of  pebbles,  etc.  From 
the  centre  of  the  structure  due  west  a  belt  of  stones,  forming  a  pavement 
about  6  feet  wide  and  just  a-wash  with  the  mud,  extends  for  about  20 
yards  until  it  intersects  a  breakwater,  which  extended  right  round  the 
structure  at  a  distance  of  about  12  to  14  feet  from  the  piles.  This 
breakwater  must  have  been  of  some  height  originally,  iis  a  modern  ditch 
(there  seem  to  be  different  ditches,  but  they  are  not  clearly  distinguished 
from  each  other)  or  gullet  running  towards  the  shore,  a  short  distance  to 
the  west  of  the  structure,  has  ])een  entirely  lined  with  stones  taken  from 
it.  This  wall  round  the  structure,  with  an  outer  breakwater  of  wix>d, 
would  go  to  form  an  important  defence.  The  bulk  of  the  finds  were 
made  in  the   refuse   that   had   accumulated  in  the   space  between  the 


piles  and  this  outside  structure.  Beyond  the  breakwater  there  exists 
a  rough  but  systematically  laid  pavement  with  a  bottoming  of  stone 
about  20  to  25  feet  wide  extending  round  the  structure  except  in 
proximity  to  the  dock  and  d<>ck  causeway. 

Dist'overy  of  a  Canoe, — A  few  days  after  the  excavations  were  com- 
menced, an  oak  canoe  was  discov(»rod  lying  some  20  yaixls  to  the  north- 
east, with  the  ])row  towards  the  river.  It  was  at  once  cleared  out  inside 
by  myself,  and  in  the  bottom  were  found  a  spear-shaped  slate  object, 
similar  to  others  found  about  the  structure,  an  ornamented  oyster  shell, 
which  has  since  mouldered  away,  a  stone  pendant  ornament,  and  an  imple- 
ment of  bone.  The  ciuioe  measured,  when  discovered,  35  feet  7  inches 
long,  but  between  the  time  of  discovery  and  removal  to  the  Kelvingrove 
Museum,  Glasgow,  a  portion  of  the  prow,  which  tapered  to  a  point,  and 
which  showed  two  oval  hand  holes,  was  taken  away  by  some  visitors. 
On  removal  the  oanoe  mciisured  33  feet  long,  4  feet  beam  at  the  stern, 
which  appeared  to  have  l»(?en  square,  and  alK)ut  2  feet  deep.  The  hull 
was  3  inches  thick.  When  in  use  it  had  l)een  repaired,  as  the 
bottom  had  a  rent  and  was  held  together  l»y  several  well  fitted,  soft  wood 
clamps.  There  were  several  plugge<l  holes,  and  marks  where  the  seats 
were  fitted.  It  is  the  largest  canoe  hitherto  recorded  as  found  on  the 
Clyde.  On  being  removed  it  was  at  once  seen  that  it  had  lain  within  a 
dock-like  structure.  The  impression  at  first  \\i\»  that  some  driftwood 
had  got  silted  up  against  the  canoe,  but  on  examination  we  found  piles 
driven  in  at  stated  intervals  supporting  the  walls,  which  were  pjirtly 
formed  of  wood  and  stone.  No  stones  were  visible  when  the  canoe  was 
first  observe<l,  but  we  found  them  on  further  investigation.  A  causeway 
of  timl)er  and  stone  connected  the  dock  with  the  pile  structure. 

Mortised  Lotj, — When  excavating  outside  the  piles  immediately  to  the 
west  and  north  of  the  smaller  causeway  which  intersects  the  refuse  Ixid 
and  breakwater,  a  squared  and  mortised  log  was  found.  It  is  of  oak,  and 
measures  15  feet  4  inches  in  length,  18  inches  in  breadth,  and  4  inches 
thick.  There  are  six  mortised  holes  bevelled  to  the  extent  of  3  inches. 
The  first  hole  is  18  inches  from  the  end.     It  was  under  this  ])iece  of 

440  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

timber  that  the  large,  spear-shaped  object  of  slate  was  found,  and  later 
on  one  of  the  smaller  ones. 

Animal  Remains, — The  remains  of  animals  found,  so  far  as  they  have 
been  identified,  are  bones  of  the  ox,  horse,  sheep  or  goat,  swine,  horns  of 
the  red  deer  and  roe  deer,  and  bones  of  a  few  large  birds.  The  bonei* 
are  mostly  the  long  bones  of  the  limbs,  and  are  broken  and  splintered 
longitudinally,  and  many  of  them  made  into  implements  more  or  less 
sharpened  at  the  points.  One  large  pair  of  antlers  of  the  red  deer  with 
part  of  the  skull  attached  was  found.  One  branch  is  complete  and  shows 
six  tines,  the  other  is  partly  broken.  From  tip  to  tip  it  must,  when  entire, 
have  measured  48  inches. 

Implements  ami  Objects  with  artificial  work  Or  ornamentation. — The 
worked  objects  found  in  the  course  of  the  excavations  were  chiefly  of 
bono  and  stone.  They  may  be  conveniently  classed  for  description  in 
two  categories : — 

(1)  Objects  of  types  which  are  familiarly  known  to  archaeological 
science  from  their  frequent  occurrence  in  other  sites  of  early  occupation  ; 

(2)  Objects  of  types  which  are  not  known  to  have  been  discovereil 
elsewhere,  many  of  which,  however,  bear  a  close  resemblance  in  character 
to  some  of  the  o])jects  found  in  the  fort  at  Dunbuie. 

In  the  first  class  the  most  numerous  are  the  pointed  implements  of 
bone.  They  are  mostly  made  from  the  splintered  long  bones  of  oxen  and 
sheep,  often  with  the  ends  of  the  shafts  left  entire,  while  the  splintered 
end  is  worn  down  to  a  cliisel-sha])ed  edge  or  to  a  tapering  point.  There 
are  upwards  of  ninety  of  these. 

The  implements  of  deer-horn  are  portions  of  tines  or  of  the  beam  of 
the  antler  cut  or  sawn  across  in  lengths  of  a  few  inches,  and  prepared 
apparently  as  hafts  or  handles  by  being  bored  longitudinally  at  one  end. 
Many  portions  of  deer-horn  exhibit  marks  of  having  been  sawn  partially 
through,  and  then  broken  off ;  and  one  of  the  tines  still  attached  to  part 
of  the  beam  of  an  antler  shows  marks  of  an  attempt  having  been  made 
to  saw  it  off. 


The  implements  of  flint  are  three  in  number. 

The  first  is  a  tiny  scraper  of  yellow  flint,  |  inch  in  diameter,  showing 
the  bulb  of  percussion  on  the  flat  side. 

The  second  is  a  hollow  scraper  formed  in  a  flake,  1|  inches  in  length 
by  f  inch  in  greatest  breadth,  and  ^  inch  in  greatest  thickness.  The 
semicircular  hollow  is  formed  in  the  thick  back  edge  of  the  flake.  It  is 
g  inch  in  length  along  the  edge,  and  J  inch  in  depth  in  the  width  of  the 
flake,  and  its  contour  is  carefully  worked  from  the  flat  side  of  the  flake. 
The  thin  edge  of  the  flake  also  shows  secondary  working  in  a  kind  of 

The  third  implement  is  a  slender  flake  of  brown  flint,  2  inches  in 
length  and  somewhat  less  than  J  inch  in  width  at  the  widest  part, 
having  an  indentation  with  a  scraper-like  edge  in  the  thick  part  of  the 
back,  and  the  knife-edge  having  slight  traces  of  use  or  of  secondary 

A  flake  of  a  black  stone  resembling  pitch-stone,  1 J  inches  in  length 
with  a  triangular  point,  is  marked  by  two  parallel  lines,  ^  inch  from 
the  butt,  one  of  which  goes  round  on  both  sides,  while  the  other  crosses 
one  side  only,  giving  the  suggestion  of  the  marks  of  a  ligature.  The 
stone  is  very  hard  but  shows  no  secondary  working. 

A  small  water-worn  pebble  of  yellow  flint  of  the  same  quality  as  two 
of  the  implements  Wiis  also  found.  It  sliows  no  trace  of  liuniau  work- 

An  oval  wat^r-woni  pebble  of  quartzito  with  flattish  upper  and  under 
fUr&ceSt  2 J  inches  in  length  by  2  inches  in  breadth  and  }  inch  in  thick- 
tidts,  haviiig  on  one  of  iU  flat  surfaces  a  shallow,  oblon^;  indentation  across 
tUu  eiffilrD  1h»iiI  obliquely  to  tla*  axis  of  the  pebble.  This  is  a  very 
ctitrairt^Ilirtll:  tp^cim^m  o{  a  vari^^ty  <*f  stone  implement  of  which  there 

thi^  National  3iluseumt  some  of  tliem 
0t  imfrtitjiietitly  found  in  Ireland,^ 

Qimita  by  Dr  S.  A,  D*Arcy,  tii  the 
vot  ixTii,  1S97,  p.  213,  wtth  some 



Of  other  stone  implements  there  are  several  hammer-stones  or 
pounders ;  whetstones ;  oblong  water-rolled  pebbles  with  their  ends 
abraded  by  use  ;  similar  pebbles  with  grooves  or  notches  in  the  side«  and 
edges,  probably  sink-stones ;  the  under-stone  of  a  quern,  16  inches  in 
diameter ;  and  a  rubbing-stone  or  grinding-stone,  on  the  edge  of  which 
are  some  indistinct  incised  markings  not  unlike  oghams. 

In  the  second  class  the  most  numerous  are  the  implements  and  orna- 
ments of  stone  and  shale. 

In  the  order  of  discovery  the  first  of  these  to  come  under  our  notice 
were  the  spear-shaped  objects  of  slate.     The  first  was  found  in  tlie  canoe. 

Figs.  1,  2,  3,  and  4.  Splinters  of  Slate  with  incised  markings.     (J.) 

It  is  a  naturally-shaped  splinter  of  bluisli  slate,  7  inches  long,  li  inches 
wide  at  one  end,  and  tapers  roughly  to  a  point.  On  one  side  (hg.  1),  1^ 
inches  from  the  tliick  end,  there  are  incised  three  transverse  lines,  from  the 
centre  of  the  lower  of  which  two  double  lines  run  diagonally.  On  the 
other  side  (fig.  2)  three  transverse  lines  can  be  discerned:  a  mark  we  find 
on  other  similar  stones  and  also  on  a  lx)ne  implement. 

Another  piece  of  slate  of  similar  shape  and  character,  4J  inches  in 
length  and  1 J  inches  in  ]>i'«»adtli  at  the  base,  differs  only  in  having  the 
sides  partially  smoothed  and  rounded  by  grinding.  Its  markings  bear  a 
remarkable  similarity  to  those  just  described.  On  one  side  (fig.  3),  close 
to  the  base,  is  a  figure  composed  of  two  lines  meeting  in  an  angle  at  the 


top,  cand  fiom  between  them  two  lines  slij^htly  diverging  are  joinetl  to 
the  other  two  by  sliorter  lines  meeting  eacli  other  at  an  angle.  On  the 
other  side  (fig.  4),  at  1^  inclie-s  from  the  wider  end,  are  incised  three 
parallel  transverse  lines. 

There  is  a  similarly  shaped  piece  of  slate  9  J  inches  long,  showing  some 
signs  of  having  Ijeen  ground  on  one  edge  towards  the  jKniit,  but  with  no 
other  marking  save  three  dots  or  snudl  pit-marks  on  its  edge. 

Figs.  5  and  6.  Op[K>8ite  sides  of  a  8i>ear-8haped  Implement  of  Slate.     (}.) 

The  next  object  of  slate  has  been  carefully  dressed  to  shape,  and  finished 
by  grinding.  It  is  spear-shaped  and  has  barbs  giving  it  all  the  ai)pearance 
of  the  conventional  barlnd  spear.  1 1  nujasures  1 1  inches  long  and  4  J  inches 
wide  at  the  Iwirbs,  and  was  f()un<l  beneath  the  niortisetl  log.  The  slate  is 
of  a  softer  nature  than  thcj  two  alx>ve  described.  It  is  ornamented  on 
one  side  (fig.  5)  with  a  cup-mark  4J  inches  from  the  point,  from  which 
lines  of  nearly  equal  length  radiate,  those  carried  up  towards  the  point  being 


PROCEEDINGS  Ol''  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

longest ;  to  the  other  direction  a  short  line  more  like  a  duct  from  the  central 
cuivmark  has  been  cut.  At  the  distance  of  6|  inches  from  the  point  two 
similar  cups  are  placed  equally  distant  from  each  other,  from  which  rayed 
line«  are  traced  diagonally  downwards  but  not  upwards,  the  line  furthest 
to  the  right  of  the  one  group  meeting  that  furthest  to  the  left  of  the 
other  group.  At  the  end  where  a  handle  may  have  been  fastened  (and 
that  such  a  thing  has  been  there  is  suggested  by  the  smoother  surface 
observable)  there  are  two  holes;  the  lower  one  was  plugged  by  what 
ni>pearod  to  my  late  lamented  colleague  and  myself  to  be  either  a  piece 
of  shale  or  thong.     On  Mr  Miller  punching  it  out  in  my  presence  it 

Vv^a.  7  and  8.  Opposite  sides  of  a  spear-shaped  piece  of  Slate.     (J.) 

app(;ared  to  us  under  a  magnifying  glass  to  be  part  of  an  oak  pin,  the 
features  of  the  oak  wood  being  clearly  discernible.  On  the  reverse  side 
(fig.  G)  a  somewhat  indeiinite  figure  outlined  by  small  cups  or  pits  is 
(liseeriiiMe  ;  also  there  are  the  tliree  transverse  lines  like  those  already 

Two  otlier  s])car-s}ia])ed  j)ieces  of  slate  were  found,  ])artially  shaped  by 
artificial  means,  one  of  wliieli  ])resented  no  jiartieular  features  of  interest. 
The  s(H'on(l,  6  inclies  lon^^,  lias  on  one  side  (fig.  7)  in  the  centre  a  circle 
marked  round  a  piece  (»f  sulpluiret  of  iron,  with  severed  of  which  it  is 
studded,  and  from  which  two  rayed  lines  project  diagonally  downwaida. 

itween  this  and  the  point  are  five  parallel  markings  slightly  hollowed*. 



On  the  reverse  side  (fig.  8)  are  several  parallel  lines  apparently  artificial, 
and  some  others  which  seem  to  l>e  natural. 

There  are  also  two  triangular  stones,  5  and  6  inches  long  respectively, 
showing  ligature  marks.  Both  are  natural  stones  apparently  selected  on 
account  of  their  size  and  shape. 

A  thin,  nearly  triangular,  piece  of  mica-slate,  4^  inches  in  length  by  IJ 
inches  in  greatest  breadth  and  scarcely  \  inch  in  tliickness,  has  the  wider 
end  ground  on  l)oth  sides  to  a  curvilinear  edge. 

Two  implements  of  stone  are  peculiar  in  being  inserted  in  bone 

Implement  of  stone  resembling  a  knife  (fig.  9),  but  too  blunt  to  cut. 

Fig.  9.   Implement  of  Stone  resembling  a  Knife,  in  a  Bone  Handle.     (§.) 

It  is  a  peculiarly  shaped  stone,  having  a  tapering  tang-like  projection  at 
one  end,  which  has  l)een  inserted  in  the  hollow  of  the  bone  which  serves 
as  a  handle,  while  the  thinnc^r  edge  of  the  blade-like  part  of  the  stone  has 
l)een  ground  to  a  kind  of  blunt  edge.  The  handle  is  part  of  the  inferior 
end  of  one  of  the  limb  bones  {humerus,  probably)  of  a  pig,  about  a  fourth 
of  the  length  being  cut  off  the  superior  portion.  The  tang-like  part  of  the 
stone  is  merely  jammed  into  the  cavity  of  the  bone.  The  stone  has 
evidently  been  select(3d  on  account  of  its  peculiar  form ;  and  is  (except  for 
the  grinding  of  the  edge)  of  purely  natural  formaticm — the  whole  surface 
smoothly  water-worn  and  tlie  edges  rounded.  It  measures  3  inches  in 
length,  the  tang-like  part  being  nearly  2  inches  in  length,  and  the  blade- 
like part  a  little  over  1  inch  in  length  and  f  inch  in  breadth.  The  back 
is  fully  \  inch  in  thickness.  The  bone  handle  is  4J  inches  in  length. 
Implement  of  stone,  also  resembling  a  knife  (fig.  10),  but  smaller  and 

446  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

sharper  than  that  just  described.  It  is  also  a  peculiarly  shaped  stone, 
having  a  tapering  tang-like  projection  at  one  end,  which  has  been  firmly 
inserted  into  the  wider  end  of  a  tine  of  the  horn  of  a  red  deer,  from 
which  the  stone  blade  projects  If  inches.  The  handle  is  3 J  inches  in 
length  and  terminates  in  the  curved  and  pointed  end  of  the  tine.  The 
stone  blade  is  a  splinter  of  hard  slate,  naturally  formed,  but  having  a 
curious  resemblance  to  the  round-edged  point  of  a  knife.  The  extreme 
upper  part  of  the  round  edge  has  been  ground,  but  the  lower  and 
straighter  part  of  the  edge  retains  its  natural  jagged  fracture. 

Several  stones  which  cannot  be  clearly  classified  as  implements  were 
found  and  retained  on  account  of  their  having  apparently  artificial 
markings  of  various  kinds  on  their  surfaces. 

Fig.  10.  Implement  of  Stone  in  Handle  of  Deer-horn.     (j|.) 

One  triangular-shaped  block  of  vsandstono  has  four  cups,  three  in  a 
group  and  one  apart,  near  the  margin.  It  measures  from  base  to  apex 
14 J  inches,  and  in  thickness  4  inclies.  The  single  cup  is  2 J  inches 
diameter  by  \  inch  in  depth — the  group  of  three  are  somewhat  smaller. 

Another  sandstone  block,  irregularly  shaped  but  somewhat  circular, 
21 J  inches  by  16|  inches,  is  intersected  with  a  natural  line  of  cleavage, 
on  which  some  five  cup-sliaped  marks  have  been  incised.  On  the  reverse 
we  find  on  the  same  cleavage  line  that  thc^re  are  other  small  cup-like 
marks.  The  outstanding  feature  is  an  incision  2  inches  wide  at  the  edge 
tfipering  to  2J  inches,  apparently  formed  by  rublnng. 

A  stone,  semicircular,  and  polished  by  rubbing  or  grinding  on  the  con- 
cave surface.  The  curve  from  point  to  point  is  1 J  inches.  It  measures 
14  J  inches  in  length  by  9^  inches  wide,  and  tapers  3i  inches  to  an  edge 
of  \  inch. 


One  slab  of  limestone,  in  length  28  J  inches  by  10|  inches,  height  and 
depth  5  inches.  On  one*  side  there  are  pitted  marks  which  may  have 
Ixjen  caused  by  its  use  as  an  anvil. 

A  piece  of  sandstone,  7|  inches  by  4J  inches  by  3  inches,  with  a  cup 
in  the  centre.  If  inches  by  |  inch  deep,  was  also  dug  up. 

One  small  stone  of  metamorphic  sandstone,  somewhat  pear-shaped 
(fig.  11),  is  pierced  for  susiKjnsion  towards  the  apex.  Round  this  hole 
is  a  ring-mark,  and  from  the  hole  a  line  or  <luct  runs  downwards.  There 
are  two  groups  of  three  and  five  pit-marks  respectively  on  the  surface. 

Figs   11,  12,  and  13.  Perforated  Stones  with  incised  markings.     (}.) 

Another,  measuring  4  inches  by  2J  inches,  of  red  sandstone,  shows  a 
cup,  ring,  and  duct.     It  is  not  pierced. 

There  is  another  stone  of  similar  material  (fig.  12),  but  much  larger, 
measuring  7  inches  long  and  3i  inches  greatest  width,  and  weighing  22 
ounces.  It  is  likewise  i)ierced  near  the  apex,  and  round  the  whole 
a  circle  runs  which  is  incomplete  on  the  under  side,  and  through  the 
intemipted  circle  issues  a  line  or  stem  of  3J  inches  in  length,  which  runs 
from  the  hole  downwards.  This  line  intersects  at  equal  distances  two 
small  cup-like  marks,  and  terminates  in  a  third  and  similar  hole.     From 

448  PROCEEDINGS   OF  THE   SOCIETY,   MAY  14,  1900. 

between  the  lower  edge  of  the  ring  and  from  the  first  cup-mark  proceed 
five  rayed  diagonal  lines,  the  centre  one  terminating  in  a  smaU  cup  on 
the  extreme  edge.  Towards  the  lower  right  edge  on  the  side  of  the 
stone  are  four  small  pit-marks,  the  lower  two  of  which  are  larger  than 
any  of  the  others,  being  |  inch  diameter.  There  are  also  two  pit- 
marks  on  the  lower  edge  of  the  hole.  This  stcine  is,  perhaps,  one  of  the 
most  characteristic  the  excavations  have  produced.  It  was  found 
imbedded  in  the  dock  on  the  removal  of  the  canoe. 

An  oval,  water-worn  pebble  of  hard,  purplish  sandstone,  6|  inches  in 
length  by  3J  inches  in  greatest  breadth,  has  at  its  narrow  end  on  its 
flatter  face  (fig.  13)  a  pit  or  commencement  of  a  perforation  which  has 

Figs.  14  and  15.  Obverse  and  Reverse  of  perforated  Pebble.     (§.) 

not  been  carried  through,  with  a  circle  round  it  of  small  indentations, 
from  wliich  proceeds  a  line  downwards  inclined  to  the  left,  with  four 
offshoots  nearly  at  right  angles,  the  lower  being  curved  to  the  line  of 
a  natural  scaling  oft'  in  tlie  surface  of  the  stone. 

A  small,  oval,  water-rolled  pel)ble,  pierced  for  suspension,  wliich  was 
found  in  tlie  canoe,  presents  an  elaborate  piece  of  workmanshij).  Ptound 
the  hole  on  one  side  (lig.  14)  are  two  concentric,  i)artial  rings,  and  a  third 
and  almost  complete  ring  forms  a  border  right  round  the  stone,  inside 
of  which  there  is  what  appears  to  be  a  canoe  or  boat,  in  which  three 
men  are  engaged  paddling  or  rowing, ^  the  water  being  shown  by  several 

*  In  the  Proixedings^  vol.  xxi.  p.  193,  there  is  an  engraviu>ij  of  a  pendant  of  jet  or 
cannel  coal,  found  in  excavating  on  the  farm  of  Broughton  Knowe,  Skirling,  Peebles- 
shire, on  which  is  incised  a  similar  figure  of  a  boat  with  two  persons  in  it.  Boat- 
figures  are  well  known  in  connection  with  rock -sculptures  in  Scandinavia. 


straight,  parallel  lines.  On  the  other  side  (lig.  15)  is  the  representation 
of  a  left  hand  with  a  tiny  cup  and  ring  mark  in  the  palm.  The  edge  of 
the  stone  has  Ix^on  ornamented  with  numerous  small  notches.  The 
nature  of  the  stone  1  have  heen  unable  to  determine. 

There  is  also  a  thin  slate  ornament,  pierced  for  suspension,  measuring 
nearly  IJ  inches  in  length  by  1 J  inches  wide.  Round  the  hole  is  a  ring 
from  which  two  lines  diverge,  terminating  in  two  pierced  holes  near  the 
lK)ttom  edge. 

Tlie  presence  of  carved  figures  of  shale  rei)re8enting  the  human  face 

Figs.  16  and  17.  Rude  Figures  of  Shale,     (g.) 

and  figure,^  and  also  of  what  are  evidently  ornaments,  has  given  rise  to 
a  great  deal  of  discussion. 

The  first  figure  (fig.  16)  w^as  found  in  the  refuse  heap,  and  got  broken 
with  the  shovel,  but  is  now  repaired.  It  represents  the  head  and 
breasts  of  a  female,  an<l  is  grotesque  in  character.  It  is  fully  3  inches 

The  second  figure  (lig.  17),  1^  inches  long,  found  in  the  circular 
cavity  in  the  centre  of  the  structure,  is  broken,  and  appears  to  be  that 
of  a  man.     It  is  plain,  and  no  attempt  at  ornamentation  has  been  made. 

'  Many  very  crudely  expressed  representations  of  human  figures  carved  on  stones 
are  given  by  Solomon  Keinach  in  his  articles  on  "Sculpture  in  Europe  "  in  V  Anthro- 
pologies vol.  v.,  1894. 

VOL.  XXXIV.  2  F 



The  third,  which  is,  unfortunately,  broken  across  the  middle  (fig.  18), 
is  rather  grotesque  and  striking,  having  a  voluminous  beard,  and  the 
lower  part  of  the  body  compressed  into  the  wedge-shape  of  the  stone. 
The  hands  are  crossed  and  the  toes  meet  at  the  apex.  It  is  lightlj- 
engraved,  and  measures  6  inches  long. 

Figs.  18  and  19.  Rude  Figures  of  Shale.     (§.) 

The  fourth  (fig.  19)  is  the  face  of  a  man  cut  on  a  diamond-shaped 
piece  of  sluile,  3  inches  by  2|  inches.  As  in  the  case  of  the  two  pre- 
viously mentioned  the  mouth  is  perfonxted,  and  in  this  instance  evidently 
for  su.^^pension.  It  was  dug  out  by  myself  in  the  month  of  January. 
Previous  to  this  a  similar  shaped   piece  of   shale  was  found,  and   on 


examination  it  fitted  exactly  to  this  last  lip(nre,  tlie  one  liaving  been  split 
off  the  other. 

The  ornaments  are  eleven  in  number,  and  from  their  form,  and  being 
mostly  perforated,  are  obviously  suitable  for  suspension. 

Xo.  1  is  4 J  inches  long,  2  J  inches  in  width  at  broadest  part,  and 
fully  J  inch  in  thickness  (fig.  20).  The  hole  for  suspension  is  f  inch 
from  the  top,  and  lines  from  the  hole  radiate  upwards.  An  incised  line 
a]x>ut  J  inch  from  the  edge,  which  is  rounded  towards  the  bottom, 
where  it  meets  and  loops  up  towards  the  centre,  terminating  in  a  large 
hole  nearly  an  inch  in  diameter.  There  is  a  cu|vmark  near  the  bottom 
in  line  with  the  duct,  and  there  is  one  on  each  side  of  it  close  to  the 
curve  of  the  line  already  referred  to. 

No.  2,  which  is  al)out  3^  inches  long  and  3i  inches  wide,  has  rayed 
hues  running  downwards  from  a  ring,  wliich  encircles  the  hole  at  the 
distance  of  ^  inch. 

Xo.  3,  measuring  2  J  inches  by  1|  inches,  is  similar  in  ornamentation, 
only  the  rayed  lines  tc;rminate  in  little  dots  or  cups  (fig.  21). 

Xo.  4  measures  2|  inches  ])y  2J  incHies,  and  has  three  incised  lines 
radiating  downwards  from  the  suspending  hole. 

Xo.  5,  3  inches  ])y  2  inches,  luis  no  small  hole  for  suspension,  but  in 
the  centre  there  is  a  liole  measuring  nearly  an  inch  in  diameter.  From 
this  hole  there  is  a  short  <luct  or  channel  and  one  concentric  ring ;  on 
the  other  side,  in  this  case  differing  from  the  others,  there  are  three 
semi-circular  lines  on  one  side  above  the  hole,  and  several  rayed  lines 
running  from  tlie  bottom  edge. 

No.  6,  measuring  2  J  inches  by  2  inches,  is  somewhat  elliptic  in  form 
(fig.  22).  There  arc  two  hole^  for  suspension  1 J  inches  apart.  Round  the 
topmost  hole  is  a  semi-circuhir  ring.  From  this  nni  seven  rayed  lines 
of  unequal  length,  one  of  wln'ch  terminates  at  the  second  hole,  and  the 
others  in  cupped  marks.  A  curved  line,  i)artly  forming  a  border,  runs 
between  the  cupped  marks  and  the  edge. 

Xo.  7,  irregularly  triangular  piece,  naturally  shaped  (fig.  23),  measuring 
4J  inches  in  length  by  2  inches  in  breadth  at  the  wide  end.     Within  an 

Fig.  2r). 

Fig.  23.  Fig.  26. 

Fi^s.  20-2tJ.  Pieces  of  Shale  or  Cainiel  Coal  with  incised  ornament. 


inch  of  the  broad  end  is  a  pit  or  partiiil  perforation  nearly  lialf-an-inch  in 
diameter,  with  an  incomplete  circle  round  it  on  the  uj)per  side,  and  three 
nuliatin^'  lines  pn^ee<lin^  th»wnwanls  from  the  lower  side. 

No.  8,  oval  piece,  water  r»>lle»l  and  naturally  shaj^ed  (tig.  24),  measur- 
ing,' 2j  inches  in  len«,^h  and  IJ  inches  in  breadth  and  al)out  J  inch  in 
thickness,  piene«l  towani^  the  narrower  end  by  a  round  hole  |  inch  in 
diameter,  sumjunde<l  l»y  an  incise«l  circle  with  a  tangential  line  about  an 
inch  in  length  at  the  lower  side,  with  a  {larallel  line  of  the  same  length 
below  it  from  which  three  shorter  lines  go  off  downwards  at  right  angles. 
No.  9,  flat,  «»blong  piece  with  two  straight  sides  almost  parallel  (fig.  25), 
one  end  rounded,  and  one  obliquely  fractured,  the  whole  surface  smoothed, 
striated,  and  water-worn,  having  on  one  face  three  parallel  incised  lines, 
and  a  fourth  making  an  acute  angle  with  the  third. 

Xn.  10,  irregukrly  shaped  oblong  piece  (fig.  26),  9  inches  in  length 
by  3J  inches  in  greatest  breadth  and  about  }  inch  in  thickness,  one  face 
rimgh,  the  other  niblje«l  smouth  and  strongly  striated  lengthways,  having 
near  the  narrow  end  a  perforation  afx^ut  J  inch  in  diameter  from  which 
proceeds  downwards  a  stn^ngly  incise<l  line,  with  shorter  lines  branching 
from  it  alternately  at  an  acute  angle,  and  at  nearly  equal  distances  apart, 
^ear  the  other  end  on  one  side  are  two  roughly  scooped  hollows.  The 
J>erfonition  at  the  smaller  end  is  r«>ughly  scoo|ied  out  on  \juih  sides^  but 
the  intervening  central  jiart  is  b*^re«l  quite  regularly,  with  straight  sides. 

No.  1 1,  oval-sha{>ed,  4  J  inches  by  3  inches  and  about  ^  of  an  inch  thick, 

^^ixs  a  hole  near  the  centre  close  on  one  inch  diameter,  from  which  a  line 

^r  duct  runs  for  nearly  2  inches.     Tliere  are  two  different  cupped  marks 

**tK>ut  \  inch  from  the  hole,  and  a  line  running  from  each  towards  the 

•^viter  edge. 

No.  12,  irregularly  shai>eil,  4  inches  by  2j  inches,  lias  two  holes. 
-■-  here  is  a  semi-circular  line  partly  nuind  the  top  hole  from  which  two 
'■'^►jed  lines  diagrmally  iliver^'e. 

No.  13,  oval-shaf»ed,  2{  inches  by  H  inches,  very  thin,  pierced  with 
™^le  for  8Usi)ension.     No  ..ther  marks.     Evidently  flakeil  f»tf. 

No.  14,   an   irregularly  triangular   piece,  water-rollc<l  and   naturally 

454  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,   MAY   14,  1900. 

shaped,  2  inches  by  2  inches  and  barely  half  an  inch  in  thickness,  shows 
an  arrangement  of  dots,  T-shaped,  there  being  three  across,  and  two 
downwards.  One  of  the  stones  from  Dunbuie  shows  a  similar  arrange- 
ment of  dots. 

No.  15,  a  |X)inted  piece  of  shale,  6  inches  long  by  IJ  inches  broad,  has 
on  one  side  a  line  |  inch  long,  incised  from  the  point  downwards, 
thereafter  two  dou])le  lines  crossing  each  other  at  right  angles.  Tliesc 
markings  are  indistinct. 

Three  slabs  of  cannel  coal,  one  measuring  12  inches  long  by  4  J  inches 
in  breadth  and  1  inch  in  thickness,  another,  19  J  inches  long  by  7  inches, 
tapering  to  3 J  inches  in  breadth  and  1^  inches  thick.     Tliis  one  shows 

Fi*(.  27.  Oyster  Shell  with  incised  lines  and  i>erforations.     (g.) 

marks  of  labuiiring  on  the  sides,  the  edges  being  rounded  off,  evidently  by 
attrition.  Tlie  third  is  20 J  inches  long  ])y  7\  inches,  tapering  to  3.1 
inches  in  l)readtli  and  li  inches  thick.  One  of  the  sides  at  the  lessor 
end  hius  been  wliittled  or  cut  away  to  a  de])th  of  1 J  inches,  positive  signs 
of  cutting  l)eing  visil)le. 

Small  pieces  of  shale  or  cannel  coal  can  be  picked  u\)  along  the  banks 
of  the  riv(!r,  l)ut  no  pieces  at  all  approaching  to  the  size  of  those  alnive 
d(\<crib(Ml  have  hitherto  been  met  with. 

Several  oyster  shells,  ornamented  and  pierced  for  suspension,  were 
found,  Imt  only  two  e(»uld  be  preserved,  the  others  having  crumlded 
away  on  l)eiug  exposed  to  the  air,  or  broken  by  coming  in  contact  with 


the  shovel.  The  ornamentation  of  one  of  the  two  shells  (fig.  27) 
resembles  that  on  some  of  the  shale  ornaments.  There  is  a  hole  for  sus- 
pension at  the  narrow  end,  and  round  this,  in  the  inside  surface,  eight  or 
nine  small  pitted  marks  are  grouped  in  a  semi-circle,  and  from  these  four 
lines  radiate  towards  the  natural  depression  for  the  insertion  of  the 
muscle  in  the  shell.  Underneath  are  four  holes  perforated  in  a  curved 
line  parallel  to  the  edge.  There  are  no  artificial  marks  on  the  outside 
surface.  It  was  found  in  the  circular  cavity  already  described.  The 
other  shell  has  two  holes  of  unequal  diameter  for  suspension  at  the  nar- 
row end,  and  there  are  indistinct  rayed  lines  visible  on  the  under  surface. 
Quantities  of  the  common  periwinkle  or  Littorina  littorea  and  mussel 
shells  were  found  in  the  refuse  heap  mixed  with  the  other  debris.  The 
oyster  shells  found  are  of  the  Ostrea  edulis  variety. 

Summary  and  Conclusions. — The  situation  of  the  pile  dwelling  being 

within  high  water  mark  made  the  work  of  excavation  both  tedious  and 

difticult  and  rather  unsatisfactory  in  its  way.     The  trenches  got  silted  up 

with  the  recurring  tide,  and  about  50  per  cent,  of  our  time  was  lost  in 

baling  out  water  and  shovelling  away  the  sand  which  had  been  washed 

in.     The  wash  on  the  shore  from  the  large  powerful  vessels,  which  pass 

and  repass  every  tide,  did  great  damage  to  our  work,  and  the  climax  was 

reached  when  an  unlucky  steamer  got  stranded  badly  on  a  foggy  day  on 

the  opposite  side  of  the  bank,  and  during  the  week  she  lay  there  the 

wash  of  some  half  dozen  tugs  employed  in  getting  her  off  undid  all  our 

Work.     Digging  so  much  in  water  led  to  many  of  the  articles  exhumed 

being  injured  by  the  spade  in  spite  of  every  precaution.     Our  excavators 

deserve  great  credit  for  the  careful  and  intelligent  manner  in  which  they 

did  their  work.     To  !Mr  W.  A.  Donnelly,  artist,  Milton  of  Colquhoun, 

is  entirely  due  the  credit  of  this  discovery,  which  was  made  in  July  1898. 

For  two  years  the  north  Imnk  of  the  Clyde  between  Dumbarton  and  Kil- 

patrick,   which  is  almost  all  of  a  marshy  nature,  was  searched  by  Mr 

I>onnelly  with  the  alxjve  result. 

The  similarity  of  the  finds  from  this  pile  structure  and  those  from  the 
at  hill  fort  of  Dunbuie  is  obvious.     The  two  erections,  however. 

456  PKOCEKDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

are  not  in  sight  of  each  other,  a  shoulder  of  Dumbuck  Hill  intervening, 
and  they  may  not  have  been  occupied  contemporaneously.  In  comnion 
with  Dunbuie,  there  is  here  an  entire  absence  of  metals  and  pottery. 
Iron  we  could  scarcely  look  for  unless  in  the  form  of  oxide,  but  bronze 
would  doubtless  have  stood  the  water. 

The  (quantity  of  bones  found  was  small,  and  the  number  of  implements 
made  of  lx)ne  seems  large  in  proi>ortion.  The  number  of  ornaments  alst> 
seems  to  be  large. 

The  presence  of  so  much  cannel  coal  is  a  curious  feature.  Small  pieces 
are  found  on  the  river  bank  all  down  the  Clyde,  but  the  lai^e  pieces 
described  must  have  reached  the  |)osition  where  they  were  found  by  the 
agency  of  man. 

The  discovery  of  this  pile  structure  has  raised  many  questions,  and 
there  are  divided  opinions  as  to  its  age  and  character.  Probably  at  the 
moment  its  true  position  in  archajology  cannot  be  determinexl ;  but  time 
will  show. 

In  the  discussion  which  followed,  Dr  Josbph  Anderson  said  : — The 
Hociety  is  greatly  indebted  to  Mr  Bruce  for  the  excellent  account  he  has 
given  of  tlie  investigation  of  this  pile  structure,  which  presents  a  numWr 
of  unusual  features  lK)tli  in  its  construction  and  contents.  But  in  its 
essential  characteristics  it  docs  not  appear  to  me  to  ditter  more  from  the 
generality  of  other  pile  structures  known  to  us  in  Scotland,  than  they 
ditter  among  themselves.  Hence  I  have  no  difficulty  in  classing  it  along 
witli  them.  All  the  pile  structures  hitherto  known  in  Scotland  l>elong  U> 
a  comi)aratively  late  period,  and  the  character  of  the  relics  obtained  from 
this  one  agrees  so  far  with  the  general  character  of  the  relics  from  them. 
The  canoe,  the  (piern,  the  rubbing-stone,  the  hammer-stones,  whetstones, 
sinkstones,  tlic  oval  ])el)ble  with  an  oblique  hollow,  the  Hint  Hakes  and 
scraper,  and  the  bono  iin]>lcments  arc  things  that  have  l>een  frequently 
found  in  Scottish  and  Irish  crannogs,  and  things  which  taken  together 
may  ipiitc  well  bo  attributed  to  the  same  ju'riod  as  the  generality  of  the 
Scottish  crannogs.     But  at  this  point  the  correspondence  of  the  contents 


of  the  Dumlmck  structure  with  tliose  of  other  pile  structures  ceases,  and 
we  have  to  consider  the  significance  of  a  series  of  objects  from  it  bearing 
incised  markings  in  stone,  sliale,  cannel  coal,  and  oyster  shell,  which  not 
only  have  no  resemblance  to  anything  heretofore  found  in  pile  structures, 
hut  no  recognisjible  alHnity  of  character  with  any  objects  found  anywhere 
else,  excepting  those  found  in  the  hill  fort  of  Dimbuie,  not  far  distant. 
Comparing  these  two  sets  of  things,  from  Dunbuie  and  Dumbuck,  it  is 
obvious  that  there  is  a  certain  affinity  of  character,  with  occasional  simi- 
larities both  in  the  fonns  of  the  objects  and  the  style  of  the  carving. 
Comparing  both  sets  of  things  with  the  groui>s  of  relics  obtained  from 
other  pile  structures  and  hill  forts,  it  is  obvious  that  they  do  not  fit  into 
the  sequence  of  either  series.  Taking  a  wider  area  of  comparison : 
ulthougli  in  certain  points  there  may  be  some  faint  resemblances  to 
objects  from  other  countries,  and  of  different  periods,  as,  for  instance,  to 
the  cup-markings  on  rocks  and  Iwulders,  or  to  the  incised  carvings  of 
American  Indians  or  Australian  savages,  I  do  not  think  that  such  crude 
resemblances  can  l)e  relied  upon  fo^  definite  conclusions  of  age  or  origin. 
Remaining  thus  apart  from  all  classifiable  objects  of  cognate  character, 
they  give  us  no  warrant  to  attribute  them  to  any  prehistoric  period,  or  U) 
jilace  them  in  any  particular  section  of  the  archaeological  series.  Such 
objects  of  unclassifiable  affinities  are  specially  liable  to  have  their 
genuineness  called  in  question.  This,  of  course,  is,  and  must  remain,  a 
matter  of  individual  opinion,  and  doubtless  conflicting  opinions  will  be 
lield  and  expressed ;  as  in  matters  scientific  or  even  in  courts  of  justice 
it  is  by  no  means  unusual  for  expert  testimony  to  l)e  given  on  both 
slides.  It  is  prolmble  also  tliat  there  will  not  be  complete  agreement  as  to 
t:hc  numljer  of  the  objects  in  the  collection  which  are  to  be  regarded  an 
genuine  or  otherwise.  For  my  own  part  I  do  not  consider  it  possible 
or  necesjsary,  in  the  meantime,  that  there  should  Ik;  a  final  pronounce- 
^lent  on  these  (piestions.  In  the  absence  of  decisive  evidence,  which 
time  may  supply,  I  prefer  to  suspend  my  judgment — merely  placing  the 
suspected  objects  (as  they  jilace  themselves)  in  the  list  of  things  that 
must  wait  for  further  evidence  because  they  contradict  present  experience. 

458  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  SOCIETY,  MAY  14,  1900. 

It  has  often  happened  that  new  varieties  of  things  have  been  regarded 
witli  suspicion  on  account  of  their  lack